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List of language abbreviations in tlie lED 

Abbreviation Language name 






Alanian (=Old Ossetic) 





























Continental Celtic 









Classical Sanskrit 














East Baltic 


East Germanic 


East-Germanic Runic 









Early Modern Breton 


Early Modern Irish 


Early Modern Welsh 


East Slavic 




Frisian Runic 




Gallo-Gk. (in Gk. authors) 


Gallo-Latin (in Lat. authors) 




Gaulish in Greek letters 


Gaulish in Lat. letters 


















Insular Celtic 










Khotanese (=Saka) 








Late Avestan 


Late Cornish 






Late Proto-British 






Middle Armenian 

Mars. Marsian 

Maz. Mazanderani 

Med. Macedonian 

MCo. Middle Cornish 

Med. Median 

Merc. Mercian 

MFr. Middle French 

MIA Middle Indo-Aryan 

MIA Middle Indo-Aryan 

MIc. Middle Icelandic 

Mit. Mitanni 

MnLE Restsprachen east 

MnLW Restsprachen west 

MoArm. Modern Armenian 

MoBret. Modern Bret. 

MoCo. Modern Cornish 

MoE Modern English 

MolA Modern Indo-Aryan 

Mole. Modern Icelandic 

Molr. Modern Irish 

MoP Modern Persian 

MoW Modern Welsh 

MP Middle Persian 

Mun. Munji 

MW Middle Welsh 

Myc. Mycenaean 

NEIran. Northeast Iranian 

NGm. North Germanic 

NIA New Indo-Aryan 

non-IE Non-IE languages 

Nth. Northumbrian 

Nur. Nuristani 

NWGk. Northwestern Greek 

NWIran. Northwest Iranian 

OBr. Old British (i.e. names in Latin sources and inscriptions of the Dark Ages) 

OBret. Old Breton 

OCo. Old Cornish (Voc. Corn.) 


Old Church Slavonic 


Old Danish 


Old English Runic 


Old Frisian 


Old Frisian Runic 


Ogam Irish 


Old Gutnish 


Old Indo-Aryan 


Old Iranian (names in var. sources) 


Old Norse Runic 


Old Persian 


Old Phrygian 




Old Russian 


Old Runic 








Old South-West British 


Old Welsh 


Proto- (can be prefixed to any language) 














Pashto (=Afghan) 












Primitive Irish 




(Proto-)Sabellian ( = Osco-Umbrian) 












Russian Church Slavonic 










Serbian Church Slavonic 




Southeast Iranian 
























South Picenian 


South Slavic 


Sumerian (non-IE) 


Swiss German (Schweizerdeutsch) 


Southwest Iranian 




















West Baltic 




West Slavic 









The database represents the updated text of J. Pokorny's "Indogermanisches 
Etymologisches Worterbuch", scanned and recognized by George Starostin (Moscow), 
who has also added the meanings. The database was further refurnished and corrected by 
A. Lubotsky. Pokorny's text is given practically unchanged (only a few obvious typos were 
corrected), except for some rearrangement of the material. The numbers in the lemmata 
are given after the root (e.g. Pokorny's 1 . bi^er- appears as b^^er-l) because automatic 
alphabetization would otherwise too much affect the order of the lemmata. 


Laryngeals are sounds that occurred in the Proto-Indo-European language, caused 
changes to neighbouring sounds, and disappeared. They were postulated to explain 
anomalies in the verb system, and they proved useful for explaining other phenomena. It 
was many decades before confirmation of their existence was found, in the newly 
deciphered Hittite language. Linguists are still not agreed on how many there were or how 
they were pronounced. 

'Laryngeal' is also an ordinary phonetic term meaning made in the larynx; but it is 
preferable to call this glottal or laryngal, to avoid confusion with the still unknown values of 
the Indo-European consonants. 
The problem 

The verbs were central to the reconstruction of the ancestor of Indo-European languages, 
which was going well in the 1870s, and explanations had been found for the vowels i and 
u, and unaccented o. This postulated an earlier stage in which the only vowel was e. Most 
verbs had a stem of the form consonant - e- consonant-, the base vowel -e- surrounded 
by consonants. Other vowels were derived from them. 

The anomalous verb stems were those that had no consonant preceding, such as *ed-, 
'eat', or a long vowel and no following consonant, such as *dhee- 'put', and those that had 
the vowels a and o. Those with other vowels also lacked consonants, and had the same 
pattern as the e-stems: *ag- 'drive', *okw- 'look', *staa- 'stand', and *doo- 'give'. 

If a and o had been normal vowels, why were there no normal-shaped stems CaC- and 

CoC-? Why were these two vowels also associated with lack of consonant? If long vowels 

were normal, why were there no stems of the shape ee consonant - or consonant ee 

consonant -? 

The proposed solution 

Ferdinand de Saussure proposed the existence of elements he called coefficients 

sonantiques in 1 879, an abstract term not committing himself to any definite phonetic form. 

These stood in the place normally occupied by consonants, and caused one or both of two 

changes: shifting the neighbouring vowel; and lengthening it if they followed. Then they 

disappeared, leaving their mark on the altered vowels. 

Later the same year Hermann Moller, seeking to make a connexion between the Indo- 
European and Semitic families, introduced the name laryngeal, suggesting that the 
hypothetical coefficients were pronounced like the Semitic laryngeals. The term strictly 
means pronounced within the larynx, and is synonymous with glottal: Semitic languages 
contain ^and the glottal stop. But in Indo-European the "laryngeals" might have been 
those, or might have been other guttural sounds such as pharyngeals or velars. We still 
have no clear evidence. 

At least three laryngeals are usually postulated. A more abstract notation is to use schwa 

with a subscript number. An alternative, much more common these days, is to use some 

kind of H with subscript. /7/is e-coloured, ^i-is a-coloured, and /7jis o-coloured. So the six 

roots given above come from earlier forms with laryngeals: 

*ed- from hie6- 

*dhee- from d^e 6^ehi- 

*ag- from /7ieg- 

*staa- from ste/?^- 

*okw- from hsekyN- 

*doo- from de/75- 

Sometimes evidence shows a laryngeal, but the vowel colouring has been lost so we can't 
tell which one it was: this is annotated without subscript, as H. 

Proof in Hittite 

The regularity of the ablaut grades, described above, was the initial motivation for 
postulating laryngeals, but many other niggling exceptions in other parts of the grammar 
and vocabulary became simpler to explain if laryngeals were invoked. Each phenomenon 
could however have a different explanation. There was no direct evidence for fifty years. 
But in 1927 Jerzy Kurytowicz announced that Hittite contained consonants in just those 
positions where laryngeals were predicted. This had been overlooked when Hittite was first 
deciphered in 1915. 

Hittite was written in a cuneiform script, borrowed from the Semitic language Akkadian. By 
comparison with surviving Semitic languages, it is clear that Akkadian and therefore Hittite 
had some kind of guttural sounds, close enough to those predicted for the Indo-European 
laryngeals. The exact value of the Hittite sounds is unclear. There was only one letter, now 
transcribed h or h, but it was sometimes written doubled, as in pahhur, corresponding to 
Greek yoy/'and English fire. In some Hittite consonants, the use of doubling indicated a 
voicing contrast, such as /? versus b, but it is not known whether this is true of h. That is, 
though the laryngeals were found, we're not sure how many of them Hittite preserved as 
distinct sounds, or what exactly they were. 

It also appears to imply a fourth laryngeal, because in some cases where an a-coloured 
laryngeal is postulated, there is no h in Hittite, though the vowel did become a. Other 
instances of h2e6o however show up as ha. 

Sanskrit evidence 

In Sanskrit the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) vowels eand o both became a, wiping out the 
basic evidence for vowel-colouring; but laryngeals are convincing as explanation of at least 
three disparate phenomena restricted to the Sanskrit branch. They are the difference 
between se/and anit siems; the exceptions to Brugmann's Law; and the existence of 
voiceless aspirated stops. 

Se/and an/tare ancient Indian grammatical terms, from sa-i 'with i' and an-i 'without i', 
referring to the infinitive. Some are like b'^av/tum'to become', from the root b^u, and others 
are like kartum'to do', from kr. Those with i come from roots extended by a laryngeal: 
b^eweH-. When the unaccented vowel was reduced to zero grade between consonants, 
giving *b^ewHtum, the laryngeal found itself between consonants, so turned into a vowel, 
in order to remain pronounceable. In most IE languages this so-called schwa 
indogermanicum became a, but it is characteristic of Sanskrit that it became / 

The presumed laryngeal also triggered vowel lengthening. With the past participle suffix - 
tosthe accent is removed from the stem, and both stem vowels are reduced to zero, giving 
*b^wHt6s. In this position the »ythen turns into a vowel, *bhuHt6s, and then lengthening 
and loss of the laryngeal (as in the original ablaut pattern laryngeals were invented for) 
give the actual Sanskrit b^uutas. 

In later (Classical) Sanskrit the range of set roots was extended by analogy, so not all set 
roots mark laryngeals. All languages undergo extensive ploughing-over and early patterns 
are often obscured. 

Normally PIE o became Sanskrit a. Brugmann's Law says that when this happened in an 
open syllable before a resonant (a liquid or nasal), it was also lengthened. So *kekore's\\e 
/he made' regularly becomes cakaara. Comparison with Greek shows that the first person 
'I made' should have been *kekora, which should have also become cakaara, but the 
actual form is cakara. Something prevented Brugmann's Law operating. It might have 
been an analogy with some other T form, in order to keep the two persons distinct; but the 
unusual thing about the perfect tense ending -a'l' is that, while the vowel a\s common in 
PIE stems, it's very rare in inflections. This suggests it only occurred where created by a 
laryngeal. Then the PIE form *kekor/7ie would contain a closed syllable -kor-, not open -ko 
, so Brugmann doesn't apply. 

The third major strand from Sanskrit evidence is the voiceless aspirates ph th th ch kh. 
They were long regarded as part of the original PIE consonant set, but actually evidence 
for them outside the Indo-lranian branch including Sanskrit is slim. Kurytowicz proposed 
that they developed from a plain stop p 1 1 c k that had come to be next to a laryngeal when 
the intervening vowel dropped out. So the Sanskrit root stha- 'stand' came from steH2- and 
the new consonant th was then generalized to all forms of the word. 

Greek and Armenian evidence 

Armenian is a solitary branch of the Indo-European family, markedly different from all 
others, but in several respects it and Greek share unusual features. Some words, 
particularly in front of n I r, have an extra (prothetic) vowel compared to other branches. 

Greek onoma, Armenian anun, cf. English name, Latin nomen, Sanskrit naaman. 
Greek odous, Armenian atamn, cf. English tooth, Latin dens, Sanskrit dantah. 
Greek aster, Armenian astt, English star, Latin stella. 

Greek eleutheros, Latin liber 'free'. 

From the vowel preserved in Greek we can see which laryngeal was originally there: 
Hlleudh- 'free', H2ster- 'star', H3nom- 'name'. 

Greek and Sanskrit share the augment, an initial vowel e- (becoming a- in Sanskrit) on 
some past tenses. Armenian also has this, though only on the third personal singular of 
monosyllables. They also have reduplication in the perfect tense. The pluperfect is formed 
with both augment then reduplication. Where there was a laryngeal, this sometimes 
causes lengthening. So Hlleudh- 'free' gives eleeluutha 'I loosened', from e-Hlle-HHeud^^- 
H2e. In a few cases the vowel-colouring effect of the laryngeal is also preserved. 

The lengthening effect seems to explain the two Greek words ikhthuus 'fish' and muus 
'mouse'. We can suspect that there was a laryngeal here, because the Armenian words 
are jukn and mukn. This also shows that it's not strictly true that the laryngeals 
disappeared from all modern languages. 

There are more direct survivals in Armenian: 
Latin anus = Hittite hannas = Armenian han 
Latin avus = Hittite huhhas = Armenian haw 
Latin ventus = Hittite huwantsa = Armenian hogi 

Other branches 

Albanian is another unique and distant branch of Indo-European, and also preserves some 
actual descendants of the laryngeals, in words like hidhur 'bitter', hidhe 'nettle', hut 'empty', 
and herdhe 'testicle'. 

Some Latin perfect tenses are formed by reduplication, but others are formed by 
lengthening the vowel: these may be in places where laryngeals are predicted. So edo 'I 
eat', edl'l ate', from originally reduplicated hie-hi6-. 

Etruscan is not an Indo-European language, but might be distantly related to the family as 
a whole. The word for 'before' is hant-, whereas Latin has ante. 

The attempt to link Indo-European to other families, called the Nostratic theory, has a 
problem with laryngeals. Although Nostratic would connect Indo-European to Semitic, the 
connexion is not very close even within Nostratic. All the other groups that would belong 

somewhere in the superfamily - such as Kartvelian, Uralic, Altaic, and Dravidian - show 
little or no evidence of ever having had laryngeals. 


The Nostraticist Allen Bomhard writes that we can now state with complete confidence the 
values of the laryngeals. This of course means we can't do anything of the kind. They 
could be almost anything. 

One good idea is that /?/, h2, and habere respectively palatal, velar, and rounded velar 
fricatives, that is [g], [x], and [xw]. This fits the pattern of stops [kj k kw] that we already 
know about, and also makes them quite easy for us to pronounce. None of those awkward 

But /7/was more easily lost, so perhaps it was something weaker, like a glottal stop. /74if it 
existed could have been {tf[. /72and /75 might have been pharyngeal. /75 might have been 
voiced (because of the Hittite writing); as it caused o-colouring it was very likely rounded 

L.R. Palmer, 1980, The Greek Language, Faber & Faber 

Winfred Lehmann, 1993, Theoretical Bases of Indo-European Linguistics, Routledge 

Gender category in Indo-European. 

§ 1. Origin of gender in Proto-Indo-European. 

It is proved that it would be wrong to mix the categories of gender and sex in Proto-Indo- 
European noun system. Modern Indo-European languages which have gender at all, 
usually make these two categories the same: what is female in sex, is female in gender. 
What has no sex, is neuter - for those languages which use neuter, like Slavic and 

Proto-Indo-European shows a completely different system of gender. And though linguistic 
schools argue about the more likely structure of noun genders in the Proto-language, 
some facts can be stated for sure. 

First, Proto-Indo-European had no gender. At that time the language consisted not of 
morphological items, like nouns, verbs and adjectives, but just of words which acted 

independently in the sentence. The main grammar means of the language was not the 
declension and conjugation, but the combination of words, and the word order. Nouns 
lacked any endings, case suffixes, formants of gender of number. 

Later, when the language acquired the ergative structure, where all words should be 
clearly distinguished between active and inactive (or animate and inanimate) classes. 
Here, on this stage, nouns first get the declension. Most scientists believe there were two 
or three noun cases at that time in Proto-Indo-European: ergative case, which denoted the 
subject and indirect objects, absolutive case, which meant subject and direct objects, and 
maybe genitive, which could exist in the stage of forming. We must stress that only active, 
animate nouns could be declined, and nouns denoting things did not have cases at all. 

There was still no gender, but it was already shaping. The ergative structure was slowly 
transforming into another type of the language. When a special case was invented for the 
direct object (accusative), the language could be already named nominative. Words were 
already divided into nominal and verbal parts of speech - nominal including modern nouns, 
adjectives, pronouns, numerals, and verbal uniting verbs and perfect verbs - two quite 
different sorts of words at that time. While the ergative structure was declining, the nominal 
part of speech was divided into two ones: nouns, which marked the subject and object, 
and the adjective marking the attribute of a noun. 

This division was logical: people were going to separate attributive and subjective words, 
those which determine and those which state. Adjectives, nevertheless, could not 
completely avoid the influence of nouns, and since then they had to follow the noun in 
case and number. 

This was the time for the gender to appear. And here the opinions of leading world 
linguists do not agree. Some of them try to prove, rather successfully, that there was two 
genders in Early Proto-Indo-European, and then one of them divided into two. Other argue 
there were three genders originally. Let us see the arguments of each of the sides, just in 
order to seem objective. 

The first version means the following. Two genders which appeared in the Proto-Indo- 
European language were invented to separate active and inactive nouns from each other, 
to divide nouns meaning animate objects (people, sacred animals, deities) from simple 
inanimate things (trees, ground, weapons). The active gender, or active class of nouns, 
acquired the ending -si -os\n nominative singular and could be declined according to 

case and number. The plural number denoted several animate nouns, their real plurality. 
The inactive class, vice versa, could not be declined, its characteristic ending was -ml - 
om, and even though it had plural number, it did not mean plurality, but just collectiveness. 
Later processes of the language development generated a-stems of nouns, stems in long / 
and u. These three kinds of noun stems sooner or later started to denote feminine nouns - 
now they were equal to the sex. That is how the active class was divided into masculine 
and feminine. 

There are several solid proofs of such a point of view. In most Indo-European languages 
many noun stems include both masculine and feminine nouns: like short /-stems (Latin 
hostis masc, ossis fem). Such nouns, though different in gender, have absolutely the same 
declension and only adjectives, attributes next to them, can distinct their gender. Even a- 
stems (Latin femina, Lithuanian motina, Greek gunh), made specially for feminine, include 
many masculine nouns (Latin nauta, poeta). Such a situation of mixture cannot exist with 
neuter nouns which do not mix in declension with masculine or feminine. While masculine 
and feminine nouns in most of stems (except a-) still use -sending in all classical Indo- 
European tongues, neuter nouns have -m. This very -m\s always repeated in accusative 
singular together with nominative singular: this never happens to other genders. 

Greek and Latin, being typical Indo-European languages, show one more interesting 
feature, called "two ending adjectives". Ordinary adjectives use all three genders: Latin 
bonus, bona, bonum; but this happens only to adjectives of o- and a-stems which 
cooperate, and with all other stems adjectives use only two forms: the same for masculine 
and feminine, and another for neuter. Such adjectives as Latin fortis, fortis, forte, are called 
two ending adjectives and also show the main thesis of all who state 2 original genders of 
Proto-Indo-European: differences between masculine and feminine in Indo-European are 
not as big, as those between masculine-feminine and neuter. 

The other argument in favour of this theory is the situation in Anatolian languages. It was 
proved that the Anatolian branch, later consisting of Hittite, Luwian and Palaic languages, 
was the first to move away from the Proto-Indo-European community, and did it even 
before the Proto-language acquired some of its significant morphological and phonetic 
traits. So Anatolian preserved some interesting archaic moments which we cannot found in 
other Indo-European languages. Anatolian languages show no feminine or masculine 
languages, and even no a-stems, and genders are two - exactly for animate and inanimate 
nouns. The animate gender used -5'ending (as's'us' - good), and the other one either had 
-/7 (derived from Indo-European -m), or no ending at all, subsequently did not decline 

(as's'u - good (neut.)). This makes us believe that such a system is the Early Indo- 
European one: Anatolian languages were the only group to preserve the 2-gender 
structure . 

The third proof concerns the plural number . Masculine and feminine nouns and adjective 
in Indo-European use the ending -es\n nominative plural, and -ns\n accusative plural. All 
other cases also have their inflections. As for neuter words, their ending -a\s used both in 
nominative and in accusative . Plural neuter nouns denoted collective unity in Proto-Indo- 
European, like modern Russian nebesa "skies" which does not mean "several skies" but 
"sky in a collective meaning". Such nouns in the Proto-language included many words 
which later will be included into the feminine a-stems - their endings in nominative were 
the same. For example, Latin aqua (water) is originally a collective neuter noun in plural: 
"waters". In Greek, ancient Indo-lranian languages and in Hittite the subject in neuter 
plural form always use their predicate in singular. This is maybe the most important 
evidence of the special position of neuter in Proto-Indo-European: it was inactive . 

Besides a-stems, Indo-European formed the feminine gender , different from masculine , 
with one more type of noun stems: long /-stems . Obviously, the suffix -A meant the 
possession on archaic stages of the language (Sanskrit rathah "a chariot", rathih 
"something belonging to a chariot"). Later this meaning could go in two ways: it might 
begin to mean the possessive genitive case (remember -/in Latin, Venetic and Celtic) and 
to form the feminine gender , if Indo-Europeans looked at the woman as a possession of 
the man. That is how long /stems turned out to be all feminine. 

So from that moment, when Anatolian languages already migrated to Asia Minor, when a- 
stems and /stems appeared, and the opposition emerged between masculine and 
feminine nouns, we can speak about three genders in Indo-European: masculine , 
feminine , neuter . 

There are linguistic schools which do not agree to the fact that the Proto-language used 
two genders, and not three. They say that Anatolian just united masculine and neuter, for 
its a-stems phonetically coincided with masculine c^stems, so the genders coincided as 
well. Other explain this unification by the substratum influence . But anyway, the 2-gender 
version seems much better proven. 

§ 2. Genders in ancient and modern Indo-European languages. 

When the Proto-language disappeared, transforming into different groups, the gender 
system chose its own way in each of them. But the general trend in every Indo-European 
language was quite clear: the number of genders was going to reduce. 

Hellenic languages in their ancient varieties (Ancient Greek dialects) preserves the three- 
gender structure, and its peculiarities often show the closer connections between 
masculine and feminine, than between them both and neuter (2-ending adjectives, etc., 
see above). Ancient Greek represents the classical neuter endings in -n< *-m. In Greek 
neuter plural subjects have usually a singular predicate: ploia plei (ships move). The New 
Greek language also shows three genders, and their opposition is strengthened by the 
extensive use of articles, also declined in three genders. 

Italic can be called classical in this meaning as well. Latin shows no sign of reduction of 
genders, and its neuter plays an important role in the language. The reduction of some 
final consonants in Umbrian influenced the so-called Popular Latin, which was quickly 
moving towards the analytism in morphology, lost many endings and so many gender 
forms coincided with each other, which could not but lead new Romance languages in 
their majority to the 2-gender opposition with the loss of neuter. In many modern Romance 
tongues the function of differentiating genders passed from the inflection to the article 
usage: French has no other signs of genders, but un, une, le, la, some prepositional forms 
like du- de, and adjective endings gros - grosse. In some languages, however, the 
process of secondary morphologisation of genders is going on nowadays: Spanish 
generated new endings for masculine and feminine: hermano - hermana, cabron - cabra. 
This interesting feature seems to make us think that the gender development history goes 
the same way as the case system development. 

Germanic languages are called the most analytic among all modern Indo-European 
tongues. While all ancient varieties of Germanic (Gothic, Old Norse, Old English) used 
three cases, the modern languages reduced their number. English and Afrikaans removed 
genders at all from their morphology: English preserved them only as a "hidden category", 
which can be seen in personal pronouns he, she, it (for example, ships are always she). 
German uses both some infections and first of all the article, definite and indefinite (der - 
die - das, ein - eine). An interesting thing happened in Scandinavian languages: they lost 
the opposition between masculine and feminine and returned to the ancient system of two 
noun classes for animate - inanimate nouns. This proves once more that feminine and 
masculine in fact are similar in the language. 

Iranian languages used to have all three genders in ancient tongues (Avestan, Old 
Persian), but under the influence of analytic trend the system was destroyed or reduced, 
and many modern Iranian languages do not have genders at all . It can be also connected 
with the adstratum and substratum languages, which influenced Indo-European structural 
features. Genders are completely lost also in Armenian. 

Baltic linguistics shows that Old Prussian had neuter which was not about to disappear at 
all. But Lithuanian lost it somehow, not very long ago. Some relics take place, however, in 
adjectives and in pronouns, but in fact now Lithuanian knows only feminine and masculine 
(see Historical Grammar of Lithuanian). 

The most complicated system exists in Slavic languages, where genders were not only 
preserved, but also developed. For example, in Russian the category of gender united with 
that of animateness , forming the common system of classes: at all there are 6 classes , 
three genders with animate - inanimate subgenders in each . See the forms of nominative 
and accusative plural in Russian: novye doma ("new houses", nom., masc, inanimate), 
novye doma (ace); novye direktory ("new directors", nom., masc, animate), novyh 
direktorov (ace). The same for feminine and neuter. 

In Polish even further complication of gender structure happened : masculine has animate 
and inanimate forms, and animate has in its turn personal and impersonal forms in plural. 

dom (nom. sg. inanimate), dom (ace. sg.) "a house" 

pies (nom. sg. animate), psa (ace. sg.), psy (nom. pi.), psy ( "a dog" 

chlop (nom. sg. animate personal), chlopa (ace. sg.), chlopy (nom. pi.), chlopow (ace. pi.) 

"a peasant" 

According to these processes which independently move on in different groups of the 
Indo-European family we can make a conclusion that genders do not behave exactly the 
way noun cases do , i.e. the reduction process is sometimes substituted by the complex 
changes (Slavic, Spanish). But in general we can state that genders are nowadays less 
synthetic and less spread, than they used to be in the Proto-Indo-European language. 

Root / lemma: ^'^ro-{*h2£b'^fv-^ 
English meaning: strong, mighty 


Root / lemma: ^'^ro-{*h2£b'^ro-)\ " strong, mighty ' derived from Root / lemma:^©^'"^ : force 

extended in -r- formant (see gr. app6(; "tender, fine, luscious') 


(app6(; 'tender, fine, luscious') 

Middle Irish Prefix abor-, cymr. afr-^ very much '; Gothic abrs^ get strong, violent ', adv. 

abraba^ very much ', bi-abrjan^ before were astonished beside oneself. Old Icelandic 

Prefix afar-^ very much '; lllyrian VN A'ppoi, thrak. PN A'ppo-. 

Here maybe Gothic aba{n- stem) " husband'. 


The root ab^ro-: 'strong, mighty' : Root/ lemma: ab6(n)\ (ape, aquatic demon) : Root/ 

lemma: ab-\ (water, river) : Root/ lemma: {en^^-2): ndd^-, errt'"-, /pb^-: (wet, damp; 

water; clouds) Old Indie abbra-m. {*rrfb^ros), Avestan ai/vra-n. 

References: WP. I 177, Feist 1 b f., 579 a., W. Schuize KZ. 52, 311 = Kl. Schr. 398. 

See also: ab^- 

Page(s): 2 

Root / lemma: ab^- {*b2^^-) 

English meaning: quick, abrupt 


Root/ lemma: abh-(*/7i'abh-): " quick, abrupt ' derived from Root/ lemma: ^'^ro-{*b2^'"ro- 

): " strong, mighty ' which derived from root /pbh-(ro-): < with /-formant {ndo'^el§}: < Root/ 

lemma: {eneb'^-2): neb^-, errt^-, /pb^-: " wet, damp; water; clouds '. 

Note: alter r/n- stem 

Material: Gr. acpap " straightway, forthwith, at once, quickly, presently ' (old abstract noun 

"quickness'), for what, nevertheless, probably at first acpvu), acpvux; "suddenly'. 

Here at most Old Church Slavic abbje^ straight away, directly ', but uncertainly Old Indie 
ahnaya^ directly, straight away, instantly, speedily ' (rather to ahar, aban-^6ay ' p. 7). 

References: WP. I 177, Feist 1 b f., 579 a., W. Schuize KZ. 52, 311 = Kl. Schr. 398. 
See also: ab'^ro- 
Page(s): 2 

Root / lemma: ab6(n) {*b2abd-) 
English meaning: ape, *water demon 


Root / lemma: ab6(n){*h2abd-)\ " ape, *water demon ' derived from Root/ lemma: ab^- 

(*/7i'abh-): " quick, abrupt ' < Root/ lemma: sb'^ro-{*h2^'^ro-)\ " strong, mighty ' < root /pb^- 

(ro-): < with Aformant (n^^e/a): < Root/ lemma: {eneb'"-2): neb'"-, errt'"-, /pb^-: " wet, 

damp; water; clouds '. 

Note: (Celtic neologism). The animal introduced by traveling merchants can have been 

named by the Celts with the name of her aquatic demon (see above ad-). 

Material: Hes. appava(; KsAioi lovq K£pKoni9nKOU(; is maybe appava(; (Akk. PI.) to read 

and still before the consonatic mutation in Germanic stubby; hence, in. ap/m. " monkey, 

gate ', Old Saxon apo, Old High German affom., affa, aff/ni., Old English apam. 

"monkey'. Old Czech op/ce comes Old Russian op/cairom the Germanic 

References: WP. I 51 f. 

See also: compare ait*- water' and Schrader Reallex., Hoops Reallex. s. v. ape. 

Page(s): 2-3 

Root / lemma: ab- 

English meaning: water, river 


Root/ lemma: ab-: ' water, river ' derived from Root/ lemma: abofnj {* h2abd-): " ape, 

*water demon ' < Root/ lemma: ab'^-(*/7i'abh-): " quick, abrupt ' < Root/ lemma: ab'^ro- 

{*h2^'"ro-): " strong, mighty ' < root /pbh-(/-o-): < with Aformant {n^^e/a)\ < Root/ lemma: 

{eneb'"-2): neb'"-, eirb'"-, /pb^-: " wet, damp; water; clouds '. 

Material: Latin amnisi., late m. c {*abnis); Old Irish ab{*aba) Gen. abae^r'wer', besides 

abann, (common Celtic -ns- > -nn-), cymr. afon, orn. bret. auon, gall. brit. FIN Abona, 

derived cymr. afanc^ beaver, water demon, dwarf ', to Middle Irish abac {*abankos) " 

beaver, dwarf', Swiss -French avan 'pasture' {*abanko-); Latvian FIN Abava. 

The West German FIN in -apa. Modern High German-affa, probably go back partly to 
usually lost West Germanic *ap-{\ndo Germanic *ab-), partly in Venetic-lllyrian ap- (Indo 
Germanic *ap-). 

References: WP. I 46 f., WH. I 40, Feist 19a, 579a, GIPatSR. II 134. 
See also: compare also ap-i* 'water, river' and abd{n) 'ape'. 
Page(s): 1 

Root / lemma: ades-, ados- {*he§h-) 
English meaning: sort of cereal 
Grammatical information: n. 

Material: Latin ador, -oris n. " a kind of grain, spelt ', maybe in Gotliic atisk (*ades-ko-) 

"sowing field', probably m. as Old High German ezziscaP\. 'sowing'. Middle High German 

dial. Esch, Swiss dial. Aesch, " field entrance of a village '; Tocharian AB 5//" grass ' [B 

a//KC» ( "grass' (Adams 9)] (differently Pedersen Tocharian 641). about gr. aGnp " an 

ear of corn ' see below a/Td^-. 

Perhaps Armenian: /7a/"grain', Hittite: hattaru. 'cereal' 


It seems Root / lemma: ades-, ados- : "sort of cereal' evolved from an older root *hegh- " a 

kind of grain '. This root was suffixed with common -5/ra formant in Germanic branch 

Gemnanic: *at-isk-a-, while in Anatolian branch the root was suffixed with common PIE -tar 

formant. The old laryngeal (centum h- > a-, e- : satem h- > s-) was lost except in Hittite 

and Armenian Clearly Germanic tongues borrowed the cognate from a reduced Latin 

{*hattar-) adoris > Gemnanic: *at-isk-a-. 

Finally zero grade in alb. ( *addris) *dris, drize "thorny plant', ( *dris) drithe 'grain' where the 

Latin -is ending has been solidified. 

The surprise is the -gh- > -0'- found only in Avestan - lllyrian - Baltic languages. 

References: WP. I 45, Feist 61 a, anders WH. I 14. 

Page(s): 3 

Root / lemma: ad-1{*hed-) 
English meaning: to, by, at 

Material: Phrygian a5-5aK£T " he does '; maked. a5-5ai pupoi (Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 69); Latin 
ad^ to, with, in ', proverb and preposition m. Akk., also Gen. atque, ac^ and in addition, 
and also, and ' {*ad-que\ not at+ que, also Umbrian ap" in which place, in what place, 
where, when, after, since, although ' chronologically, with extended -/"in ape), Umbrian ar- 
preverb, -af postposition m. Akk., Oscan adpud^ as far as ', otherwise with 5- extension 
Oscan az" to, toward ' preposition m. Akk .; Old Irish ao'- proverb (e.g., ad-gladur "call 
upon, appeal to '), cymr. add-, gall, ao'- prefix (e.g., MN Ad-iantu. cymr. ao'o'/a/?/" longing', 
Admarus. Old Irish mar "large '); cymr. a, with vowel 5^ "with' (50'+ ghe. Old Indie ha, not 
= Latin atque'dx\^, as well as, together with'); Germanic *a/preverb and preposition mostly 
with "dative' = Lok., rare m. Akk. (Gothic West Germanic from the time. Old English also 
from the place). Old Icelandic also with Gen.: Gothic aV to, by ', Old Icelandic aV to, by, 
against, after ', Old English get. Old Saxon at. Old High German 5z" to, by, in '. 

zero grade: ved. t-saratr creeps, creeps up ', Old High German zagen{: Gothic *-agan 
"fear'), Old High German z-ougen. Middle High German zougen. Old Saxon t-ogian 
compared with Gothic at-augjan " with raised up eyes, point, show '. 

References: WP.I 44 f., WH.I 11 f. 
See also: Perhaps to ad-2. 
Page(s): 3 

Root / lemma: ad-2 

English meaning: to establish, put in order 

Material: Umbrian arsie{*adio-) ' venerable, august, divine, sacred, pure, holy (very freq. 
and class.); of a divinity, and of things in any way belonging to one ', arsmor{ *admon) " a 
form of religious observance, religious usage, ceremony, rite ', arsmatiam ( *admatio-) " 
relating to religious rites or ceremonies, ritual ', armamu^ you shall be ordered, set in 
order, arranged, adjusted, disposed, regulated ', /^/tt?^//?^ epithet of Jupiter, to *ad-^ settle, 
order '; Old Irish adv\. "law', PI. ada^ ceremonious customs ', from it Adj. "lawful', adas 
"proper', cymr. ao'o'as "suitable', eddyl (*adilo-)^ duty, purpose '; probably also Germanic 
*///a-" suitable opportunity ' in Gothic ///n., ga-tils^ suitably ', Old English ///" suitable, 
useful ' as n. " goodness, suitability ' = Old High German z//" purpose ', preposition Old 
English Old Icelandic ///" to, for '. 

References: WE. I 12, Devoto Mel. Pedersen 224. 
Page(s): 3 

Root / lemma: ad(u)-, ad-ro- {*hegherd) 

English meaning: water current 


From Root/ lemma: ang''(h)i-\ "snake, worm' derived Root/ lemma: ak^'a- {more properly 

alci). ek"- 

: "water, river'; Root/ lemma: eghero-: "lake, inner sea'; Root/ lemma: ad(u)-, ad-ro-\ 

"water current': lllyrian Pannonian VN 'Oaspiareg [common alb.- 1 llyrian-Baltic -^^- >-«/-, - 


From Root/ lemma: ak^a-^ water, river' nasalized in *a/r^e/7/- (suffixed in -er, -o/) derived 

Root/ lemma: au(e)-9, aued-, auer-\ "to flow, to wet; water, etc' 

Material: Avestan adu^ water run, brook, canal ', Venetic-lllyrian FIN Ad(d)ua {ior Po), 

*AdulJa> Attel{\.o Danube in Bavaria), Mons ofAdula^ St. Gotthard ' (probably named after 

the rivers streaming there), oberosterr. FIN *Adra> Attersee, Attergau, FIN Adrana> Eder 

(Hessen), maybe also PN Aclria\v\ Venetien (afterwards mare Adriaticum), sizil. FIN 

A'5pav6c; and Venetic-lllyrian name of Oder Oui-a5ouac;; further Latvian FIN Adula. 


The name of the primordial hill in Egyptian mythology, the first mountain that raised from 

the ocean. The mountain god was borrowed by Hitties who called the dreaming god 

Upelluri. Greeks received Atlas from Hittites. 

Atlas '*mountain probably named after the rivers streaming there ': A'tAqc;, -avTO(; m. 

"Atlas' (Od., Hes., Hdt., A. etc.), name of a God who carries the columns of the sky; 

originally probably name of Arcadian mountains which were spread then by the epic in 

general and especially (by Ionic seafarers?) was transferred to the Atlas Mountains in 

West Africa, see Solmsen Wortforsch. 24; about Atlas as a personification of the world 

axis Tieche Mus. Helv. 2, 65ff. Berber adrar^ mountain '. 

Derivatives: Of it 'ATAavTi(; f. (Hes. etc.), name of a mythical island, according to 

Brandenstein Atlantis (Wien 1951, = Arb. Inst. Sprachw. 3) = Crete; further 'AiAavTiKoq (E., 

PI., Arist. etc.) and 'ATAavT£iO(; (Kritias). 

References: VasmerZslPh. 8, 114 f., Pokorny Urill. 4, 70, 93, 109, 124. 

Page(s): 4 

Root / lemma: agh-(lo-) 

Englisli meaning: disgusting 


Root/ lemma: agh-(lo-)\ "disgusting' derived from an extended Root/ lemma: agos-\ " 

fault, sin' produced. 

Material: Gothic 5^/s "opprobrious, ignominious', aglil=>a, aglo^ hardship ', us-agljan^ press 
', Old English eg(e)le^ offensive, unwieldy, unfortunate ', eg/an a66 " pain ' (engl. a/7' hurt; 
indisposed his '), eglian' to be felt painfully ', Middle Low German egelen' cause grief, 
Gothic aglusMy. agluba' SugkoAo^, difficult '; also (with puzzling suffix) Gothic aglaiteii. 
-/n. " licentiousness, wanton violence, insolence, sexual offense ', Old High German 
agaleizii.,-iv\. " discomfort; zeal ', agaleizo. Old Saxon agleto, agaleto Mn . " sedulous, 
keen '. 

Possibly here ow. agha- (=Avestan ayo^ "nasty', n. " horrible, damage ', aghala- 'bad '. 

Here maybe to Middle Irish aladu. "wound' {*agloton), mcymr. ae/e{u) 'pa\nM', ae/eum. 
"pain' {*aglou-). 

References: WP. I 41, Feist 15 a, Specht Dekl. 136, Loth RC. 38, 56. 
Page(s): 8 

Root / lemma: aghl(u)-{*heghel-) 

English meaning: rainy weather 

Material: Gr. axAu(; " fog, darkness ' 

Maybe alb. agu//'ba6 vision', agu ' dawn ' 

Old Prussian ag/on. 'rain' {u- stem), Armenian *a//- in afjafj, afjamufjkh ^ darkness' (Meillet 

MSL. 10,279). 

References: WP. I 41. compare Petersen Aryan and Armenian Stud. 126. 

Page(s): 8 

Root / lemma: agh- {*hegh-) 

English meaning: to fear 

Material: Gr. axo(; n. " fear, pain, grief, axvu|jai, axopai " grieving, sorrowing, mourning ' 

(Aor. HKaxE, nKaxopnv, Perf. aKaxniJC(i), axsuwv, ax£U)v " mourning, groaning ', OKaxi^u) 

"sadden'; here probably ax6o(; ' load, grief ' (* axTO(;), thereof axSsaGai ' to be loaded, be 

depressed '. 

Maybe nasalized alb. {*aghos) ankth "fear' [common alb. -s > -//?]. 

Old English egerc\. "fear', egisi-grima q\. " ghost, spectre, evil spirit ', n. es- stem *agiz = 
gr. a^oc, 'get a fright'; 

Note: common gr. -gh- > -x- 

compare Old High German egis-ITh' dreadful ', egison^ get a fright ' and to o-and en 
stems extended Gothic agisu. " fear, anxiety, fright ', Old High German agiso, eg/so m., 
egisai. " fear, fright figure ', Old English egesam. " fear'; Old Norse ag/m. {-en- stem) 
'Fear', Old High German egr, Middle High German eget " fear, fright, punishment '; Gothic 
-agan\n un-agands' are not afraid ', af-agjan' frighten', us-agjan^ frighten somebody ', " 
in-agjan " snub somebody '; preterit present Gothic og (ogum) " fears me ', ni ogs " fear 
nothing ' (old short vocal subjunctive *dgi^. Old Norse oa-sk^ be afraid '; Gothic ogjan^ 
snub somebody ' = Old Norse segja "get a fright'; Old Norse ogni. " fright ', o///m. " fear ', 
Old English ogai. " fright '. 

Old Irish ad-agor,-agur^ fear ' (because of the ablaut equality with Gothic d^ supposes 
Brugmann Grdr. I|2 3, 484 origins from older Perf.), verbal noun aigthiunder 

References: WP. I 40, Feist 14, 380. 

See also: hereupon belongs probably also: agh-(lo-) 

Page(s): 7-8 

Root / lemma: agos- {*hege-) 

English meaning: fault, sin, *blood guilt 

Material: Old Indie agas- n. "offence, injury, sin, fault', change by ablaut with gr. aYO(; ' 

heavy guilt, blood guilt '; Old Indie anagas-, gr. avaync; " innocent, guiltless ' ; ayrjc;, Evayrjc; 

" curses ', ayiO(; \x\a^6c,. 

Old English acan, oc'hurt' (engl. ache), ndd. aken^ hurt, fester, dent, blow ', Middle 
Dutch 5/re/'grief, wrong, pity'. Modern Frisian akelig, aeklig^ wretched, vehement '. 

References: WP. I 38. 
Page(s): 8 

Root/ lemma: agro-{egro-?) {*hekrh3Uo) 

English meaning: top, first, beginning 

Material: Old Indie agra- n. 'point, foremost point or part, tip, front ', agre {Lok.) "at the top, 

in front, ahead of, also timewise 'in the beginning, first', a^/7/77a- 'first, preceding, foremost 

', Avestan ayra- 'first, uppermost after time space etc.', n. 'beginning; the uppermost, 

point'; Latvian agrs (Adj.) 'early', agn'Mv. 'early, early on', agrums 'the early morning'. 

Whether here Latin MN Agrippa^roxw *agri-p(e)d-^ breech birth (one who causes great 
pain at his birth ', W. Schuize KZ. 32, M2\ in 1721, doubting Latin Eig. 2305? 

If Old Indie agra on *ogro- or *e^/'o- retrograde, one could compare Hittite he-kur, he-gur 
'cliff summit, rock, crag '. 

Maybe Agr/anes \\\yr\an TN, /1^/'c»A7'lllyrian king'. 
References: WP. I 38 f., Pedersen Hittite 183. 
Page(s): 8-9 

Root / lemma: agu(e)sT, aksT 

English meaning: axe 

Material: Gothic aqizi. Old Norse 0x, Old English acus, aex. Old Saxon acus, accus. Old 

High German achhus, accus, aches. Modern High German /^a-/ (Germanic forms *aqwizi 

and *akusi\\aye maybe derived according to Zupitza GG. 89 from a gradating *aguesT: 

*agusjas), gr. i^oc; ' ax, hatchet ' 

Note: common gr. -gh- > -%- 

Latin ascia^ ax of the carpenters ' (from *acsia\\ke v/scus:\^6q, vespa ^rom *vepsa). 

Maybe alb. {*asca) asMa "shavings, wood splinter', {*viscus) vishk, f/shk'maWe thin, 


References: WP. I 39, WH. I 71, Feist 54 b, Specht Dekl. 150, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 4654. 

Page(s): 9 

Root / lemma: agh- 

English meaning: plough animal 

Material: Old Indie ahrcow', Avestan azH. Adj. "pregnant' (from cows and mares). Middle 

Irish ag{s- stem) m., f. " bovine animal, cow ', ag a//a/d 'deer' (actually, " wild ox '), a/' 

brood, throw ' {*ag/o-), cymr. ae/6s., mcymr. ae/aw' abundance, fertility ', e/7/on 

(*agliones) " fallow deer, horses '; here with e- vocalism Armenian ezn "bovine animal'? 

References: WP. I 38, Loth RC. 38, 55. 

Page(s): 7 

Root / lemma: agro-s 
See also: s. ag- 
Page(s): 9 

Root / lemma: ag- 

English meaning: to lead, *drive cattle 

Grammatical information: originally limited to the present stem. 

Material: ago. Old Indie ay^// drive', aya-m. "a drove, troop; a driver'; ajf-xx\.li. "running 

match, combat', Avestan azaiti^ drive, lead away ', Armenian acem^ lead, bring '; 

Maybe alb. Geg (*ayu)), a^o "leader, chief; 

gr. ayoo 'lead' (Aor. Aor. nyayov, n^a are new), Latin ago^ to set in motion, drive, lead, 
negotiate ' (Pf. e^/'with ablaut innovation), Oscan Imper. actud= Umbrian aitu^ o set in 
violent motion, drive onward, move, impel, urge ', Oscan acum^ drive, urge ', Old Irish ad- 
aig ( *aget) " to drive, bring, or take a person or thing to a place, of cattle ', acymr. agit, 
hegit, more recently eyt (*agTti), besides the strong inflection in cymr. corn. bret. a{*agetj 
"goes'; /- Preterit Old Irish ro-da-acM' driven away ', cymr. aeth{*ag-t} "to put in motion' 
etc., see Pedersen KG. II 451 following. Old Irish a//?" activity, play ' (from *agnis), gallo- 
rom. *and-agnis " big step ', French andain' swath, scythe slash ', Old French "wide step'. 
Old Norse a/ra "driving' (Preterit d/rlike Old Indie Gram. aj^\ Old English ac"however, but, 
yet' (wortl. "go!' like Latin agd)\ Toeharian B ak-, AB a/r- "travel, lead'; e 

to- participle: OKToq, Latin actus' put in motion, moved, driven, tended, conducted', *amb 
(i)-aktos, actually, " sent around (: Old Irish imm-aig) messenger, servant ' in gall. (-Latin) 
ambactus^ vassal, slave ', cymr. amaeth^ |ervus aranj ' (from Celtic derives Gothic 
andbahts, Old High German ambahV servant ', from which the kinship with Modern High 
German Amt). 

As Indo Germanic Instrumental noun in-Z^^here Old Indie asfra ^goad to drive the 
livestock ', Avestan astra' whip, scourge '. 

Maybe Tokharian: B akn. 'zeal' (Adams 35), AB ak- lead, guide, drive' (36). 

lengthened grade formations: Old Indie ajY-hm. f. 'race, fight ', Middle Irish a^(Gen. 
aga, u- stem) 'fight', aga, a/ge leaders' (cf also gall. PN Ago-marus= Old Irish agmar 
'warlike'; Com-agius), Latin only in compounds: ambages, around ' a roundabout way, 
winding. Hence, in speech, etc., either circumlocution or obscurity ' (conservative stem like 
Old Indie aj-e'io lead' = Latin agT\vA. Pass., and like Old Indie ay- in prtanaj- ' in the fight 
pulling ', however, with stretch in the composition), /ndages and /ndago,-/n/s' surrounding 
and driving of game ', co-agulum ' a means of coagulation, a coagulum or coagulator (the 
curdled milk in the stomach of a sucking animal, the stomach itself, etc.), rennet or runnet; 
the curdled milk; that which holds or binds together, a bond, tie ', Old Indie samaja-h 
'meeting, society', gr. cx^ui^oq, 'leading, leadingly ', aywyn 'guidance, management, 
freight', Hes. wyava 'spokes', OTpaT-nyoc; (see below), about Doric ayov (Old Indie ajam) "I 
lead' see, nevertheless, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 654, 4. 

o- stem: ved. aja-h ' activity, train; driver ', gr. ayot; ' leader, military leader ', OTpar- 
aY6(;, Attic Ionian arpaT-riYOc; 'military leader', Aoxayoc; (originally Doric) ' leader ', Latin 
prodigo -igere -egi -actum^io drive forth; to spend, waste', prdd-/gus ^proiuse, extravagant; 
rich, abounding in. Adv. prodige ' (from prod-igerd), abiga ' plant which has the power of 
producing abortion; ground-pine ' (' close to miscarriage ' from ab-igere= anayu). Old 
Indie apa-ajati^ to drive away, drive off '). 

Jo- stem: Irish aige^race'. Old Indie in /7/:^a/7^ya/77 'competition'. 

agmij, agmos. Old Indie ajman-n. ' road, train ', ajma-h ds. (however, about Jman, pari- 
Jman-, prthu-jman-, jma-ya- s. ghl=>em- ' earth '): Latin agmen ' a driving movement or a 
mass in (orderly) movement, a stream, band, train; esp. milit., an army on the march ' (to 
neologism agoior *ammen), examen^ a swarm; a throng, crowd, shoal. (2) the tongue of 
a balance; testing, consideration '; then ' to check, to weigh; to consider ' (from *agsmen), 
ammentum ( *agmen-to-m) ' in loop form - possibly in the middle of the spear - fixed with 

throw straps '; maybe (Schw. Gr. Gr. I 492''0) with o- graduation gr. oymoc; " field furrow, 
road of heavenly bodies; swath by mowing '. 

lo- stem: Old Indie ajira- " quick, nimble ' (however, Latin agilis^ flexible, nimble ' is a 
neologism); gr. aysAri " herd, crowd ', Latin agolum^ shepherd's stick '. 

Gr. dycbv " race, competition '; ayuia 'street' (part. Perf.), from which about newer *aY£ia 
Latin agea' a gangway in a ship'; lak. Cretan atol. ayvsu) ' leads, brings ', ep. Ionian 
aylvspsvai, aylvsu) ds. (:aYV£U) and ayu), like 6pT-vu) towards 6p-vu-pi and u)p-6ijr|v, also 
from an 7ending root form; cf Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 694, 696). about nyspcbv see Schwyzer 
Gr. Gr. I 522^ and under sag-. 

Latin remex, remigare, remigium, ITtigare " a rower, oarsman ' and other verbs in - 
(i)gare. - Presumably Latin indigites^ the local divinities and heroes ' {indigitare^ a divinity 
call ', indigitamenta'\v\yocaX\ov\ formulae'), as *end(o)-aget- 'the indigenous, native '. 

formation development to 'to weigh' (from " bring in oscillation ') in Latin exagium^ a 
weighing, weight; a balance ', exigere\ex-^ ago] 'to drive out, push forth, thrust out, take 
out, expel: - To weigh, try, prove, measure, examine, adjust, estimate, consider': among 
other things ' weigh, measure ', exactus^ precise, accurate, exact ', exiguus^ strict, exact, 
scanty, small, little, petty, short, poor, mean, inadequate, inconsiderable, paltry ', exTlis 
{*ex-ag-slis) " strict, narrow, thin, slender, lank, small, meagre, poor', examen{see above), 
ag/ha^ the opening in the upper part of a balance, in which the tongue moves ' (formation 
as for example coquTna), gr. aysiv also 'weigh' (with Akk. of the weight), a^ioc; 'weighing as 
much, of like value, worth as much as' (from *aKTiO(;, on the grounds of *a^-//-5 'weight', 
actually:) ' from suitable weight ', hence, ' worth, solemnly ', avra^ioq 'worth just as much 
as, equally'. 

still cf WH. 19, 10, 24 about acnua, actus quadratus ' a field measure of 120 feet in the 
square ', and ac/J/^/r? 'straight away, immediately, forthwith ', a^asd 'footman, driver, 
hostler', ago, -d/7/s'of the priests killing the sacrificial animal' (from agere\v\ meaning ' 
sacrifice'), agonium ' a victim, beast for sacrifice ' below likewise 

Here maybe gall, exacum^ the herb centaury ' if prescribed for *exagum{= *exago-' 
pure-craving '). But better to *aR- ' sharp ', see there. 

Further belong here: 

ages-, aRs. . . " (fulcrum, pivot:) axis - shoulder ': 

Old Indie aksa-h^ axis', gr. a^cov ds., ap-a^a "carriage, wagon' Gl. 12, 217; KZ. 40, 217 


Note: common gr. -gh- > -%- 

Latin 5^/5 'axis' = Lithuanian asis. Old Prussian assis. Old Church Slavic c»5bf. ds .; Old 
High German ahsa. Modern High German Achse, Old English eax6s .; in. gxull{irom 
Proto German *ahsulaz) 'axis'; Middle Irish a/5 'axis' {*aks/-/a\n cymr. echeli. 'axis', bret. 
ah el). 

Latin a/5 "shoulder', from which the usual meaning "wing', from *ags/a{ci Demin. ax/7/a 
"armpit') = in. gx/, Old English eax/, Old High German ahsala. Modern High German 
Achsel, where near lengthened grade Dutch okse/ ds., and without /-formant: Old High 
German uochisa. Middle High German uohse, i/ehse and Old High German uochsana. Old 
English oa/? "armpit', in. ostt, ostrxw. "Cervical pit'. Old English ocusta, oxtaxw., engl. oxter 
"armpit'; av asayaQeu. Du. " of both shoulders ', Armenian anuf " shoulder pit ' (at first 
from *asnuf). 

Maybe Qermau Achsel : Latin axilla; ala; ascilla; ascella: Italian ascella: Spanish axial: 
French aisselle : Calabrese ma-scidda; sciddra; titiddra; titilla : Albanian Geg sqetlla, Tosc 
sqetuir armpit '. 
common Calabrese -//-> -dd- : Sardinian -//-> -dd-. 

ag-ra^ rush, hunt ', ag-ro-s^ driving, rushing ': 

Old Indie in ghase-ajra- " to drive consuming, exciting appetite ', Avestan {vehr-kqm) 
azro-daidTm " doing the hunt, outgoing on prey (she-wolf) '; gr. aypa, Ionian aypn " hunt, 
catch ', navaypoq " catching everything, catching ', Kpsaypa " meat tongs ', nupaypa " 
tongs ', noSaypa " prostration, enuflection ', M£A£aYpo(; originally name of a " demon which 
as a quick-tempered fever seizes the limbs ' (?), aYp£U(; " hunter ', aypsuu) " catch '; but 
dypsu) " take ' according to Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 7271 from *a-Ypo-; Irish arv\. " defeat ' 
{*agroh) " battle, fight ' {*agra), actually, " rush ', acorn, hair^ destruction, injury, mischief, 
harm, misfortune, disaster, loss, detriment, calamity ', abret. airouP\. " an overthrow, 
destruction, ruin, defeat, slaughter, massacre, butchery, carnage ', gall. VN VeragrF the 
immense combatants '. 

Maybe lllyrian AgronPH. 

ag-ro-s^ field, camp ' (to *agd as herd to drive wie, also originally " place where the 
cattle is being driven, pasture '). 

Old Indie ayra-/? "surface, camp, fields ' (without respect on agriculture), gr. aYp6(; " field, 
land ' (in contrast to town), Latin Umbrian agerl\e\6', Gothic (etc.) akrs, Old High German 
ackar, ahhar. Modern High German Acker {Acker av\6 Old English 3ecera\so a certain land 
measure, " so much a bottom plate can oxen plow during one day '), Armenian 5/Y'field' 
(with puzzling /about *atgr-, *atr-, see Pedersen KZ. 39, 352; thereof artaks^ out ', prefix 

Old Indie ajrfya- " located in the plain ' = gr. aypioc; " on the field, outside growing or 
living, wildly '; aYp6T£po(; " wildly living ', Latin agrestis^ a countryman, peasant, rustic, 
rural, crude '. (about Gothic akran, German Eckern " beechnut ', however, see below *dg- 

Maybe alb. eger^WM, rural, crude', lllyrian TN Agrianes. 

References: WP. I 35 f., WH. I 22 f., 89, H. Reichelt WuS. 12, 112. 
Page(s): 4-6 

Root / lemma: ag'^h-no-s {* Jag^h-no-s) 

Meaning: lamb' 

Note: (z. T. also *ag"'nos'7) 

It seems that from Root/ lemma: ag-\ 'to lead, *drive cattle' derived Root/ lemma: ag"!!- 

no-s: 'lamb'. 


alb. Geg kinxhi, Tosc {*hengh-) qengj7'\arc\b' [common alb. gh- > gl- > gj- : lith. gh- > dz-]. 

English lamb 

Latin agnus > Italian agnello, French agneau, Bolognese agnel, Bresciano agnili, 

(desonarized ((e)knedd Albanian Geg kinxh, Tosc qengj 

Calabrese gneddu ; agnellu ; agneddu ; agniellu 

Catalan anyell ; xai, Ladin agnel, Corsican agnellu, Ferrarese agnel, 
Furlan agnel, 

Galician ano, Greek apvi, Griko Salentino arni, Lithuanian eriukas, 

Maltese haruf 

Mantuan agnel 
Manx eayn 





Ma rath i 














Old Greek 

aMv6(; ; appv 













Proven gal 







chita una 














tama'i mamoe 



Sardinian (Limba Sarda Unificada) anzone 

Sardinian Campidanesu anjoni 

Sardinian Logudoresu anzone ; saccayu 




kwana; kwanyana 












mwana kondoo 



Swiss German 









Traditional Chinese 

J m 


























gr. dfjv6(; m. f., apivrj f. "lamb"; 

Gr. {*ag"nos, abnos) apvoc; derived from an earlier *5i&/7c»s "lamb' [common gr. k" > p, g"" 

> b, later b > mb > m common lllyrian -gr.] 

Latin agnus, -/^fem.-a'lamb' (a^/7/7e "sheep stable', lacking suffix affinity with Old Church 

S\ay\c Jagnilo^ place where the sheep lamb ', a derivative of the verb Jagn/f/" to lamb'); 

[common Slavic old laryngeal /?- >y-] 

Old Irish uan cymr. oen, acorn, o/n, bret. oan'\amb' (Proto Celtic *c»^/7c»5 with -gn- would 

have derived from *-g"'hn-, not-*g"'n-, in spite of Pedersen KG. I ^09-bn-■, 

o- probably influence from *c»^/s 'sheep'); Old English eanian, engl. toyean^to lamb', 

Dutch oonen6s. (from *aundn from *auna- = Indo Germanic *ag"'hno-)\ Old Church Slavic 

(j)agne^ "lamb' (with formants -et- broadened around popular names of young animals). 

(j)agnbcb "lambkins' contain full gradation. Or is placed Indo Germanic *og"(h)no- : to 

Through the Germanic and Celtic presumed voiced-aspirated also would underlie the 
basis of Latin and Slavic forms, so that gr. a|jv6(; (at first from *apv6(;) remains the only 
dependable indication in voiced-nonaspirated g". If Umbrian habina(f) " of a lamb ' could 
be explained from intersection from *hedTno- = Latin haed/Jnus ' oi a kid' and *abnTno- = 
Latin agn/nus^oi a lamb; f. as subst., lamb's flesh', however, it would point Umbrian ,6* to 
voiced-nonaspirated. But maybe it has become g"'h\n Oscan-Umbrian to b. 


The old laryngeal in centum languages h- > a-, e- : Slavic y- : Albanian k- : Italic /?-. 

Celtic lllyrian concordances: common lllyrian -g""- > -b-, -d- : alb. -g"- > -d-. 

Latin avillus "lambkin' because of the suffix formation not to ovis, but from *ag"hnelos. 


[common Latin - \\.a\\Q, gw- > i/-] Latin avillus {* abillus) "lambkin' : Rumanian {*ag"'enus) 
ageamlu lamb' . 

References: WP. I 39, WH. I. 23. 
Page(s): 9 

Root / lemma: ai-6'^-, Ad^- nasalized /-n-6^-{*av/-6^-) 

English meaning: to burn 


Common lllyrian -gh->-dh- 

Material: Old Indie inddhe^ inflamed, is aroused ' (pass, idhyate, Perf. Tdhe, part. Perf. 

Pass iddha-h), indhana-m^ lighting '. 

Gr. aiGw " lights, burns ' (aiGopsvoc;), aiGwv, al9oi|j " igneous, sparkling ', i9aiv£a9ai 
0£Pfjaiv£o9ai Hes., hylleisch aiSwaaa aiGouoa " to light up, kindle '; changing by ablaut 
KaK-ien(; Hes. 'ravenously' (W. Schuize KZ. 29, 269 = Kl. Schr. 329). common gr.- lllyrian 
ks- > -ss- 

Maybe alb. (*5ujaaa) ndez^ to light up, kindle '. 

o-Grade:gr. al9o(; m. "fire' (ai96(; "burntly') = Old Indie edha-hxw. "Firewood' = Old 
English ad. Old High German Middle High German eitvc\. " glow, pyre ': zero grade 
probably Norwegian Swedish id^ leuciscus idus ' (a bright carp kind), of Modern High 
German dial, alter leuciscus cephalus' as the " shining '; besides u- stem *ai6!"u- in gall. 
VN Aedui, Old Irish aed^f\re\ also as MN; Latin aedes^ a dwelling of the gods, a 
sanctuary, a temple ', ursprijngl. " the domestic stove ', also aedis= maked. ab\c, saxapa 

From the verbal adjective in -/o- derived probably Latin aestas, - af/s 'yNarm season, 
summer' (from *aisto-tat-, Indo Germanic *afd!"-to-)\ aestus, - Js(from *aiA^-tu-) "heat, 
glow, surf', aestuare " cook, surge, roar '; 

Old Germanic MN Aistomodius {^ with quick-tempered courage '), Old English as/f. "dried 
stove', engl. c»a5/"drying room, drying loft'. 

/"-formants: gr. aiGnp "the upper air' (maked. a5r|), aiGpa "the cheerful sky' (maked. 
a5paia), ai9piO(; "brightly, cheerfully (from the weather)', for what changing by ablaut 
IGapoq 'cheerfully', Old Indie vTdhra-{=vi-idh-ra-) ds. 

A formants: gr. aiGaAr), aiQaKoc, "soot', maked. abakoc;, under acceptance of a 
development from "shining, appearing' " too apparently ' one puts a little bit constrainedly 
here Old English /de/'va\n, pointless, trifling'. Old High German fta/, Modern High German 

In Indo Germanic *a/i'^-/o- is based Germanic a//- in Old English se/an'burn' to a/n. 
"flame', and in Old English seledrw.. Old Icelandic e/dr{Gen. elds) " fire, flame '. From 
different development-grading Old English aeledare borrowed cymr. aelwyd, bret. oaled^ 
from fire, stove ' (M. Forster Themse 4872). Middle Irish 5e/"lime' could have originated 
from *ai6!"-lo-. However, Germanic and Celtic words could also be formed directly by the 
root 4. 4. a/- with -/osuffix. 

5-formants: e5-stem gr. aiQoc, n. "Glow, fire' = Old Indie edhas-v\. "firewood'. 

Continuing formation: Old Icelandic eisai. {*a/i^-s-dn) "fire', Norwegian "Hearth', Middle 
Low German eset "chimney, fire stove ' (however. Old High German essa' chimney, 
hearth ' see below as-' burn '); Avestan aesma m. "Firewood' {*ai(i!"-s-mo-, cf without s 
Old Indie idhma-hm. ds.); in addition Baltic *a/sm/a\n Lithuanian /es/77e "firewood'; 
Lithuanian a/strat " passion '; Old Czech n/esfejeiiem. PI.) " stove ', later nfstej{m\h n- 
suggestion by wrong decomposition of the connections * \rbn-estejq, \rbn-estejach-b. 

Berneker275) from *a/i^-s-to; in addition zero grades *ki^-s-to-\n slov. /steje, stejeP\. " 
stove hole '; to Johansson IF. 19, 136 also Old Indie istaka^ of burnt bricks ', Avestan 
istya- n. " brick, (baked brick) '. 

Maybe alb. {*/ska) hith^ blight, burning nettle ', {*iskra) h/thra 'nett\e' common a/t>. -k > -th. 

In *//7d'^- goes back: alb. Geg idhune, Tosc idhete "bitter', Tosc /o''/7£V7/77 "bitterness, 
anger, irritation', fydhite, hithraP\. "nettle' (Jokl studies 29). 


Alb. and gr. are the only IE languages to preserve the old laryngeal h- . 

References: WP. I 5, WH. 15, 20, 843, Trautmann 3, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 347. 

Probably to ai-4. 

Here also belongs aisk-, if originated from akH^-s-k- . 

Page(s): 11-12 

Root / lemma: aid- {*avid^ 
English Meaning: " swell ' 
See also: s. oid-. 
Page(s): 1 1 

Root/ lemma: aig-1, nasalized ing- {* avig-f) 

English meaning: disspirited, sick, ill 

Material: Alb. ke-ek, keq^uasiy, bad, evil' (from *haigio^\ [common alb. old laryngeal h-> 


Latin aeger, aegra, -um, aegrotus^ unwell, ill, sick, diseased, suffering, feeble '; Old Norse 
e//re/7/7 dismays " wild, furious ', (influenced by common Celtic -ns- > -nn-),0\6 English aco/ 
" excited, dismayed ', New Norwegian e/kja, eikla^ continually with attacks, contradictions, 
assertions torment ', eikjen "argumentative'; Tocharian B aik(a)re (= Latin *aegro-), A ekro 

nasalized: *ing-: Lithuanian //7^/5 "lounger, idler', ingasan6 angi/s' idle, sluggish '; 

Latvian /gstu, fgt' have internal pain, be sullen, morose ', /gnet' have disgust ', fgn/'s^ 
sullen person ' (Lithuanian engt/^ choke, torment ' probably stays away); Old Church 

Slavic yi^o'za "illness", nslov. yeza'rage', poln.yi^o'za" fury, witch ' ("gruff, sullen'), Czech 
jezinka "forest woman' (etc., see Berneker 268 f. ; in *J§ga, not *aiga, is consequently to be 
led back also:) russ. babajaga "witch' (s. Bruckner KZ. 45, 318); 

Old Icelandic ekki "pain, grief = Old English inca^ pain, suspicion, quarrel ', Old Frisian 
inc{6. \.Jinc) "angry', also nengl. //7/r/e "anticipate, foresee ', inkling^ whispering, notion, 
indication, sign '. 

References: WP. I 9, WH. I 16, 843, Trautmann 70. 
Page(s): 1 3 

Root / lemma: aig-2 

English meaning: oak 

Material: Gr. aiyiAwitJ " an oaken kind ' (see below), presumably also KpaT-aiYO(;, Kpar- 

aiycbv " an uncertain type of tree ' (possibly "hard oak'). 

The outcome from aiyiAwijj appears Acbijj Acbijj xAapuc; Hes., cf . Awniov, Acbnr), Aon6(; " 
bowl, bark ' and Plin. n. h. 16,6, 13 aegilops fert pannos arentes ...non in cortice modo, 
verum et e rami's dependentes, Kretschmer Gl. 3, 335. 

Old Norse e//r (conservative stem) f. "oak'. Old Saxon ek. Old English 5c(engl. oak). Old 
High German eih. Middle High German eich, eiche. Modern High German Eiche; 

All other cognates are dubious: gr. a\^~\poc, (more properly than aiY£ipo(;, s. Pick BB. 30, 
273) possibly 'aspen' could be created as ' tree trembler, (*oak shaker) ' also derivative like 
oiKfipw from *aiYip(ji) " swing, tremble ' (: *aig- " move violently '); 

Latin aesculus "(mountain oak), the winter or Italian oak ' ( *aig-sklos'7) is still unclear 
after its formation, maybe Mediterranean word. 

Maybe alb. Geg {*asi) ahi, ahu 'beech' [the common alb. s >h\n the middle of the word 

(See Root/ lemma: 5£/eA/z7- Meaning: "mother-in law or father-in-law' shift s>h'\r\ alb. 

{*svasura-) vjeherr' father-in-law '). 

Root/ lemma: *ds, os-i-s, 6s-en-, os-k-\ "ash tree (alb. 5/7/" beech')' must have derived 

from Root/ lemma: aig-2\ "oak (alb. ahu'oak')'. 

References: WP. 110, WH. I 20, 844, Specht KZ. 68, 195 f. S. unten S. 18 Z. 1/2. 

Page(s): 1 3 

Root / lemma: a/g-3 

English meaning: to move swiftly, swing, vibrate 

l\^aterial: Old Indie ejati^ stirs, moves, trembles ', ejathu-h " the quake of the earth ', 

vigvamejaya-^ making everything shake ', nasal present irjgati, irjgate^ stirs, moves ', 

Kaus. irjgayatr sets in motion, touches, shakes ', udirjgayati' swings ', samirjgayati' sets 

in shaking movement ' (form relation like between aiGw: Old Indie indhate); 

from Gr. here very probably aly£(; ra Kuijara. Au)pi£T(; Hes. (also Artemidor Oneirokrit. 2, 

12: KQi yap to [JsyaAa KUfjara aiyac; £v rfi auvr|6£ig AsyopEv), aiyiaA6(; 'strands' (probably 

from arise the connection £v aiyi aAos " in the surf of the sea '; differently Bechtel Lexil. 

16), aiyiq ' gale, storm cloud; 

the shield of Zeus' (probably originally understood as the storm cloud shaken by Zeus, 

'thunderstorm shield'), Karaiyic; ' gust of wind moving down suddenly ' from Karaiyi^siv " 

storm, attack down, drive off ' (from nvoai "Ap£0(;, avspoi, GaAaaaa), ETraiyi^siv " attack 

near, thrust near '; probably also aiyavsr) 'lance' (on the grounds of *aiYC(vov " the catapults 

' or 'projectile'); presumably also aiyAn 'shine', from the flickerof the light and the warm air 

to the south; common gr.- Illyrian -ks- > -ss- 

The very name of the root lemma for goat derived from the shield of Zeus which after the 
crash with clouds created thunderstorm. Since the shield of Zeus was covered with goat's 
skin the very name of the goat was stamped with the name of the cloud shaker. 
Hence Root/ lemma: aig-\ (goat) is identical with Root/ lemma: aig-3\ (to move swiftly, 
move violently, swing, vibrate). 

in addition Germanic name of the squirrel: Old High German eihhumo, eihhorn. Middle 
High German e/c/70/77 (Modern High German Eichhorn\N\Vc\ support of E/ic/7e "oak' and 
/yo/77'horn'. Old English acweorna,-wern. Middle Low German ekeren, ekhorn. Old Norse 
Tkorne (lko\6 ablaut or impairment from aik- in addition?). New Norwegian also eikorne. 
Old Swedish ekorne {was based on the concept " flexible, swinging itself from branch to 
branch '; in earliest with one to *uer-, ueuer- ' squirrel, weasel ' the belonging second limb: 
*aik-werna)\ Old Church Slavic igrb, igra^ play ', igrati, perfective v^zigrati^ OKipTciv, hop, 
jump, dance ' (from *bgra, Lithuanian with Berneker422). 

References: WP. Ill, Trautmann 103. 
Page(s): 13-14 

Root / lemma: aig- {*avig^ 
English meaning: goat 

From the older root Root / lemma: aig- {* h2evig-)\ "goaf, derived Root/ lemma: ag^h-no-s 
{* heg^h-no-s): lamb' and Root/ lemma: ag-\ "goaf : Root/ lemma: kago-or kogo- -a-: 


Material: Gr. ai^, - yoq 'nanny goaf, Armenian a/c 'nanny goaf; zero grade Avestan izaena- 

' from leather ' (actually, " from goatskin ' as gr. d\sz\oc„ of the same importance relations 

with *ago- " goat '). 

References: WP. I 8, Specht KZ. 66, 13. 

Page(s): 1 3 

Root / lemma: aig"!!- 

English meaning: to be ashamed 

Material: Directly from the root word: Old English ^M/a/7 'despise', 'be disgusted' also 

Middle Low Germane/che/en, echelen, egelen {irorw *aiwildn) (from it borrows Middle High 

German eke/n'be disgusted'). 

Gr. alaxoq n. "disgrace' (from *aig"h-s-kos, k- derivative of a s- stem *aig"'hes-, as:) 
Gothic aiwiskiu. "disgrace, embarrassment '; cf further aiaxuvr) "shame, sense of honor, 
disgrace', aiaxuvoj "dishonors, violates, disfigures', med. "avoids me, is ashamed of me', 
aiaxp6(; "ignominious, full of disgrace; rebarbative'; Gothic ^/75/Vy/s/rs "unharmed', aiwiskon 
act "shameful'. Old English ^wisc(e)v\. "disgrace, offense'. Adj. "shameless'. Middle Low 
German e/sc/7 "nasty, hideous', nnd. eisk, 5/SC/7 "revolting, rebarbative'. 

References: WP. I 7, Feist 30. 
Page(s): 14 

Root / lemma: aik- 

English meaning: to call (?) 

Material: Gr. aiKo^ei kqAeT Hes., Latvian afcinat " load, shout '. 

But KoAsT can be prescribed for aiKaAAsi "flatters', and afcinat a derivative from aT 
"hears!' explain (cf vaicat^asV! to vai). 

References: WP. I 8, MiJhlenbach-Endzelin I 12. 
Page(s): 1 5 

Root/ lemma: ai-2{*avi-2) 

English meaning: to drive, to overwhelm, harm 

Material: present *{a)i-neu-mr. Old Indie inoti, fnvati, Imper. inuhf, participle -inita- 
{upenita-^ pushed, cut into '), " penetrate into something, master', Avestan inaoiti. Inf. 
aenarjhe^ violate, hurt ', a /n /ta {irom *an-initaby haplology) " not violated, not painedly ' 
(from Old Indie enas- n. ' Crime, sin, misfortune ' = Avestan aenah-' act of violence, crime 
', in addition m. ' evildoer'?), Avestan />7/5y-'rape, injury; torture ', Old Indie ina- 'strong; m. 
master ', maybe also Tti-h\. 'plague, need'; gr. aiv6(; 'tremendous'; 

maybe here-//?- in Gothic /^//'-//7a 'guilt, reproach'. Old High German firindn^s\v\\ Old 
Icelandic firnu. PI. 'the extraordinary' (cf Weisweiler IF. 41, 29 f.), if original meaning ' act 
of violence '. 

References: WP. I 1, Feist 139/140. 
Page(s): 1 

Root / lemma: ai-3, {*hei-, heiua) 

English meaning: to give 


Root/ lemma: ap-1 {exact ap-) : ep-: to take, grab, reach, *give' > Root/ lemma: ep/-: 

'comrade' > Root/ lemma: a/-3: 'to give'. 

Material: Gr. {*avinumai) a'lvupai 'take, pack, touch', only present and imperfect tense. 

Venetic MN {*avi-mos) Aimos, lllyrian MN {*ave-ta/) Aetor. 

Latin {*ave-mulus) ae-mulus^ emulous, rivalling; in bad sense, jealous. M. orf. as 
subst., a rival, esp. in love ', probably as ' reaches for something ' (Frisk Eranos 41 , 53). 

Tocharian B {*avi) a'h, A e-, infinitive B {*avi-tsi) aitsi, A ess/'give'; Hittite pa-a-T he 
gives ', 3. PI. p{-ia)-an-ziW\\h proverb /?e- 'there'. 


common Hittite p/77e- : Slavic p/7jo- : Albanian p/7ia- > pe- prefix. 

References: Pedersen Groupement 20, Hittitisch 115, Tocharisch 227; Frisk Indo- 

Germanic 10 f. 

See also: Here belongs certainly: ai-ti-, ai-to- 

Page(s): 10-11 

Root / lemma: ai-5 : oi- 

English meaning: important speech 

Material: Gr. aivriM'. aivsw "praises', aivoq m., aivri f. 'significant speech, praise'; 
aiviaao|jai 'talks in riddles', common gr.- Illyrian -ks- > -ss-\ aiviyMa n. 'dark speech' 
(however, av-aivopai 'says no, deny' -Jo- appears derivative of the negation av-); 
ablaut. Middle Irish defhm. 'oath' (acymr. anutonouP\., gl. ' the perjured, the perfidious ', 
ncymr. anudon'per]ury, act of lying under oath') = Gothic a/Psm., Old Icelandic e/dr, Old 
English aP, Old Saxon ed, Old High German e/dm. 'oath' (probably Celtic loanword). 
References: WP. I 2, 103, Osthoff BB. 24, 208 f. 
Page(s): 1 1 

Root / lemma: ai-ra 

English meaning: a k. of grass 


Root/ lemma: ai-ra: 'a k. of grass' is a reduced root *a/-trairom which derived also Root/ 

lemma: ai-tro-\ bitter, sharp'. 

Material: Old Indie eraka^ a grass kind ', gr. dpa ' weed in the wheat, ryegrass, darnel ' 

aipiK6(;, aipivo(; ' from ryegrass, darnel '), Latvian aires, aTrenes' ryegrass, darnel '. 

maybe through metathesis alb. {*aTres > eser) e^/e^'Lolium temulentum, ryegrass, darnel' 

[common alb. -s- > -gj- shift]. 

References: WP. I 12, Specht Dekl. 206^. 

Page(s): 1 6 

Root / lemma: aisk- {*avisk^ 

English meaning: bright, shining 

Material: Awnord. eiskra^ rage before hot excitement ', nisi, iskra a\so from burning pain. 

Lithuanian aiskus, where beside zero grade Old Lithuanian iskus 'clear, bright '. 

Russ. 6\a\. jaska, demin. yasoc/ra' bright star', beside it Old Bulgarian ya5/7c» Adv. 'clear, 
bright, distinct', russ. y55/7jy" light, clear, bright' from *aiskno-\ 'po\v\. Jaskry, Jaskrawy 
'blinding, dazzling, brilliant ' from *aiskro-\ Old Bulgarian iskra^ spark ' etc. from *iskra. 

Also alb. zero grade {*Jaskry), shkrinj^rueW., burn', participle *scrum> shkrumb ' ashes' 
[common alb. m >/r7i6' shift] loaned in Rumanian scrum ' ashes' . 

Russ. 6'\a\.jaska, 6em'\n.Jasocka' bright star', besides Old Bulgarian yas/7c» Adv. ' clear, 
distinct', russ. jasnyj^ bright, clear 'from *aiskno\ po\n. Jaskry, Jaskrawy^ brilliant, 
sparkling ' from *aiskra. Old Bulgarian iskra 'spark' etc. from *iskra. 

Here the FIN Modern High German Aisch (Bavaria), Eysch(en) (Luxembourg), nengl. 
Axeiroru Celtic or Venetic-lllyrian *Aiska. 

References: WP. I 2, Trautmann 4, Pokorny Urill. 70, 113, M. Forster Themse 839. 
See also: perhaps originated from *ai(S^-sk- , or from *ai-sk- in ai-4. 
Page(s): 16-17 

Root / lemma: ais-1 

English meaning: to wish for, search for 


The Root / lemma: ais-1 : "to wish for, search for' is a truncated root of ai-ska. The formant 

-ska is a common Germanic suffix added to Root / lemma: ai-2\ "to drive, to overwhelm, 


Material: Old Indie esati " seeks, searches ', esa-hxx\. " wish, choice ', anv-isati^ looks for 

= Avestan isaiti^ wishes ', Old Indie icchati{ *is-sRd) " looks, wishes, strives, seeks for, 

desires' = Avestan /sa/f/6s., Old Indie iccha^ wish ', is (2. compound part) " searching, 

striving after ' = Avestan /is ds., f. " wish, the object of the wish ', Old Indie ista- 'desiredly ' 

Tsma-m. ' name of Kamadeva, god of love '; 

Armenian aic{*ais-ska) "investigation'; Umbrian e/5Ci//'e/7/(Bugge KZ. 30, 40) "they will 

have caused to come, called, sent for, invited, summoned, fetched ' (probably as *eh- 

iscurenV they will have driven out, pushed forth, thrusted out, taken out, expelled '); Latin 

aeruscare\o beg, to get money by going about and exhibiting tricks of legerdemain, to 

play the juggler ' as *aisos-ko- "demanding ' to Avestan Imp. /S555 "longs for' {-esko- 

besides -s/^c-./s5/// "wishes'); Old High German eiscon^ research, ask, demand, (Modern 

High German /7e/sc/7e/7 "demand' with Rafter he/ssen^\r\ot'), Old Saxon escon, escian 

"demand'. Old English ascian, axian^ try, demand, ask'. Old High German e/5C5 "demand'. 

Old English 3esce\. "investigation'; 

in Balto-Slavic with non-palatal /r of the present suffix- s/rd (towards Aryan Armenian -sk-), 

what is not to be explained by borrowing from Germanic; Lithuanian feskau, /eskot/" \ook', 

Latvian /eskaf to delouse ', Old Church Slavic /skg{an6 istg), /skat/"\ook\ /s/ra "wish'. 

References: WP. I 12, WH. 19, Trautmann 67. 

Page(s): 1 6 

Root / lemma: ais-2 

English meaning: to be in awe, to worship 


The Root / lemma: ais-2\ 'to be in awe, to worship' is a truncated root of ai-ska. The 
formant -ska is a common Germanic suffix added to Root / lemma: ai-3\ "to give' 
Material: Old High German era. Modern High German Ehre, Old English ar^ Relief, 
considerate treatment, honour, luck ', Old Norse eir' considerate treatment, peace, also 
name of the medicine goddess '; of it Old High German eren, eron^ honor, spare, betake ', 
Old English arian^ honor, spare, betake ', Old Norse e/ra 'spare'. 

Oscan aisusisNo\. PI. 'sacrifices', Marrucinian a/sosD. PI. ' gods', Paelignian a/'s/'s^ 
gods ', Volscan esaristrom " sacrifice ', Umbrian esono-^ divine, sacred ', come from 
Etruscan. Differently Devoto St. Etr. 5, 299 f. 

d- extension: gr. ai5o|jai (from *aiz-d-) " shies, reveres ', aiScbq, -ouc; " reverence, 
shyness, shame ', aiSEopai (*ai5£a-0Mai) 'aiSopai'; Gothic aistan, -aida^ avoid, pay 
attention '; zero grade Old Indie Tde^ reveres, praises, implores '. 

References: WP. I 13, WH. I 20, 419, 844; Feist 28 a, Kretschmer Gl. 30, 882. 
Page(s): 1 6 

Root / lemma: ai-ti-, ai-to- : oi-to- 

English meaning: part, share, allotment, quantity, quota, portion, stake, stock, proportion, 

cut, contribution 


Root/ lemma: ai-ti-, ai-to-: oi-to-\ "part, share, allotment, quantity, quota, portion, stake, 

stock, proportion, cut, contribution' is a truncated root * ai-tra\vA.o the suffixed Root/ 

lemma: ai-2\ "to drive, to overwhelm, harm' with the formant -tra. 

Material: Avestan aeta-^ the proper part '(' punishment '; dual " guilt and punishment '). 

Gr. alaa (* airia) " interest, destiny ', hom. laa, better laaa " the proper interest ', 
common gr.- Illyrian -ks- > -ss-\ iaaaaOai KAripouaGai. Asapioi Hes.; <i\Q\oc, " promising 
good talent, favorabe ', aiaioc; " certain from the destiny, proper ', avaiaipou) " apply, use, 
consume ', aiaupivau) " dispenses justice, it rules '; 

5iaiTau) (maybe dissimilated from *5iaiTia(ji)) " be a referee, leads; divide (the way of) life = 
leads a certain way of life; prescribe a certain measure in food and drinking ', hence, Siaira 
' referee's office ' and " life-style, life arrangement ', £^aiTO(; " well-chosen, particular '. 

Oscan Gen. ae/e/s "partis', a////i7/77"portionum'. 

From Gr. here probably also aTTiO(; " responsible, guilty ' (t after airsu)), from which later 
airia " guilt, cause '; also aiiEU), airi^u) 'demands' as " requires his interest '; ablaut. oTtoc; 
m. 'Destiny'. 

Old Irish aesn., cymr. oest " period, age ' from *ait-to-. Old Irish aesrw. 'People' from 
*ait-tu-, cymr. oedvc\. 'Age' from *aito. 

References: WP. I 2, Hirt Indo Germanic Gr. II, 82 f. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 1 4213, 6969, 7957. 
Page(s): 1 1 

Root / lemma: ai-tro- 

English meaning: [bitter, sharp] 


Root / lemma: ai-tro- : "bitter, sharp' is a truncated root *ai-tra into the suffixed Root / 

lemma: ai-2\ "to drive, to overwhelm, harm' with the formant -tra. 

Material: Lithuanian aitrus^ bitterly, harsh ', aitrai. "sharpness' (also figurative); the nasal 

formation "/iaZ/io- perhaps in Old Bulgarian ob-^tr/t/"set on fire ', wru. zajatr/c' anger', kir. 

roz-jatryti sa "fester'. 

References: WP. I 3, Berneker 269. 

See also: perhaps in ai-4. 

Page(s): 1 7 

Root / lemma: aiu-, aju- 

Meaning: "vital energy, vitality' 


Root/ lemma: aiu-, aiu-\ "vital energy, vitality' derived from reduced Root/ lemma: g^ei-S 

and g^eia-. g^Olie-. g^Olio-: g"^-, frequent, often with -f/- extended: to live 

Material: Old Indie ayu- n., a nominalized adjective to ayu-^ flexibe, active '; ayii-hm. " 

Genius of the vitality ', thereof derived s-stem ayuh n.. Gen. ayusah " vitality ' ( *aiuos. Gen. 

*ajus-es)\ /7-stem in the locative, ayuni, Instr. ayuna; yuh " vitality '; 

Avestan ayuu. 'Life span'. Gen. yaos, dat. yavoi, Instr. yava, of \\. yavaetat-^ duration ', 
yavaejT-^ living always '; yus m. 'Life span'; 

Gr. system: Cypriot uFqk; ^av (= 5ia piou); locative without suffix, lakon. aisc; 'always'; 
hom. aiei, Attic asi (*aiF£ai), Akk. Attic aiw (*aiFoaa); Dat.-Lok. without extension in Ionian 
aii, Lesbian ai (*aiFi) (afterwards oiSioc; 'forever', 5r|v-ai6q 'long-living'); /7-stem: aicbv m. 
(and f. after aiux;) " vitality, life span ', ai£v 'always'; 

alb. e5/7e" period of time; span; space; stretcli; lapse 'from *a/l/e'5/a(Jol<l L.-l<. U. 34); 

Latin ostem aevusm. and aevumn. "eternity, age, time, lifetime, or time of life, a period 
of life '; however, are based aetasi. 'age: of human life, either a lifetime or time of life, age, 
a period of time, epoch', old aevitas {irom it Oscan Gen. aftatefs, Akk. aftatum, Paelignian 
Abl. aetatu) " age, time of life ', aeternus " of an age, lasting, enduring, permanent, 
endless, forever' in adverbial *aiui. 

Gothic ostem aiwsxu. " time, eternity, world '; /-stem adverbial aiw{*aiui) = Old 
Icelandic se, e/(also in e/-^/'not'). Old English a, 6, Old High German /b' ever, always ', 
Gothic n/a/w'never', Old High German neo, nio. Modern High German nie; Old English n- 
a, engl. /7o' not, no '; 

Maybe alb. (*d)yb"not, no' (common alb. -slav. j- prefix. 

Old Icelandic lang-ger = \-aWv\ longaevus^ of great age, aged, ancient '; /-stem also in Old 
Icelandic 3efi, ^i//f. {*aiui-) " life, age '; a-stem in Old High German ewai. " time, eternity ', 
thereof Old High German eiwb'd 'eternity', ettv^ 'forever'; Gothic aju-k-dut^st 'eternity' from 
*ajuki-{= Old English ece "forever'), with Indo Germanics-suffix + Indo Germanic -/J//; 

Tocharian A ay/77- "mind, life' which /77 attributed to a/7/77-" life '. 

References: WP. I 6, WH. I 21, EM. 21, Feist 30, 32, Benveniste BSL 38, 103 ff, Dumezil 

BSL 39, 193, Specht KZ. 68, 196, Dekl. 88 ff.. Van Windekens 15. 

See also: From this derived *Juuen-{jeu-3) 'young'; Specht also wants very much risquely 

be put in addition *aig-, oak ' (= " vitality '?). 

Page(s): 17-18 

Root / lemma: a/1 

Meaning: "exclamation' 

Material: Old Indie e exclamation of remembering, address, compassion; 

Old Indie a/the same; ay/ interjection with the vocative; 

Avestan a/ interjection of the phone call (before the vocative); 

gr. ai, al, aial exclamation of the surprise, of astonishment or pain (thereof aia^w " sighs, 
deplores ', aiayija 'sigh'); 

Lithuanian a/~and a/" oh! blows! ' and before vocatives. 

References: WP. I 1, WH. I 396, Benveniste Origines 130 f. 
See also: see also *aik-. 
Page(s): 1 

Root / lemma: aios- {*av/os-) 

Meaning: "metal (copper; iron)' 


Root/ lemma: aios-: 'metal (copper; iron)' derived from Root/ lemma: eis-1: 'to move 

rapidly, *weapon, iron'. 


Old Indie ayas-n., Avestan ayaijh-u. 'metal, iron'; 

Latin aes, g. aeris, Gothic a/z(proto Germanic *a{J)iz- = Indo Germanic *ajes-) ' copper 
ore, and the alloy of copper, bronze. Transf., anything made of bronze; a vessel, statue, 
trumpet, kettle ', Old High German e^'ore'. Old Norse eiru. 'ore, copper'. 

Maybe zero grade in Tocharian B {* aensuwan, *ansuwan) B encuwo ~/ncuwo^\ron' : alb. 
{*hencus) hekur"\ron' : Latin aenus: Umbrian ahesnes. Tocharian A *ancu(\6.) (attested 
in the derived adjective ancwasi) and B encuwo {incuwo is variant on the same order as 
inte is to ente, q.v.) reflect PTch * encuwo. Further connections are uncertain. Schwarz 
(1974:409) compares Ossetic 5'/7o'c»/7 'steel' or Chorasmian hncw^\6.'' and suggests that 
the Iranian and Tocharian words might be borrowings from some adstratum language in 
the shape +_ *ansuwan. 

thereof Avestan ayarjhaena-^ metallic, iron ', Latin aenus {*aies-no-= Umbrian ahesnes 
' of copper, of bronze '), aeneus. Old English aeren. Old Saxon Old High German Middle 
High German enn. Modern High German eren {ehern). despite Pokorny KZ. 46, 292 f. is 
not Indo Germanic aJoso\6 borrowing from AJasJa, o\6er Afas(/a), the old name of Cyprus, 
as Latin cuprum : Kunpoq, there according to D. Davis (BSA. 30, 74-86, 1932) the copper 
pits were tackled in Cyprus only in late Mycenaean time. 

Here Latin aestimo, old aestumo^ to appraise, rate, estimate the value of; to assess the 
damages in a lawsuit; in a wider sense, to value a thing or person; hence, in gen., to judge 
', Denomin. from *ais-temos ' he cuts the ore ' (to temno). 

References: WP. I 4, WH. I, 19, 20, Feist 31. 
See also: To ai-4^ burn '? 
Page(s): 15-16 

Root / lemma: akka 

Meaning: "mother (children's speech)' 

Material: Old Indie a/r/ra 'mother' (gram.), gr. Akku) " nurse of Demeter ', qkku) ' ghost ', 

OKKi^saGai " be coy, position oneself stupidly ', Latin Acca Larentia ' Laren mother, Roman 

hall goddess ' (probably Etruscan); also into Small-Asian languages; compare lapp. 

Madder-akka'earih mother'. 

Maybe alb. /4//ri//7a "great mother' in alb. epos. 

References: WP. I 34, WH. I 5. about Tocharian ammakisee below am(m)a. 

Page(s): 23 

Root / lemma: aR-, ok- {*hek-) 
Meaning: "sharp; stone' 
Material: 1. e/o-and a-St 

Npers. a5(lengthened-grade form) "millstone, grindstone'; gr. OKn "point', lengthened- 
grade form Ionian nKr| aKWKn, £ni5opaTi(;, nK^n Hes., redupl. aKOJKn " point, edge ' (as 
aywyn : ayw); after Kretschmer KZ. 33, 567 and Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 348 belongs qkouu) 
"hears' as *aK-ou(;- "having sharp ear' here, see, however, 1. keu-; alb. a//7e/e "sharp, 
sour', [common alb. -k> -//?]. 

Latin ace/ie "sharp, cutting, keen. Hence, to taste, biting; to touch, sharp; of sounds, shrill; 
of smells, penetrating; of sight, keen; of emotions, painful; of understanding, quick, 
vigorous, energetic', ac/c/us' sour, acid, tart ', acetum' vinegar'; 

Maybe alb. acarlrost, sharp steel' : Romanian acar' signalman, pointman, switchman, 
pin cushion '. 

with ambr. con voc ar v/7/n 'sharpen the millstone ', cymr. hog/' sharpen', acymr. 
ocoluin, ncymr. hogalen. Middle Breton hygo(u)len, nbret. higolenn' whetstone ' (with the 
unclear second component; to explain bret. vocalism of the initial sound by the pretone); 
(common Celtic -ns- > -nn-), mc. cyfogT vomit, fight ', with secondary ^iosuffix acymr. 
cemecid, ncymr. cyfegydd {*kom-okiJo^ " pickaxe '; 

with zero grade: acymr. diauc, ncymr. diog, mbr. dieuc{*de-ako-) "decayed, spoiled ', 
mcymr. ym-am-ogawr{*-aka-i) " one stirs, is active ' (Loth RC. 45, 191) and mbr. eaug, 
nbret. eok' ripe, made soft ' {*eks-ako-), to gall, exacum' centaurion lepton ' (Ernault 
Gloss. MBret. 201); compare also above S. 5; 

Swedish agvc\. "marsh grass, Cladium mariscus, edge, blade' {*aRo'-), Middle High 
German a^ "perch', egle, eg//ncds., Modern High German Swiss ege/, Demin. eg//, Old 
Swedish ag/i-borre6s., maybe also Swedish a^^"rancor, hatred ', a^^a "sting, torment', 
Norwegian dial, a^^e "tooth, point' (*a^^/rc»- or expressive Gemination?), as well as (with 
secondary Germanic vowel gradation a: i/ or from *aRu/<o- with assimilation a in i/?) 
Norwegian dial. ^^^ "sting, frightening', Swedish dial, ^p'^ "point, tooth'. Old Norse uggr 
"fear', Norwegian dial. i/^^e"fin'; Lithuanian a/<uotas "awn', asa/<a {*aRo-/<a) "fish bone, 
bran' = wruss. oso/<a "sedge'. Old Prussian ac/<ons ( *aRdno-) ds. 

Maybe alb. {*ege/), egJer'LoWum temulentum, ryegrass, darnel' [common alb. -s- > -gj-]. 

* Balto-Slavic forms with /r prove none Indo Germanic beside the form aR-, but is 
partially loanword from Veneto-lllyrian, whose area would be occupied by people from the 
Baltic and Slavs (Kretschmer Gl. 21,11 5). Also g in Church Slavic /g/a explains itself on 
tops. 15. 

2. /-and/ stems: 

Armenian ase//? "needle' (from *as//n, Meillet Esquisse 43); gr. aKi(;, -i5o(; " point, sting '; 
Latin ac/es^ keenness, edge; of the mind, penetration, insight; of the eye, a piercing look 
or keen vision; sometimes the pupil of the eye, or the eye itself. Milit., battle line; hence 
battle, battlefield '; Old Saxon eggjai.. Old High German etc e/r/ra "point, sword edge'. 
Modern High German Ec/re (proto Germanic *aj/o. Old Norse e^^"edge, cliff backs', eggja 
"sharpen, spur on'. Old English ecg^ edge, blade, sword' (from it borrows Middle Irish ecg 
"edge', nbret. e/r"point'), eg/eP\. "awns', engl. a//s. Old Church Slavic os/a {*os-b/a), russ. 
ose/oRm. "whetstone', Czech os/nat "awn'. 

about Old English e/ier'ear ' see below s- formant. 

3. ^-stem: 

Gr. axupov "chaff' see below 5-formant; Latin acus, - ust "needle; fish name ', acuere 
"sharpen', acJ/77e/7 "sharp point; hence the point of remarks, etc.; sharpness of intellect; 
cunning, trickery', ac/a {*acu-/a) "thread to the sewed', aqu/fo//um {bes\6e acr/fo//um) 
"holly', ac^/ei/s "sting', acc/p/ter' hawk, falcon' {*acu-peter "quick-flying'); 

Maybe alb. zero grade {*ccipitei) skifter^ hawk', shqiptar' eagle-man, Albanian ', 
shqiponje^ e3iq\e\ Shq/per/land of the eagles, Albania', 5/7(7//? 'language of the eagle-men, 
Albanian language'. 

Spanish aguijdn : French aiguillon : Catalan agullo : Portuguese aguilhao : Romagnolo 
agucidn da testa : Romanian {*{a)ghimpe) ghimpe : Albanian glemb, gjemb " sting ' from 
Vulgar Latin aquileo, -onis< aquileus< acus^ needle '. 
English needle 

Italian ago 

Spanish aguja 

French aiguille 

Albanian Geg gjyi-pane, Tosc gjil-pere 






ocia ; ucia 


acu ; saccu 

irale ; zaccurafa 







Griko Salentino 






















Sardinian Campidanesu 

acu ; spigoni 

Sardinian Logudoresu 

acu ; agu 


ugghia ; ugliola ; zaccurafa 






ago ; ucia ; 


gall, acaunum {*akounon) "rock '; lllyrian ON Acum/ncum today Szlankamen'saW. stone' 

Modern High German Ache/t "ear point, awn' from ndd. aggel{mVr\ spirant, g) from Indo 
Germanic *a/^^-/5; Old English awelm. "fork', Old Norse sod-all "meat fork' (Germanic 
*ahwala-, Indo Germanic *aRu-olo)\ if here gallo-Latin opi/A/s "common maple ' 
(Marstrander, Corr. Germanic-celt. 18), would be placed Indo Germanic *oRy-olo-\ about 
Old Norse uggreic. see e/ostem, about Old English earsee 5-formant; cymr. eM/" drill', 
mbr. ebirpeg, nail ' {* aky-rilo-); 


The mutation kw > p, b\v\ Celtic tongues, Latin and gr. 

Baltic *asus\v\ Latvian ass^ sharp, pointed ', Lithuanian asutaTm. PI. " coarse horse hair ' 
= Slavic *osuta m. " thistle ' in Church Slavic ostt-b, russ. osot. On account of here 
Tocharian A agawe^ rough' (Van Windekens Lexique 15)? 

see below *dku-s " fast (sharp in the movement) '. 

4. With /7>formant: 


Gr. OKpn " point, edge, sharpness; the highest point, climax, decisive point ' (oKpriv 
Adv., aK|jaTo(;, aKpa^w); Swedish dial, am' marsh grass, Cladium mariscus' (Germanic 
*ahma-, compare Finnish loanword ahma' equisetum '). 


Old Indie asman- n. " stone, sky ' (as a stone vault, Reichelt IF. 32, 23 ff.), asmara-' 
stone ', Avestan asman- stone, sky ' (Old Indie Gen. asnah, Instr. asna, Avestan Gen. 
asno, Abl. asnaalW\\h -/7-from -mn-\ Instr. PI. Old Indie asnalh after ostem); Phrygian PN 
'AKpovia; gr. qkijcjov ' anvil, meteor, heaven ', aKpiwv 6 oupavoq; Lithuanian asmensm. PI. ' 
edge ', akmud, -ens m. ' stone '. 

5. With />formant: 

Old Indie asani-h^ head of the arrow, missile'; Avestan asarjga-, Old pers. adanga-^ 
stone ' {*ak-en-go, Benveniste Orig. 28); gr. OKaiva " point, sting; longitudinal dimension ' 
(however, about Latin acuna^ a cavity, hollow, dip; esp. a pool, pond. Transf., gap, 
deficiency, loss' see WH. I 9), OKOvn ' whetstone ', qkcjov, - ovioq, ' spear ' (for older qkoov, 
*-ovoc; after the participles), aKovri^w " throw the spear ', OKavoq " thistle kind, prickly head 
plant ', QKavi^Eiv " fruit carry prickly heads ', aKav9o(; "thistle' (from * aKav-av0O(; 'sting 
flower'), QKOvGa " thistle, sting, thorn, spine, esp. of the fish ', aKoAavGic; ' goldfinch ' (from 
*aKav9aAi(;), QKoGoq ' barque ', aKarn, aKariov " woman's shoe ' ( *aRnto-, probably from 
the pointed form); Latin agna " ear of grain ' (from *aRna)\ Gothic ahanai. " chaff ', Old 
Norse ggn. Old English egenui. and aegnanP\., Old High German agana6s., Modern 
High German Ahne, dial. Agen "stalk splinter of the flax or hemp' (Germanic *ag-, *ahand, 
Indo Germanic *aRana)\ Lithuanian zem. asn/'s' edge, sprouting, germinating, sowing ', 
Latvian asnsm. " germ bursting out '. 

6. With /--formant: 

aRer-, oRer- 


Many Germanic cognates prove that the real roots were the labiovelars: aR^er-, oR^er- 

Old Irish a{/)cher' sharp (from the hoist)', because of the Gen. Sg. Akeras{PH in the 
Ogham) not Latin Lw .; abret. acer-uission ^\n\Vc\ sharp fingers' {biss), ocerouP\. 
"sharpened', acymr. ar-ocrion <^\. atrocia; Lithuanian aserys, ese/ys "river perch'; pol. dial. 
Jesiora {irom *asera)\ Old Norse qgr^s. (from proto Germanic *agura-, Indo Germanic 
*oRr-o-), west-Norwegian augur{irom *ggurr, new development from ggr), influenced by 
auga "eye', 

From the extension of Root/ lemma: aR-, oR- {* heR'^-): "sharp; stone' with /--formant derived 
the labiovelars: aR^er-, oR'^er- whose zero grade produced alb. {*R"'ema), gurre^ stream' 
[common alb. rn >/rshift], {*R"er-) gur'stone'; 

Here also maybe the name of the maple (due to the pointed leaf sections): 

Latin acer, -er/'sn. " the maple tree or maple wood ' (from acer arbor became Vulgar 
Latin acerabulus, Meyer-LiJbke REW. 93), Danish serAs. (Germanic *ahira-)\ Modern High 
German dial. Acher6s. (Germanic *ahura-); 

gr. QKaaToc; n acpsvSaiJvoc; Hes. (*aKapaToc;, meaning as nAaTaviaTO(; beside nAaravog; 
to stem compare also OKopva Sacpvri Hes.); gallo Rome. *akaros, *akarnos ' maple ' 
(Hubschmied RC. 50, 263 f.); Old High German 5/70/77 'maple' 

(from Swiss and other oral kinds would devop certainly a-, however, a -would have arisen 
also of people's etymological distortion, like Middle Low German anhorn, alhorn;ahorn 
(Indo Germanic *aRrno-) is up to the declension class = aKapva, while Latin acernus^ of 
maple ' is syncopated from *acer-inos, however, that /7has probably also arisen from the 
former adjective material developing formants -no- and not from ///7-stem by accumulation 
of both elements. 

Rather that counts for gr. OKopva (*-ia) " yellow thistle kind ' qkovoc; ds., maybe here 
also QKopoc; ' Kalmus', OKopov ' his spicy root ', compare with other forms still aKivo(;f. " 
odoriferous flower ', wki^jov ' basil ' (if here suitablly, named after the sharp smell?). 

aRri-, aRro- 

Old Indie asrih " corner, edge, border ', catur-asra-h "square'; gr. cxk^oc, "sharply', 
QKpov, QKpa, QKpic; "point, mountaintops' (also in OKpoaofjai as "have sharp hearing, 
sharpen the ear', and aKpiq, -i5oc; "grasshopper', short form for aKpoparouaa " tiptoe ', 
OKpi^ouaa; OKpspcbv " point of the boughs ', see to the formation Brugmann Grdr. I|2 1 , 

Latin (to 5 see Frisk IF. 56, 113 f.) acer, acr/s,-e {0\d Latin acra, -um) "sharp, piercing, 
penetrating, cutting, irritating, pungent', Oscan akrid^ sharply, fiercely, keenly ', Umbrian 
peracri-^ fat, plump, corpulent ' (= Latin peracer^vevj sharp', compare to meaning gr. 
QKpoc;, also " uppermost, excellent ', and aKfjaTo(;), Latin acerbus^ acidic, sad, harsh, 
bitter, unripe ' (from *acri-b^o-s)\ compare gall. AXPOTALVS^ with high forehead ', Old 
Irish ©/""high' (from *akros)\ Lithuanian asms, astrus. Old Lithuanian astras. Old Church 
Slavic ostrb "sharp' (/- interpolated wording). 

oRri-, oRro- 

With shading o: gr. 6Kpi(;f. "sharp' mountain point, corner, edge ', Old Latin ocris'cn. " 
rough mountain ', Latin mediocris^ average, mediocre, of middling size, medium, middling, 
moderate, ordinary ', actually "to be found halfway up ' (here ablaut could be displayed in 
the compound like in extorris: terra, meditullium: tellus), Ocriculum, Interocrea, ocrea 
"splint, a greave, legging', Umbrian ocar, ukar. Gen. oc/'e/'" mountain, castle mountain ', 

marr. ocres^ a mountain, mount, range of mountains ', Middle Irish och(a)ir^ corner, edge 
', from it borrows cymr. c»c/7/''edge'. 

To the heteroclite paradigm *aR-r-(g), *a^-/7-e5 (also the /-stem *a^/- can have combined 
with it) compare above aRmen/mer-, Pedersen KZ. 32, 247, Johansson Beitr. 9, Petersson 
IF. 24, 269 ff.; as notable the apposition appears thereof from gr. Kpayoq " name of 
different mountains ', AKpav-aq the 'Agrigentum' which might have signified originally " 
rocks, stones'. 

7. With s-formant: 

aRes- : aRs- 

Gr. axvri 'chaff from *a'k-s-na, afterwards reshuffled axupov ds. instead of *aKupov; gr. 
QKoa-Tn 'Barley' ('awned, bristly ', formation like lat onus-tus, venus-tus); gr. hke^ o^u, Hes. 
TTupi-nKr|<; " with igneous point ', aM(pnKr|<; "two-edged', Tavur|Kr|<; "with long point ' (maybe 
only with stretch in the compound, after which the length also in simple hke^; however, lies 
lengthened grade *ak- also before in Ionian nKn aKWKn, £ni5opaTi(;, aKprj Hes., HKoSa 
nv5pu)p£vr|v yuvalKa Hes., compare to meaning OKpn "climax of life'). 

maybe zero grade in alb. (*aKoa-Tri) /ra5/7-/e "chaff (*barley)' where -Zeis the neuter 
ending, (*axvr|), sa/7e "chaff'. 

additional formations in gr. o^uc; "sharp', compare to formation Lithuanian tamsus /oOld 
Indie tamas; Lithuanian tamsa' {\n addition o^ivr) "harrow' Hes.), 6^0(; "wine vinegar'. - 
Also *aKax|J£voc; "sharpened' seems to be * aK-aKa-[j£vo(;, Hirt IF. 12, 225. 

Note: common gr. -gh- > -^- 

Latin acus,-eris^ a needle ' acervus {*aces-vo-s) " a heap, mass; in logic, argument by 
accumulation '; Gothic ahsQeu. *ahs/sn., Old Icelandic axn., Old High German ah/r, ehir 
n. (Germanic *ahiz), from the PI. Modern High German " ear of corn ' f., but Old English 
ear{*ahuz), dat. Sg. North Umbrian aehher, eherds. (about the coexistence from /-, u- and 
systems, partly already Indo Germanic, but esp. in Germanic, compare Brugmann 
compare Gr. II 1, 522, under Specht Indo Germanic Dekl. 152. On account of originally 
Indo Germanic -es- or -/s-, or-^s-stem display, is difficult in the isolated case to decide, 
compare also Sievers-Brunner Aengl. Gr. pp. 1 28, 2 under 288 f.) 


Cymr. eithinxw. PI. ' gorse, furze' {*akstTno-), from it borrows Middle Irish a/ttennds. 
(with unclear sound gradation); (common Celtic -ns- > -nn-), Lithuanian a/rs//s following 
'smoked spit' (= russ. ostb ' point, ear, spike '), akst/nasm. ' Sting, spur ' = Old Church 
Slavic ostbnbvn. 'Sting', Czech osten6s. 

Maybe alb. {*osten) hosten^sWck for driving cattle' Slavic loanword. 

8. With /- formant: 

Old Indie apastha- m. (from *apa-as-tha) " barb in the arrow '; gr. aKir) " gruff coast with 
breaker; headland, elevation '; Tocharian B aq-, agge-'\r\ea6, beginning ' (from *aR-t-). 

o^eM "harrow, device with points ': 

Latin occa "harrow' from *otika by metathesis from *okita (Hirt IF. 37, 230)? compare 
different formations gr. o^ivr) "harrow'; 

Note: common gr. -gh- > -^- 

acymr. ocet, corn, ocet, bret. oguet: 0\d High German eg/da, Middle High German 
eg{e)c/e, Old English eg{e)cfet (Modern High German Eg^e renewed from the verb eggen 
from Old High German egen, ecken, proto Germanic *agjan, on its part only from the 
Subst. *a^/icfd revert formation); 

Lithuanian akecios, ekecios^ harrow'. Old Prussian aketes^ harrows', e instead of e 
derives from the verb *akejd\v\ Lithuanian akeju, aketi, besides akeju, eketr, the aniaut 
(initial sound) a- frequently has become e in an unstressed position a before palatal vowel 
(Endzelin Lett. Gr. 36). 

References: WP. I 28 ff., WH. I 6 ff., Specht Dekl. 24, 69, 125, 271, 331. Specht KZ. 62, 
210 ff. (unglaubhaft). 

See also: S. under *oR-t6u^e\Q\\{\ actually " both points of the hands (without thumb) '. 

zero grades ^- stuck probably in stems kemen-, kernel-, komen-^ stone, skies ', komor- 
" stone hammer ', Rei-, koi-, kd/- " sharpen, whet ', Ru-^ sharp, spit, spear '. 

Page(s): 18-22 

Root / lemma: aR-1, aRo- {*hek-) 

Meaning: to eat' 


From Root / lemma: aR-, oR- {* hek'^-): sharp; stone' derived Root/ lemma: aR-1, aRo- 

{*hek-): 'to eat' 

Material: Old Indie as/7a// (inserted Inf. as/'-tum etc.) 'eats, consumes', asanamu. "food', 
asna-h ^ greedy' , lengthened grade asayat/" aWows to dine', prafar-asa-h ^breakiasV; 
Avestan kahrk-asa "chicken eater = vulture' etc.; 

gr. aKuAo(;f. "acorn' (as "food', compare formally Old Indie asi/-5a-/7 "greedy'), cxkoKoq, 

Old Norse agnn. "bait for fish' ( *aka-n6-), aeja "allow to graze' ( *ahjan). 

References: WP. I 112 f., WH. I 210 f. 
Page(s): 1 8 

Root / lemma: aRru 

Meaning: tear' 

Material: Ved. asruu., later also asram'tear', Avestan asru-n., Lithuanian asara' and 

asarat, Tocharian A akarP\. akrunt ds., compare Old Indie asrayami, Lithuanian asaroju 

"cries'. The relationship to Indo Germanic *dakru'tear' is unsettled, compare Meillet BSL. 

32, 141. 


Root/ lemma: aRru: 'tear' derived from Root/ lemma: daRru-: "tears'. The phonetic shift 

da- > a-, zero'\s a common Baltic lllyrian. Compare Root/ lemma: cfe/-5: "long': Baltic with 

unexplained o'-loss (see below): Lithuanian I/gas, f. /7ga, Latvian /Igs, Old Prussian /7ga and 

ilgikdv. "long' : Hittite Nom. PI. da-lu-ga-e-es {dalugaes) "long', da-lu-ga-as-ti {dalugasti) n. 

"length'. This is a sound proof of Aryan migration from the Baltic region to North India. 

References: WP. I 33, WH. I 746. 

Page(s): 23 

Root/ lemma: ak*'a-{more properly ak^i). ek"- 

Meaning: "water, river' 


From Root/ lemma: ang''(h)i-\ "snake, worm' derived Root/ lemma: ak''a- {more properly 

ak"^. ek"- 

: "water, river'; Root / lemma: eghero-: "lake, inner sea'; Root/ lemma: ad(u)-, ad-ro-\ 

"water current': lllyrian Pannonian VN 'Oa£piC(T£(; [common alb.- Illyrian -Baltic -^^- > -«/-, - 


From Root/ lemma: a/ca-^yNster, river' nasalized in *a/r^e/7/- (suffixed in -er, -or) derived 

Root/ lemma: au(e)-9, aued-, auer-\ "to flow, to wet; water, etc' 


Latin aqua'waier, water pipe' (thereof aqu/7us ' dark' , aqu/7a ' eag\e' , actually "the swarthy', 

aqu/7d' north wind', actually "the darkening sky') = Gothic afvai. "river, body of water'. Old 

Icelandic g, Old English ea, Old Saxon Old High German aha, Modern High German Ache 

ds. (Germanic *a/7M/d, thereof derived *ahwjd, "awyio "surrounded by the water' in Old 

Icelandic eyi. "island, pasture, grassland'. Old English feg. Old High German -ouwa, -awa. 

Middle High German ouwei. "water, peninsula in the river, grassland rich in water'; 

Maybe alb. {*aquild) a/ri///" frozen water, ice' 

It seems that Root/ lemma: alca- {more properly ak^i): ek"-: (water, river) derived from 

Root/ lemma: aR-, ok-: (sharp; stone). 

Modern High German Aue, compare Old Frisian e/-/a/7o'" island', Sca(n)din-avia 

Kretschmer Gl. 17, 148 ff.), russ. FIN Oka, Pannonian PN Aqu/ncum ' stove (*cooking 

stove where water boils making bubbles)', apul. FIN Aquilo, Venetic PN Aquileia (also in 

South Germany); with ablaut (Indo Germanic e) in addition Old Icelandic segir{ *ek"i6s) 

"God of the sea'. Old English aeg-weard^ watch at the sea', eagor'sea, flood' (the initial 

sound after ea); maybe here Old Indie /ra/77 "water', dak. plant N KoaSapia noTapioysiTajv " 

water colonist ' {*k"a-6^emn), poln. (North lllyrian) FIN Kwa. 

The affiliation from Hittite e-ku-uz-zi {ekuzi) "drinks', 3. PI. a-ku-wa-an-zi, seems not 
unlikely. Moreover also Tocharian AB yc»/r-/5/" drink'. Old Irish o/ic/7e "water' does not exist; 
cymr. 5/^ "sea' is neologism to eigionirorr\ Latin oceanus. 

From PIE the root for water, ocean, passed to Altaic: 

Protoform: *6k"e ( ~ -k-) 

Meaning: "deep place, place far from the shore' 

Turicic protofomn: *oku 

Tungus protoform: *(x)uK- 

Japanese protofomn: *eki 

Note: The parallel seems plausible; the common meaning here may be formulated as "a 
place (in the sea or river) distant from the shore". 

References: WP. I 34 f., WH. I 60, 848, Feist 18 f., Pedersen Hittitisch 128, Tocharisch 


Page(s): 23 

Root / lemma: ak"- 

Meaning: "to hurt' 

Material: Old Indie aka m^ grief, pain ', Avestan ako^ nasty, bad ', axtis'^ grief, pain, 

illness '; gr. noun *anap, *anv6(;, thereof nnavsT anopsT, nnavia anopia, nTT£pon£U(; 

'swindler'; Verbalst. an- in anarn 'deception' {*apnta), redupl. Present ianru) 'damage'. 

Note: common gr. -k"- > -p-, -g"- > -b- 

References: Kuiper Gl. 21 , 282 f. 

Page(s): 23 

Root / lemma: ab'^i- 

Meaning: barley' 


Root/ lemma: ab^i-: barley' derived from a truncated Root/ lemma: ereg*'(h)o-, 

erog*'(h)o- : "pea' [common gr. -k""- > -p-, -g"- > -b-]. 

Material: Gr. aAcpi, aAcpirov " barley, pearl barley, barley flour ', lakon. aAicpara aAcpira n 
aAsupa Hes. (with gradual growth vowel i; Ehrlich KZ. 38, 55, in aAcpi : aAcpara from which 
by intersection with aAcpi then aAcpir-a, -ov - sees a relation as between Old Indie asth-i: 
asth-n-ah, what would guarante older proto Indo Germanic of the word); alb. elp (eibi) 
"barley' (N. PI. *ab'^J^. Iran. *a/bh/- conclusions Vasmer Stud. z. alb.Wortf. I (Dorpat 1921) 
S. 16 ff. from turko-tatar. etc a/t'a 'barley'. 

relationship to *ab'^- " white ' assumes Specht Dekl. 68 Old Norse 

From Iranian branch the name for barley passed to Altaic family: 

Protoform: *arp"a 
Meaning: "barley, millet' 
Turicic protofomn: *arpa 
Mongolian protoform: *arbaj 
Tungus protoform: *arpa 
Japanese protofomn: *apa 

Note: EAS 90, KW 15, Poppe 87. Aflnnfl?! 67. The Mong. form cannot be explained as a 
Turkism (despite TMN 2, 24, lHep6aK 1997, 100). The Turkic form is sometimes compared 

with Proto-lran. *arba- (corresponding to Gr. aiplii), of. East Iranian forms going bacl< to 
*arpasya- (or*arbasya) (CTe6nMH-KaMeHCKMM 1982, 23), but it is not identical (loss of the 
final syllable is hard to explain); on the other hand, the Jpn. parallel is a strong argument in 
favour of the Altaic origin of the Turkic form. 

References: WP. I 92, Jokl Festschrift Kretschmer 78 f., Kieckers IE. 41, 184, Wahrmann 
Gl. 17,253. 
Page(s): 29 

Root / lemma: af^o- {*hel-b^o-) 

Meaning: white' 


Root/ lemma: ab'^o-{*heb'^o-)\ "white' derived from Root/ lemma: el-1, ol-, J-\ red, brown 

(in names of trees and animals) extended in -b^o-formant, see gr. £Aacpo(; m. f. ' stag 

(white spotted) '. 


Gr. aAcpoc; " white rash ', aAcpouq Aeukou^ Hes. (also aAwcpoc; A£uk6(; Hes., s. below), FIN 


Latin albus' white, dead white; hence pale or bright; sometimes making bright; fig., 
fortunate ', Umbrian alfu^ white ', Oscan Alafaternum Alafaternum^ Alfaternorum ', pralig. 
Alafis " Albius ' (and many other names partly Etruscan coinage due to Oscan-Umbrian 
root alf-, as Latin alb-, s. Schuize Latin Eig. 1 19 f.; etr. Pronunciation from Latin albus a\so 
must be that of Paul. Diac. 4 L. as Sabine called alpum); in addition albula, alburnus " 
whitefish ', albarus^ white poplar ', albucus^ asphodel plant ' etc.; 

cymr. elfyddxw. " earth, world ' from *albfio- (compare Old Church Slavic svetb " light, 
world '); 

Old High German albiz, elbiz. Old English aelbitu, ielfetu. Old Norse elptr, giptt 
(Germanic *alb-it-, -ut-) "swan', (forms -d- in animal names: s. Brugmann Grdr. I|2 1, 467, 
Charpentier KZ. 40, 433 f., Specht Dekl. 229; also:) Old Church Slavic lebedb, russ. 
lebedb lebjadb, in the ablaut to poln. iabgdz, serb. tabud, Czech labud " swan ' (proto 
Slavic *olb-edb, -gdb, -gdb, compare to the latter suffix form Lithuanian bal-andis^ pigeon, 
dove ', actually ' white '; see Meillet Et 322, MSL. 14, 377, Schuize SBprAk. 1910, 800 = 
Kl. Schr. 122 f.; named after the color russ. lebeda, poln. lebioda, ioboda^ atriplex, 
goosefoot ', Liden Stud. 97); Dutch alft, e/^ 'whitefish' (formally = Old High German etc 
albiz 'swan'; to loanword from Latin a/&^/a 'whitish' in contrast to it Falk-Torp 189 f. are 

against, Middle Higli German a/be/'\Nh\tef\sW, Modern Higli German A/be, Low German 
a/f, a/be 'whitefish'), compare Latin a/burnus'a white fish, bleak' ds .; 

Modern High German Dialectal A/bums' hard sand under the fertile earth ', Swedish 
Dialectal a/f ds .; 

probably also Old Norse a/fr, Old English ^/f, engl. ©//"(from which Modern High 
German E/fm., E/fei. borrowed). Middle Low German a/f " Alp, grand, evil spirit ', Middle 
High German Modern High German A/p, PI. the /4/6'e/7 (originally probably " whitish 
nebulous figures '), as well as Old High German a/ba^ insect larva, locusta quae nondum 
volavit ', Dutch e/fteni. PI. " cock chafer grubs ', Norwegian a/ma6s. {mirom the Gen. PI. 
*a/bna, from which *a/mna). 


The lllyrian TN A/bano/\s the plural form Middle High German Modern High German A/p, 
PI. the /l/6'eA7 (originally probably " whitish nebulous figures ') a primitive Indo European 
people who believed in evil spirits before an elaborate mythology developed later. 

Arben^x^ame of alb. during Middle Ages' 

see to these Germanic words esp. Falk-Torp under aame{4, 1428), 5/(19, 1431), a/v{22, 
1431), e/v\ (188 f., 1454), emc/{^89, 1454); as' white water ' also the name of E/^e (Latin 
A/b/s, A/bia, from Germanic *A/bT, Gen. A/b/dz=), Old Norse e/fr^ river ' and river name (in 
addition probably also Middle Low German e/ve^ riverbed '), compare gall. FIN A/b/s, A/ba 
(now Aube; contrast Dubis, Duba, i.e. " black, deep water '), Latin A/bu/a, gr. AAcpsioc; (see 
esp. Schuize SBprAk.1910, 797 = Kl. Schr. 120). 

Note: common gr. -/<"- > -p-, -g"- > -b- 

In contrast to this assumption, it is doubtful from or in which circumference names like 
gall. -Latin A/b/on, Middle Irish A/bbu, Gen. A/bban {siem *A//>ien-) 'Britain' (to cymr. e/fydd 
or from the white chalk rocks), Latin A/pes, "AAhsk; (high mountains?) and in Italian, 
Ligurian and Celtic areas frequent local name like A/ba, A/b/um likewise below go back or, 
however, are not Indo Germanic derivation of the concept " white ' (Bertoldi BSL. 32, 148, 
ZrP. 56, 179 f.). 

Armenian a/aun/ " pigeon, dove ', barely for *a/abh-/7-(Bugge KZ. 32, 1, Pedersen KZ. 
38, 313), see below. About the affiliation of *ab^i- *at^/-' barley ' s. d. 

Maybe here belongs Hittite al-pa-as {alpas) " cloud ' in spite of Couvreur (H„ 106, 149) 

To the ablaut: beside *ab'^o-s seexus to be two-syllable root form in gr. aAwcpoq (also 
sAscpiTii;?) and Armenian aiauni, and in addition tuned Slavic intonation (serb. labud), s. 
Osthoff IF. 8, 64 f., Pedersen aaO. 

This additional -bho-one syllable is in color names frequent suffix (e.g. Latin galbus 
Lithuanian ra/bas^\n different colors, multicolored, dappled' beside ramas, Brugmann Grdr. 
I|2 1, 388 f), *ab^os\s obtainable in monosyllabic root *a/-and on the other hand aAwcpoq 
is possible according to Brugmann aaO. 

to Lithuanian alvas' tin ' (" white metal '), Old Prussian a/w/s'\ea6, plumbum', russ. o/ovo 
"tin' (from Indo Germanic *a/9UO-7 Baltic correspondences are borrowed according to 
Niedermann from the Slavic) stand in a similar relation, as gr. Kop(jo-v6(; to Latin curv-us 
"crooked, curved, bent'. Old \u6\c pala-la-h{\ palav-ah) to Old Prussian pelwo, also go 
back to a word root *al^u]-: *alau-:*alu- (in Armenian ai^awniav\6 Slavic words); 


From Baltic - Slavic the notion for "white metals, white color, sick white' passed to Altaic 

Protoform: *nialpa 
Meaning: "tin, lead' 
Tungus protoform: *iialban 
Japanese protoform: *namari 

Note: An interesting TM-Jpn. isogloss; cf. also Old Koguryo *naimul (see Miller 1979, 8). 
Jpn. *nama-ri < *napan-(r)i, with usual regressive nasalization. 


Protoform: *alpa 

Meaning: "unable, sick; being at service, man-at-arms' 

Turlcic protoform: *alp- 

Mongolian protoform: *alba-n 

Tungus protoform: *alba- 

Korean protoform: *arpha- 

Japanese protofomn: *apar- 

Note: Poppe 85, 121 (Turk-Mong.); TMN 2, 1 1 0-1 1 1 . 

gr. £A£(piTi(; is sufficient by tlie resliuffie to which animal names and plant names are 
exposed everywhere, in order to ensure in addition still *ale-b^-\ 

here as " the shining one ' gall, alausa^ European shad, twaite shad ' (French alose, 
span, alosa), compare also gall. GN Alaunos, Alounae, brit. FIN Alaunos {v\ev\i^\. AIn), 
cymr. PN A/un as well as Armenian afaun/^ pigeon, dove ' from *alau-n-. 

A stem form a//-" white ' is not provabe, in spite of Specht Dekl. 114, because Hittite ali- 
" white ' appears very uncertain (Couvreur H 149 f., Friedrich IF. 58, 94) and gr. oAicpaAog, 
aAicpara, aAi^ are to be explained differently. 

Here, however, probably (as a " pale yellow plant ') hisp. -Latin a/a 'elecampane ' (Isid.), 
span.-portug. 5/ads., furthermore with -/7/-suffix Old High German a/ant6s., with it 
etymological identically the fish name Old High German a/unf (newer alant). Old Saxon 
aAy/7o'"whitefish, Alant' = (with gramm. alteration) Old Icelandic - glunn^a fish', (under the 
influence of common Celtic -ns- > -/?/>), Indo Germanic basic form *al-nt-/*al-ont-. The 
original meaning of at- is probably" white, shining', hence, then also "pale yellow' etc. 

A precise separation of the meanings of al- and el- is not always possible, which is why 
Specht (Indo Germanic Dekl. 59, 160) explained both stems as originally identical, thus al- 
as el- leads back to el-, with which he associates further (aaO. 1 1 4) the color root ar- (see 
below areg-), er- . 

References: WP. I 92 ff., WH. I 26 f. 
Page(s): 30-31 

Root / lemma: ati!^- 

Meaning: trough' 

Material: Old Norse aldai. " wave, upsurge, hostility, warfare '; Norwegian dial, oldai. 

'trough'; Swedish dial, alla^ deep cavity '. compare Old English ealdot^, aldot, aldahV 

trough, tub, container ', Modern High German Bavarian alden^ field furrow'. 

In addition Balto-Slavic *aldiia- in Church Slavic ladljl, altdljli. " small boat ', Lithuanian 
aldija, eldljai. " river small boat ', also Lithuanian eldijele " smoking frying pan'. 

Norwegian lodje^ Russian vessel, boat ', Swedish lodja. Middle Low German lod(d)le, 
loddlgeaxe borrowed from russ. lodbja{= asl. ladlji). Falk-Torp 652 (see also 789 
under b/o'e). 

References: WP. I 92, WH. I 35, Trautmann 6. 
Page(s): 31-32 

Root / lemma: aleq- 
Meaning: "to hit back, shoot' 

Material: Old Indie raksati^ defended, protected, preserved ', Armenian aracer graze, 
protect, watch, guard ' (Pisani KZ. 68, 157), gr. aAs^u) " prevent, protect, fight off ' {so- 
present; raksati because of this correspondence not more probably to equally meaning 
root areq-), AhzKiLop, AAEKipucbv the epic proper names, after becoming known as the 
cock were used for the name of this contentious bird (Pick Cstem 9, 169, Kretschmer KZ. 
33, 559 ff., Boisacq 1091 f.); qAqAkeTv ' defend, refuse, fend ', aAKoGu) " defends, helps ', 
aAKop " Protection, defense, help ', snaA^ic; " Protection, parapet, (esp.) battlement of the 
walls; help ' {*akK-i\-q), akKr\ " defense, help ' and ' thickness, strength ' (latter meaning, 
although in itself from " vigorous defense ' understandable, maybe by flowing together with 
another. Middle Persian ark' work, effort, trouble ' to suitable words, see Bartholomae 
Heidelbg. SB. 1916, IX 10); qAkI nsTTOiOux; Hom.; aAKi|jO(; " strong, hard, potent; from 
weapons: ' resistable, suited to the fight '; 

Old English ea/g/an' protect, defend ' {*algdjan)\ Gothic alhs{i., conservative stem) ' 
temple ', Old English ealh. Old Saxon a/ahm. ds., Proto Norse-Runic a/uh' amulet' (?), 
Old Lithuanian e/kas, alkas m. ' holy grove, place on a hill where one has made of early 
victims ', Latvian e/ksm. 'Idol, god' (Germanic and Baltic words originally ' holier, seclusive 
or the usufruct deprived grove '); 

Tocharian B a/55/r" remove'. 

References: WP. I 89 f. 

See also: S. similar root areg- close, protect '. 

Page(s): 32 

Root / lemma: a/gh- {* heigh-) 
Meaning: "frost, cold' 

Latin algor' frost, cold ', algeo, -ere' freeze, to be cold ', belong algidus' co\6' according to 
Liden, studies z. Old Indie and compare Sprachgesch. 66, to Old Icelandic Gen. Sg. elgiar, 
nisi, elgurru. " snow flurry with strong frost, half-molten snow '. Germanic s-stem *a/j/z- 
disguised itself with Latin algor, Indo Germanic *alghes-. 
References: WP. I 91, WH. I 29. compare Petersson Aryan under Arm. Stud. 126. 

Page(s): 32 

Root / lemma: alg"!!- 

Meaning: 'to earn, price, value, *precious bright metal' 

Material: Old Indie arhati^ is worth, earns, is obliged, debit, ', argha-h^ value, validity, price 

' (=osset. 5/y ' price, value '), Avestan arejaiti' is worth, amounts for value ' (npers. 

arzTdan^ earn '), arajah-{es- stem) n. " value, price '. 

maybe alb. {*arhati) argaV worker, serf', argetoj' entertain, reward, please, become lazy 
', argome^ barren, unproductive'. 

Gr. ctAcpn 'acquisition, purchase ' = Lithuanian a/ga, Old Prussian Gen. Sg. a/gas' wage 
', gr. aAcpavu), aAcpsTv " profit, earn ' (aAcpsTv = Old Indie arhati, but by the more complete 
present aAcpavu) in the validity embedded as an Aorist), aA(p£aipoiO(; " cattle earned '. Note: 
common lllyrian g"- > b-. 

An additional form on voiced-nonaspirated is Old Indie arjatT acquires, earns, fetches 

References: WP. I 91. 
Page(s): 32-33 

Root / lemma: al-1, ol- 

Meaning: "besides; other' 


Root/ lemma: al-1, ol-\ "besides; other' derived from Root/ lemma: ala\ interjection. 

Material: Latin uls " beyond ', *ulter, -tra, -trum " ulterior, situated beyond ' {ultro, ultra), 

compounds ulterior. Sup. ultimus= Oscan ultiumam^ the utmost, extreme, the highest, 

first, greatest, lowest, meanest '; 

Maybe alb. ulte, ulet'\o\N', ul'to low, sit below' : Latin ulterior -lus'compar. as from ulter, 

farther, more distant, more advanced, more remote'. 

Old Latin ollus " that, that yonder, that one; emphatically, that well-known; in contrast with 

hie, the former, (sometimes the latter)' {*ol-no-s, compare below Irish Ind-olland Slavic 

*oln/}, newer olle, c»///~"then, next', oll/c' he, she, that, in that place, yonder, there '; 

lengthened grade ollm "in the distant past, once' (probably after Im, exim reshaped and 

with Old Indie par-arr third-last year ' [compare nsp-uai] to be equated *dli, Lok. adverb, 

also the glosses olltana'the aged, old, ancient, of long standing ', olitlnata^ old, inveterate, 

ancient, former, of old times ' can reject - dor 61 -), Umbrian ulo, ulu^ that, that yonder. 

that one; emphatically, that well-known; in contrast with hie, the former, he, she, it yonder, 
that '; influenced by is, /ste etc. the cognates o//us, o//e would be uncolored to ///e'that, that 
yonder, that one; emphatically, that well-known; in contrast with hie, the former, 
(sometimes the latter)'. 

Slavic *c//7/"(lndo Germanic *oln-ei) = Old Church Slavic /an/, Czech /on/, poln. /o/?/" in 
the last summer, last year ' (' that year ', compare Latin o//rat that time, then'). 

The meaning from Irish a//far, a//a/c/{see below) also allows that the relationship of Old 
Indie arana-^ far, strange ' (= Avestan auruna- 'wild'?), arad'iroru a distance', are^ far ' 
seems possible. Moreover also maybe Old Indie an " of strangers, stranger ', ar{/)ya- " 
suitable, proper to the stranger ' (compare Old High German e//-/ent/' foreign land '), then 
Subst. " hospitable, lord, master, ruler, man ', in addition ar{/)ya- " to ar{/)ya- , suitable, 
hospitable ', hence, VN ' Arier = Aryan', arya/ca- " venerable man ', aryaman- n. " 
Hospitality ', m. ' Guest's friend '; 

maybe Arn'anes lllyrian TN. 

Avestan a/ryd{= arya). Old pers. ar/ya{= ar/ya), " Aryan ', Avestan a/ryaman' guest, friend 
', npers. erman^ guest ', in addition sarmat. VN AAavoi (osset. *a/an), osset. //'"Ossete', 
/ino/y'Ossetic' " Ossetic ' (P. Thieme*), the stranger in the Rigveda, fig. f. d. client d. 
Morgenl. XXIII 2, 1938; Specht KZ. 68, 42 ff.); 

Old Irish a/re{*anos) and a/rec/i' nobleman, of noble people, suitor ' can belong to 
preposition a/r- " in front of ', thus ' standing in the first place ', (Thurneysen ZCP. 20, 354); 
mythical Irish ancestor Erem6n\s scholar neologism to En'u^ Ireland '. see below ar/o-^ 
lord, god, master'. 

*) Thus Thieme (aaO. 159 f.) properly puts here reinforcing prefix gr. £pi-( reduced 
grade api-), e.g. api-yvajToc; " easily (the stranger) recognizable ', Old Indie ari-eic surely 
must lead back to Indo Germanic *er- . Thieme puts further here Old Indie sun-^ master, 
ruler, lord' as su-n- " hospitable ' and n'-sadas " worry for sustaining the stranger '. 

Old Irish o//M\. " honorable, large, extensive ', actually ' above (the ordinary) going out 
(formally = Latin o//us, Indo Germanic *o/nos), compounds {/i)u////u^ farther, more ', Adv. 
ind-o//^ ultra, extreme ', from which maybe also /nnonn, /nnunn^ over, beyond ' (with 

assimilation in collaboration with inonn^ the same, identical'; (common Celtic -ns- > -nn-), 
Thurneysen KZ. 43, 55 f.; Pedersen KG. II 195), ol-chen(a)e^ in addition, but ', actually " 
on the other side (and) therefrom on this side '; ol-foirbthe' pluperfect, past perfect ', oldau, 
oldaas' when I, when he ', actually " about (the) outside, what I am, what he is ', inaiir 
certain, sure ', actually ' situated on the other side ' (of it inoillus' confidence, security'; 
/nuMg ud'protecWon, safety'; with o/C/)^ ultra, beyond ' maybe corresponds o/' says ' as " 
ultra, beyond, further ', originally in the report in a continuous speech). The conjunction o/' 
because, sice ' keeps Thurneysen Grammar 559 against it for related with cymr. o/' 
footprint '. 

Besides with a: Old Irish 5/ (with Akk.) " on the other side, over - beyond ' (simplification 
from *a//\n the pretone). Adv. fa//{ *to-al-na) ' on the other side, there ', anair from on the 
other side, from there, over here ', with suffixed Pron. of the 3rd person all, allae, newer 
alla^ beyond, on the other side ' (proves original dissyllabic old formation also of the 
prepositional form is not provided with pronominal suffix, see Thurneysen KZ. 48, 55 f., 
thus not from without ending Indo Germanic *c»/or *al)\ derivatives: alltar^ the world of the 
dead, the other world, hereafter ', also from ' to savage areas situated on the other side ', 
alltarach' otherworld, ulterior, thithertho '. 

Gall, alla^ another, other, different ', a//c»5 'second' (Thurneysen ZCP. 16, 299), VN Allo 
broges= mcymr. ail-fro^ exiled, ostracized, banished' (to Z^Ao'land'), all-tud^ foreigner', 
acymr. allann, (common Celtic -ns- > -nn-), ncymr. allan' outdoors, outside '; Old Irish all- 
slige " the second cutting out '. 

Gothic alls. Old Icelandic allr. Old English eall Old High German aira\\\ besides in the 
compound Germanic ala- (without -/7c>-suffix) in Old Germanic matron's names Ala-teivia, 
Ala-gabiae e\.c, Gothic ala-mans^ all people, humanity ', Old High German ala-warr totally 
true ' (Modern High German albern); compare Old Irish oll-athair (epithet of Irish God's 
father Dagdae " the good God ') = Old Norse aA/pdA (epithet of Odin), ' all father '. 

Latin alers, allers^ taught; learned, instructed, well-informed; experienced, clever, 
shrewd, skilful ' according to Landgraf ALL. 9, 362, Ernout El. dial. Latin 104 from *ad-ers, 
*allers (contrast to iners). 

From an adverb *air there, in a specific place, in each case ' (differently Debrunner 
REtlE. 3, 10 f.) have derived: 

alios^ other': 

Armenian air other'; 

gr. hKKoc, "other' (Cypriot aiAo(;), n. aAAo, compare aAAo5-an6(; ' from elsewhere, from 
another place, strange ' (= Latin aliud, forms as in Latin longinquus 'far removed, far off, 
remote, distant'), in addition aAAriAwv etc ' each other', aAAaiTU) ' makes different, changes 
', aAAavn variation, change, exchange, trade ': aAAorpioc; ' becoming another, strange ', 
from Old Indie a/Tya/ra "somewhere else' corresponding adverb; 

Maybe zero grade in alb. {*nyatra) tjeter'other' [common alb. n > nt > t[ : Old Indie anyatra 
"somewhere else'. 

Latin alius= Oscan a//c» "other things', n. aliud= gr. aAAo, in addition from the adverb air. 
a//enus 'strange' (from *alHes-nos), ali-quis, ali-cubi e\.c\ Comparative alter, -era, -erum^ 
one from two ' = Oscan a/Z/Aa/r? 'alteram' (from *allteros-), by Plautus also altro; in 
altrlnsecus, alfrovorsum the syncope is caused by the length of the whole word; here also 
alferare, adulter, alternus, altercarr, 

gall, alios (Loth RC. 41 , 35), Old Irish alle (*alios), n. 5/7/ (from adverbial 5//from *al-na; 
palat. /comes from alle), cymr. all, bret. e//(from *ellus. Comparative *alllds), doubled Old 
Irish alalle, aralle, n. alalll, aralll, mcymr. etc arall, PI. erelll {llixom the adverb alfy, 

Gothic alJIs "other', but only in compositions, as Old Saxon ell-lendlu. ' foreign land ', 
Old High German el/-lent/6s. = Modern High German ' woefulness ', Gothic alja-leiko^ 
other, different ', Old Icelandic elllgar, ellar. Old English elllcor, elcor^ other, otherwise, ', 
Old High German elichor^ further', and in adverbs, like Old English elles, engl. e/se" 
other, different ', Old Norse alla^ otherwise ' etc.; a comparative formation *allra\s Old 
English eira " other '; 

Tocharian A alya-k^, B alye-k^'ahKoq i\q' ( *alle-k^, Pedersen Groupement 26, 
Tocharisch 117); unclear is the absence of palatalization in A alak^^ other ', alam^' each 
other', B alam^ somewhere else', a/e/s/e 'strangers'; 

ostiran. etc hal-cF any (thing) available, etc '. 

References: WP. I 84 ff., WH. I 30, 32 f., Feist 33 b, 39 a, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 614. 

About the sound change from *anJosto * alios see Debrunner REtlE. 3, 1 ff., about 
angebl. pejorative character of a see Specht KZ. 68, 52, Die alten Sprachen 5, 115. 

See also: About anioss. under S. 37 {an2). 

Page(s): 24-26 

Root / lemma: al-2 

Meaning: 'to grow; to bear' 

Material: Old Indie a/7-a/a- ' fire ' (' the glutton ', W. Schuize KZ. 45, 306 = Kl. Schr. 216); 

gr. veaAnq " cheerful, strong ' (v£0(; + al-\ about cpuraAiri see below); 

Latin aid, -ere, -ul, -itum " to nourish, support, rear, feed, bring up '; alescere^ grow up, 
prosper ', coalescere'qro^ together', adolescere'qrov^ up' {adultus' grown up, adult, 
mature '), abolescere' to perish ' (in addition appears aboleo, -ere^ destroy, exterminate ' 
as a Transitive to be newly shaped, partly after (ad)augescd\ (ad)auged, esp., however, 
after synonymous delevT, delea, 

the reminiscence in oAAupii, airoAAupi would be then deceptive; (differently WH. I 4), Latin 
indoles^ native constitution or quality; nature, disposition, character, talents ', subo/es' a 
sprout, shoot, offspring, progeny ', proles {*pro-oles) " offspring, descendants, posterity; 
the young men of a race; of plants, fruit ' (of it proletarius 'a citizen of the lowest class, 
serving the state only by begetting children'; these three with ofrom a before dark /, not 
with Indo Germanic o ablaut, wie Hirt Abl. 162 accepts); a//mentumloo6, nourishment', 
a//mdn/a,-/um' food, maintenance '; 

Old Irish a//m "be nourishing'; here probably also cymr. a/u, Middle Breton halaff, nbret. 
a/5 "bear, give birth to', cymr. a/f. "act of giving birth, progeny, people', a/afm. "wealth' = 
Old Irish a/ami. "herd', of it a/maeds .; 

Gothic Old English alan{dl) " grow up ' (intr. like Latin adoleo). Old Icelandic ala{dl) " be 
nourishing, produce ', Gothic aliPs^ fattened ' (participle of a Kaus. *aljan= Norwegian 
dial, eija); Old Icelandic elskr^ inspired by love ', e/s/ra "love' (see to the meaning- 
development Falk-Torp below elske). 

With /- formant: 

Gr. av-aATO(; "insatiable, gluttonous'; "AAtk;, akaoo, {*ak\\-o(^ n. " holy grove ', Latin alius 
"high' (i.e. "large-scale grown'). Middle Irish c»/o'"height; shores, coast', cymr. 5///"side of a 
hill, wooded hills', acorn, as, bret. aot, aoo^'coast'. Old Saxon aid. Old High German (etc.) 
a//"old' (actually' grown tall '), Old High German alton'put off, delay' ("make old'); 

maybe alb. geg {*n'alt) nalt'\r\\gh' > alb. Tosc {*nalt, lant} /5/t"high' [n/l allophone^. 

*a/t/a\so in Gothic a/dsi. " period, lifetime ', Old English /e/d^ period, lifetime, age, old age 
' (PI. /e/de, Old Saxon e/d/"peop\e, humans'). Old Horseg/dt 'time, age, PI. people'; *a/t/o 
//7 0scan altinum, thus " food, provisions, aliment ' = Latin *altidnum. Old Irish comaltae^ 
foster brother' = mcymr. cyfeillt^seri, slave', ncymr. cy/^/// 'friend' {*komal-tios), mcymr. 
eillt (*altios) "pupil, hero'. Old Irish inailt{ *eni-altJ) " servant ', Gothic alt^eis ( *altios) ' old ' = 
Old Irish al1{a)e^ brought up '; 

*altro- in Old Irish altram^ food ', a/Zm 'nursing father' (cymr. athraw^teacher' etc., see 
Pedersen KG. I 137); Old Norse a/drm. (Gen. a/drs) "age, lifetime, old age'. Old English 
ea/dorl\ie', Old Saxon a/dar, Old High German a/tar^o\6 age, age'. 

With m- formant: 

Gr. aApa n. "grove', cpuraApiot; epithet of Zeus and Poseidon (also OuraAioq, name of 
Poseidon in isthmian Troy, OuraAoc;, for what hom. cpuTaAir) "tree nursery' as an abstract 
noun, see Bechtel Lexil. 331); Latin 5//77i/s "nourishing, feeding (age/), blessing-donating, 
sweet, kind, sublime'. Maybe here FIN thrak. Almus, lllyrian (?) Almo {Rom), Alma 
(Etruria), abrit. *Alma, engl. Yealm. 

mabe alb. /7e//77 "healing drug, posion, medicine, herb' similar to Sanskrit ^/a- "poison', 
obviously alb. and gr. have preserved the old laryngeal h-. 

clearly alb. shows that from Root / lemma: al-2\ " to grow; to bear; grove' derived Root/ 

lemma: el-3\ ol-\ "to rot, poison'. 

Maybe lllyrian Amalthea^\he goat that nourished Zeus'. 

Tocharian A alym- " life, mind '. 

d- extensions: Old Indie fd-, ida' refreshment, donation, oblation, gift '; gr. aASaivw " 
allows to grow, strengthens ', aASnoKU) 'grows', avaA5nq " not thriving; growth restraining ', 
aA5opai " brings forth, produce, create ' (Kapnou(;). 

Maybe alb. Geg ardh-\dh- extension as in satem languages] "come, (*climax), be born', 
ardhunaP\. "yields, profits'. 

d'^- extensions: Old \v\6\c rdhnoti, rnaddhi, rdhati, rdhyati^ prospers, succeeds, does 
succeed, manages', Avestan aradaV he allows to prosper ', aradat-^ cause prospering ', 
Old Indie ardhuka-^ thriving ' (Specht KZ. 64, 64 f.); 

gr. aAGaivu), aAGw "heals', aAGopai " grows, heals '; Old Swedish alda^ fruit-carrying oak ', 
Old Icelandic aldin^ tree fruit, esp. eatable (fruit or seed of the oak tree, acorn) '. 

References: WP. I 86 f., WH. I 4, 31 f. 
Page(s): 26-27 

Root / lemma: al-4 
Meaning: "to burn' 

Material: Old Indie alatamu. " fire, blaze, coal ' (also u/mukam'ike'); Latin adoleo^ to 
worship, offer sacrifice, burn a sacrifice; to sacrifice on an altar; in gen., to burn; to smell ', 
adolesco, -ere " flare up (from altars), to grow up, come to maturity, to be heaped up, or 
perhaps to burn ' (ofrom a as in etymological-different adolescere^ to grow up, come to 
maturity, to be heaped up, or perhaps to burn ' to aid, see below *a/-2^ grow'), a/tarel'\re 
altar' (with difficult o ablaut Umbrian uretu^ toward turning to vapor '); 
New Swedish a/a" blaze, flame ' (Johannsson ZfdtPh. 31, 285 following ms. Lithuanian); 
but in question gr. aAaPn av9paK£(; Hes.; view also from Latin a/acer "quick, lively, 
animated', Gothic aljanu. "zeal' etc. was possible as " igneous, quick-tempered ' 
(Johansson aaO.); about Old English selan^ burn ' see *5ic|h-. 

Maybe belongs here gall. MS Alatus, Middle Irish alad^ multicolored, dappled, striped ' 
(if originally 'burnt') = nir. a/ac//? "trout' {alato-). 

Maybe alb. a//e're6 color'. 

References: WP. I 88, WH. I 13, EM. 88. 
Page(s): 28 

Root / lemma: al-5{*hel-) 

Meaning: "to grind' 

Material: Old Indie anu-^ fine, thin, very small ' {*a/-nu-), Hindi and Bengali ata' flour ' 

(below likewise; Kuhn KZ. 30, 355; different Specht Dekl. 125). 

Avestan asa{*arta-) " crushed, ground' (HiJbschmann ZdMG. 38, 428, Spiegel BB. 9, 
178 A. 1). 

Armenian afam " grinds', afaur/{ *alatrio-) " mill ', aleur- " flour ' (in spite of /instead of / 
not borrowed from aAsupov, HiJbschmann Arm. Gr. I 414), aiaxin' servant ', aVf young 
girl ' (Meillet BSL. 37, 72). 


The inanimate suffix -ur- : Armenian aiauri{ *alatrio-) " mill ' : UAupioi , oi, lllyrians, UAupia 
, n, lllyria, also'lAAupi^ , n, Adj. 'lAAupiKO? , li, 6v, lllyrian: -kpi, the region or province of 
lllyria, 'lAAupi^O) , speak the lllyrian language, 'IAAupia:-hence Adv. lAAupiaii. 

Gr. ciAe: qAeu) " grinds, crushes ' *, aAsTai AiGoi " millstone, grindstone ', aKz^oo, and 
cxKz^bc, " the milling, the grinding ', aAsTcbv 'mill', aAsTpsuu) "grind', aA£[F]ap, PI. dAEiara 
(stretched from aAsara; Schuize Qunder ep. 225) 'flour' (from it contracted *aAr|Ta called 
out of the new sg. aAr|TOv aAsupov Hes.; aAr|T0-£i5n(; Hippokr., aAnTwv aAsupajv Rhinthon), 
aAeupov (*aA£-Fp-ov) " wheat flour', oXwoc, " flimsy ' ( " pulverized, crushed, ground'), aAi^ 
' miller who grinds the spelt, wheat ' (from it Latin 5//ica 'spelt, or a drink prepared from 
spelt' ds). 

*) Also £Au|JO(; "millet', oAupa "spelt', ouAai, Attic oAai "ground coarse grain' (*oAF-, not 
after J. Schmidt KZ. 32, 382 from *aAF-) would be compatible, perhaps, phonetically (then 
word root would be *el-, *ol-, %/-). 

References: WP. I 89. 
Page(s): 28-29 

Root / lemma: a/p- 

Meaning: "small, weak' 

Material: Old Indie a/pa-, a/paka-smaW, slight, flimsy ' {alpena, alpaV light, fast '); to unite 

heavily in the definition with Lithuanian alpstu, alpau, alpti^ become unconscious ', alpus^ 

weak ', Latvian elpe^ taking air, breath ', alpa' " one time, time, moment in time '. 

apposition also from hom. aAana5v6(; (from Aeschylos Aana5v6(;) 'weak', aAana^w ' 
exhaust, make tired, weaken; drain, empty '. 

Zero grade in (under the influence of lllyrian) Attic Aana^u) ' despoil, pillage', AanaiTU) " 
empty (the body) ' is doubtful because of their to two-syllables root words compared with 
the light ones Old Indie and Lithuanian words; also they suit, as well as to them, added to 
AaTTap6(; " slender, thin, having hollow body ', Aanapa " flank, swell of the body in the hip ', 
KauaQoQ, " cavity, pit ', AanaGoq " sorrel, rumex ' in the meaning colouring ("empty, sunken, 
shrunken '). Quite dubious also alb. (Jokl SBAk. Wien 168, I 48) laps' be tired of, sick of, 
bored with '. 

Maybe in e- grade alb. lepjete' sorrel, rumex ' : gr. AanaGoc;" sorrel, rumex '. 
Maybe Latin lapso -are'to slip, stumble'. 

On account of here Hittite al-pa-an-da- {alpant-) 'ill, weak, small, flimsy'? 
Proto-Altaic: *alpa 

Meaning: unable, sick; being at service, man-at-arms 
Turkic: *alp- 
Mongolian: *alba-n 
Tungus-Manchu: *alba- 
Korean: *arpha- 
Japanese: *apar- 

Comments: Poppe 85, 121 (Turk-Mong.); TMN 2, 110-111. 
Proto-Kartvelian: *valp- 
English meaning: weak 
Georgian: Gur. yalp- 

References: WP. I 92, Couvreur H 106 f., WH. I 786, Hirt Indo Germanic Gr. II, 158. 
Page(s): 33 

Root / lemma: alu-{-d-, -t-) 

Meaning: "bitter; beer' 

Material: Gr. aAu5(o)ipov niKpov napa Icbcppovi Hes., aAu5|jaiv£iv [niKpaivsiv?] Hes. (see, 
however, to meaning Herwerden Lex. Graec. suppl. 45); Latin a/ufa^ soft leather; a shoe, 
purse or patch, beauty patch ' and a/umen' alum ' are simply extensions from *a/u-. 

The root appears in Northern Europe with the definition " beer, mead ' (compared to the 
meaning difference Church Slavic kvasb ' alum, beer '); in. g/n. ' Beer, carousal ', g/drn. 
'Carousal' {*alut^ra-). Old English ealu{d) n. 'beer'. Old Saxon in alofat. Middle High 
German in al-schaf drinking vessel'; 

maybe alb. a//e'red (color of beer?) ' 

hence from Root / lemma: a/-2: (to grow; to bear) could have derived Root/ lemma: a/u-{- 

d-, -t-y. (bitter; beer). 

From it borrows Old Prussian aluu. "Mead', Lithuanian alus (m. become as medus = 
Prussian meddou .; J. Schmidt Pluralbild. 180), Church Slavic c»/b(m. become like medi^) 
" beer '. is also borrowed by Finnish olut^ Beer ' from Germanic 

References: WP. I 91, WH. I 34. 
Page(s): 33-34 

Root / lemma: arrid^i, np^i 
Meaning: "around, from both sides' 

Material: Armenian amboij^ entirely, unscathed ' (to Oi^" healthy '), gr. apcpi " around ' 
(aijcpi-c; " to both sides ', with the same adverbial -sas z. B. aip, AiKpi(pi(;, s.Brugmann Grdr. 
I|2 2, 737); 

Latin amb- (before vowel, e.g. ambigo), am-, a/7- (before consonant, e.g. amputo, amicid 
from * arr{bi\jacid) inseparable prefix " round about, around, all around ', Old Latin also 
preposition am " around ' m. Akk. {ambi- for the purposes of "both' also anceps\N\\\c\\ is 
against late formation it points to ambo), Umbrian amb- {amboitu), a- {a-ferum " to carry 
round, take round; esp. of the eyes, to turn all round; in religion, to lustrate, purify , by 
carrying round consecrated objects. Transf., to spread, esp. to spread news '), an-{an- 
ferener^ bearing round '), Oscan amvfannud^ a going round, circling, revolving, revolution, 
detour ', amnud' a going round, circling, revolving, revolution, a cause, reason, motive, 
inducement, occasion, opportunity ' (barely *amb-beno- : venio, however no- derivation, s. 
V. Planta II 32, 623); with -er- extension aiier praeter-eo, intered{see v. Planta II 455, WH. 
I 36); Umbrian ampretu, ambretuto' ambit, circuit', maybe also Oscan amfreV flanked ' 
(rather to Schuize KZ. 45, 182 = Kl. Schr. 468 to disassemble in *am-ferent^Vc\ey bear 
round, nspiayouai'; 

not Latin trails of the same -er- extension in amfractus^ a turning, a bend. Transf., legal 
intricacies, circumlocution, digression ', rather from am-fractus)\ about PN Amiternum s. 
Schuize Latin Eig. 541; 

with //- extension (after pes-/, per-t. Buck Elementarbuch 65) Oscan ampV around ' (as 
Umbrian ambr-a\. first due to from amf- before consonant simplified am-)\ alb. mbi, mbc^ 
over, by, on, in ' (G. Meyer Alb. Wb. 265). 

/pb^'/;Old Indie abhf-tah, Avestan aiwito^ to both sides, ringed ' (about Avestan aibis. 
Old pers. abismoxQ debatably meaning see Pedersen KZ. 40, 127, Bartholomae IF. 19, 
Beiheft S. 1 06; the ending -s in in historical connection with that of gr. ap(pi(;?); 

Old Indie abhf\s possible the meaning ' around, circum ', Old pers. abiy, Avestan aibT, aiwi 
in the meaning " about, in regard to, from ' from derived *np^iox Indo Germanic *ob'^/or 
continuing in *ebh/; gall, amb'h " around, circum ' (e.g. 'A|j(3i-5pauoi ' living on river Dravos 


cymr. a/77- (through /■ umlaut em-, ym-), corn. bret. am-, em-. Old Irish /mb-, /mm- 'around'; 
Old High German Old Saxon umb/. Old Icelandic umb. Old English ymb, ymbe^ around ' 
(absorbed in Gothic from b/). 

b^^// Gothic b/"\n meaning 'around', with final sound extension in stressed position Old 
Saxon Old English be-, bh. Old High German bi-, bh. Modern High German i6'e/(about 
dubious derivatives see Falk-Torp 37 and 1437 under bilW ' space, period ', 73 and 1437 
under billede^ image '). 

Maybe zero grade in alb. (*a/77bhe) mbe^ at, in', {*airb'^i) mb/'on upon'. 

Falk-Torp 37 and 1437 under MM ' space, period ', 73 and 1,437 under b/7/ecfe ' p\cture'). 

arrto^ofuj ' both ': 

Gr. apicpu) ' both ' (derivative ap(p6T£po(; ' each or both of two '); Latin ambo, -ae, -o' 
both '; 

Maybe gr. apcpicpopsui; ' a large jar with two handles ' maybe lllyrian shortened apcpopsui; 
[shortened for apcpicpopeug,] I. an amphora, jar, urn, Hdt., etc. 

Proto-IE: *ab-, *amb- 

Meaning: a k. of vessel 

Old Indie: ambarfsa- m.n. 'frying-pan' 

Lithuanian: abrina-s, dial, abre ' butter can, butter pot ' 

Lettish: abra, abris ' kneading trough ' 

Old Prussian: aboros ' laceration ' Voc. 228 

Latin: obba, -ae f. ' a vessel large at the bottom ' 
Celtic: Ir uibne ' small drinking vessel' 
References: Fraenkel s.v. abrinas 

Old Indie ubhau^ both ', Avestan uwa-6s.; Lithuanian abu, Old Church Slavic oba 
ds.; Gothic ba/'m., ban., Gen. * baddje {bajdt^s, see to the formation Brugmann Grdr. I|2 2, 
77; different - in the outcome to Latin nostrates- "of our country, native' Pick 111-^ 255), Old 
Saxon be thie. Old English ba, t^a, engl. both. Old High German beide, bede. Old Norse 
bader. Gen. beggja^ both ' (: Gothic *baddje< bajie); Tocharian A ampi, ampe, B ant-api. 

From these would be regarded Old Indie ubhau, Avestan uwaye\. as composition with u- 
" two ' (Latin uTgintl); Sommer IF. 30, 404 denies such u- and regards the Aryan forms as 
caused by the labial evaporation *db^au= *irb^dumVc\ reference to Old Indie Kubera-h 
from *Kaberah {coxw^are patronymic Kaberaka-h; Wackernagel KZ. 41, 314 ff). Lithuanian 
abu. Old Church Slavic oba are probably based on reorganization from *amb-o at a time, 
as preposition *anib'^/" around ' was given up in favour of *obh/(ab. obb, s. Latin Oi&'with 
ace, in front of, before; in return for; because of, on account of). 

The relation *arrb^d (u), *5/77bh/;- Gothic etc. bai, bi\e\.s it be dubious barely that am- 
(maybe from an-4} is the first composition part, the second part is Indo Germanic 'h^ou 

References: WP. I 54 f., WH. I 36 f.. Feist 74 a, 88, Pedersen Tocharisch 82. 
Page(s): 34-35 

Root / lemma: ames- or omes- 

Meaning: 'blackbird' 

Note: (: mes-\ ams- or *oms-)7 

Material: Full grade would be located just before the first syllable in Old High German 

amusia, amsala. Old English osle " blackbird ', full grade the second syllable in Latin 

{*meisula) morula^ a blackbird; a fish, the sea-carp ' (Kluge EWb.''2 s. v.) and cymr. 

mwyalch, acorn, moelh, bret. /77c»^a/c77" blackbird' (possible basic form *mesalka or 

*misalka after Pedersen KG. I 73, where difficult suppositions about Irish smol, smolach 


Maybe through metathesis Welsh mi/vya/chen 'b\ackb\r6' , Irish smo/, smo/ach 'thrusW : alb. 

mellenje ' b la ckb i rd ' . 

Differently - because of Indo Germanic meis-, mois-, mis- - Schrader Sprcompare^ 367, 
3|| 140, Fick l|4 205: morula from *misula, cymr. mwyalch etc from meisalka, finally, with - 
oz-Old High German *moisa. Old English maso. Old Icelandic moisingr^ titmouse '. 

However, it will be covered latter in the meaning divergent group of Wood KZ. 45, 70 
probably more properly in the Adj. */77a/S5-' small, tiny ' because of Norwegian Dialectal 

meis^ thin, frail person ', meiseleg^ tliin and weal< ', West Fiemisli mijzen' crumble ', 
mejzer a little bit, tiny bits '. The comparison of Latin with British words is most reliable. 

References: WP. I 53 f., WH. II 77 f. 
Page(s): 35-36 

Root / lemma: ama- 
Meaning: " move forward energetically ' 
See also: see below oma-. 
Page(s): 36 

Root / lemma: am-1, me- 

Meaning: to grab' 

Material: Old Indie amatramu. " vessel, jug, big drinking bowl ', Armenian a/77a/7 'vessel', 

maybe to Latin ampla{*am-la) " handle, handhold ', amplus {*am-los) " extensive, far, 

spacious, considerabe '. 

References: WP. I 52 f., WH. I 41 f. 
See also: S. under me-1. 
Page(s): 35 

Root / lemma: am-2, me- 
Meaning: " mow ' 
See also: see below me-2ds. 
Page(s): 35 

Root / lemma: anA^er-, ijA^er- 

Meaning: "stem, spike' 

Material: Nur griechisch: aGrip " an ear of corn ', av0£pi^ " stalk point, stalk ', av0£piKO(; " 

Stalk, stem of a plant ', avGepscbv " chin ' as " bearded, shaggy place ', av9piaK0(; ' the 

common chervil ', named after his prickly fruit, avGpnvr), av9pr|5u)v " wasp, forest bee ', 

word outcome after TSvGpnvr) ' corneous '; 

Tav9pr|5u)v " wasp ' (here maybe av9pu)no(; from *av9po-u)no(; " with bearded face = man 

', then " man, person ', GiJntert Heidelberg. SB. 1915, Abh. X?; compare also Schwyzer 

Gr. Gr. I 4264. 

After Kretschmer Gl. 28, 246 from *av5p-u)n6(;, the rough breathing of opaw etc 
figurative?); from also aGapn (*a0apFa), aGnpa ' wheat gruel, Spelt miller ' (von Plin. n. h. 
22, 121 however identified as agypt. word)? 

References: WP. I 45. 
Page(s): 41 

Root / lemma: anA"^-, aned^- 

Meaning: "to grow, bloom, blossom, young woman, young cow ' 

Material: Old Indie andhahu. " Soma plants '; Armenian and^ field '; gr. ayQoc, n. ' flower, 

bloom ', avGsu) ' blossoms ', avGnpoq {*-es-ro-) " blossoming ' etc; alb. ende{*an6'^dn) ' 

blossom, flower', endem^ blossoms ' (efrom present *efrom *an6,^d}\ Tocharian A ant, B 

ante^ open space, area '. 

Middle Irish ainder, aindir^ young woman ', cymr. anner^ young cow ', PI. anneirod, 
(common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), acymr. enderic^ a bull-calf; also of the young of other 
animals ', cymr. enderig^ bull, ox ', bret. ounner {Treg. annouar, Vannes annoer) " heifer, 
young cow '; moreover French (l)andierxx\. " fire goat, Aries ', also "poppy' (= ' young girl ', 
compare Italian madona, fantina^'^O'^'^Y), further to Basque andere^ woman', iber. FN 
Andere, Anderca, MN Anderus, maybe Celtic Origin? ( *andero-^ blossoming, young '?). 

According to Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 339 here gr. av-nvoGs ' came out, bubbled out; ', snsv- 
nvoGs " reside on top of ', KaTsv-nvoGs ' canopied, covered ', etc. 

In spite of the a little bit divergent meaning probably also here with zero grade *i^^: 

Old Indie adhvanru. = Avestan advanm. ' way, road ', for what Old Indie adhvara-h 
religious action (*Soma-) sacrifice, ceremony ' (originally ' course of action, way' - " 
ceremonious way ') from *n6'"uero-, and probably also with suffix ablaut (*n&^uro-) isl. 
gndurrm. " a kind of snow shoe '. 

References: WP. I 45, 67, P. Benoit ZrPh. 44, 3 ff., 69 ff. 
See also: Here belongs probably: and^er-, ij6!^er-. 
Page(s): 40-41 

Root / lemma: anA'^o- 
Meaning: 'blind, dark' 

Material: Old Indie andha-, Avestan anda-^ blind, dark ', gall, andabataxw. " a gladiator 

who fought with a helmet without openings ' (to Celtic loanword Latin battud^ to beat, 

knock '). 

References: WP. I 182, WH. I 46. 

Page(s): 41 

Root / lemma: an(9)-3^henah^ 

Meaning: "to breathe' 


Root/ lemma: an(a)-3\ to breathe' derived from a reduction of Root/ lemma: anghen-: 

"smell, odour; person' as in Armenian sat//? (for older *anj). Gen. anjin^ soul, being, person 

': Old Norse ang/m. " odour, smell ' : alb. aA7y"swell, puff' [common alb. ng > nj\. 

Material: Old Indie ^/7/// "breathes' (also thematically anati), anila-h "breath, breeze, wind', 

^/7a-/7 (maybe "breath' or " mouth, nose ', ana-nam^ mouth, muzzle, face ' with Indie 

Vrddhi; "mouth' as "breath, the breathing '); p/a/?///" breathes'; 

Avestan antya, parantya " of the inhaling and exhaling ' ( *anti- " breathing ' with a and 
para; see Bartholomae IF. 7, 59; about 5//?///- "mildness' see, however, Airan. Wb. 125 f.). 

Gr. av£[jO(; " breath, wind ', avr|V£piO(; (with stretch in the compound), vnvspot; " 
windless, calm ', nvspoEiq " rich in wind ' (rj- metrical stretch), avspcbAioq (" windy ', i.e.:) " 
trifling, in vain ' (dissimilated from avspcbviot;, see last Bechtel Lexil. 44, also 226, about 
that probably from *p£T-av£pu)vioc; by extreme dissimilation abbreviated ones psTajjcbvioc; " 
in vain, without success '); different Risch 113; 

compare Frisk Indog. 15; avrai av£|joi dv^ac, nvoia(; Hes. are to change in anrai, anrag. 
Maybe here v£avia(; " youth ' as vsFo-av- " new wheeze ', after Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 426^; 
also aa9|ja " breathlessness, suffocation ', aaO. 337. 

Latin animus^ mind, soul ', anima^ wind, breath, soul, lives ' (Oscan anamum^ air, a 
current of air, breeze, breath, wind '), of it animar living being, animal ', halo, - are 
"breathe, smell' (Denominative *an-slo-;W\\h phoney h, the sound value described here 
attained and also penetrated in an(h)-elare, about latter see *an4). 

Old Irish anal, cymr. anadrbreatW, Middle Breton 5/az/7 (metathesis), nbret. bolan 
{*ana-tlo-); mcymr. enelt, ncymr. enald'souV {*ana-tT-), abrit. PN Anate-moros^ 
warmhearted, bighearted '; 

Old Irish animm, nir. anam'so\i\\ Gen. anman {stem *ana-mon; the /■ color of the Norn. sg. 
after neutr. -men-siem s. Pedersen KG. II 61; to the intersection with Latin animai. 
"breath, wind, Old Irish Transf., the breath of life, vital principle, soul' see Pokorny ZfcPh. 
10 69 f.), corn, eneff. Middle Breton eneff{P\. anaffon) nbret. anaoun'souV (umlauted 
corn, and bret. forms probably loanword from Latin, see Vendryes De hib. voc. 1 12 f., 
Pedersen KG. I 170, II 111); 

in addition Old Irish c»s/7ao' "sighs' {uss-anad), further ("catch one's breath = rest, relax ') 
anaid^ remains, rests, stops ', con-osna^ desist, cease ' {com-uss-an-) etc. (see Pedersen 
KG. II 455 f., 672); mcymr. anantP\. " bards, poets ', cyn-an\v\ "word, praise '; 

Gothic uz-anan {pretent uzon) "exhale'; with /-formant: Old Norse gnd, g. andar\. 
"breath, breath of life, life, soul ' (= gr. avrai), anda, -ada^ breathe, gasp ' = Old English 
o^/a/7 "puff strongly'. Old Norse andim. "breath, mind, soul'. Old Frisian omma{*an-ma) 
"breath'. Old English orod{*uz-ant^-) "breath' *; maybe here Old High German unst. Old 
Icelandic Old English ys/f. "storm' from *n-sti-\ 

maybe alb. a/yo^a "taste, smell' [common alb. n > nd\: Old Norse anda, -ada "breathe, 

*) In addition also Old Saxon ando. Old English anda, a/7c»^a "excitement, rage, sorrow'. 
Old High German anado, ando, a/7/o "annoyance, rage'. Middle High German ande 
"feeling of insult'. Old High German anadon, anion. Middle High German andenlet out 
one's rage'. Modern High German avenge under a mid definition "gasp before excitement' 
(Kluge s. v., -Falk-Torp 5 and 1428 under aand, Schroder Abl. 9). About second a from 
Old High German anado. Old English anodasee Specht Phil. Stud. Voretzsch 36. 

Old Church Slavic vonja {*ania) "smell' {vonjatT scent, smell '), *pc/7a//" smell' in Old 
Russian uchatieic. (-c/7- perhaps imitation from duchati, thus without historical connection 
with sfrom Latin halare^brea\he, emit vapor, be fragrant' from *an-slo-); 

Maybe nasalized alb. {^unhati) nuhat, nuhas'scent, smell', huna, hunda' nose'. 

alb. Geg aj, Tosc enj"\ swell, impregnate ', Geg ay^/? "conceited, puffed' kenjem, gnem 
"incense' {*kc-{a)nemo- Jok\ Stud. 37); (Clearly the initial meaning in alb. Geg aJ, Tosc enj 
"I swell, impregnate' was "puff with air'.) 


From Root / lemma: an(a)-3\ "to breathe' derived in zero grade Root/ lemma: nas- 

{*andas)\ "nose". 

Tocliarian AB ahm- "life, mind', B a/7/77e "intention', A ancam {* antemo-) "existence, 
living, mind' (K. Schneider IF. 57, 203, Pedersen Tocharian 48); also B onolme, wnolme 
"living being'? 

Armenian ho/m'\N\n6' (Bugge IF. 1, 442) abides (in spite of Meillet Lithuanian 6, 3) (see 
Liden Arm. stem 38 f., Peterson KZ. 47, 246). - Old Indie atman'souV rather to Old High 
German 5/i//77 "breath', see et-men. 

Root points beside to two-syllable forms, like Old Indie ani-ti, ani-lah, Ce\Wc*ana-tlo- e\.c, 
and such like av£-po(;, also forms of the monosyllabic word roots, thus Latin *an-slo-> 
halo. Old Norse (?/7o'(etc). 

References: WP. I 56 ff., WH. I 49 f.. Feist 538. 
See also: ansu-, antro- 
Page(s): 38-39 

Root/ lemma: anat-{*ang''h-at-) 

Meaning: duck' 

Material: Old Indie atf-h atTi. " water bird ' (or to Old Icelandic aedr. New Swedish adai. " 

eider duck ' from Germanic *adT- ?); 

Other Iranian: Sak ace, aci "water fowl', Osset occ "wild duck', Pamir Wakh. yoc "duck' 

Greek: cbriq , i5oq, n, ( [ou(;] ) A. bustard, Otis tarda, X.An.1.5.2sq., Arist.HA 509a4, al., 

Ael.NA5.24, Opp.C.2.407; cf. 0UTi(;, 6i\c,. 

Germanic: *ed-i- c. 

Old Norse: ad-r f. " eider duck ' 

Old Swedish: ad, a(r)-fugl 

Swedish: oda 

see Root/ lemma: eff-\ diver, a k. of bird (of waterfowl?) 

gr. vnaaa, Boeotian vaaaa (*vaTia Old Indie atf-h) " duck '; 

common gr.-lllyrian -ks- > -ss- 


The abbreviated Greek form proves the lllyrian origin of the Greek cognates similar to alb. 

medicus > mjek' doctor ' hence lllyrian vaaaa ; alb. rosa : Rumanian ra[Da " duck '. 

Albanian -a feminine ending proves the lllyrian origin. 

Latin anasi. (Akk. anatem and an/tem:G. PI. a\so-t/um) "duck', Germanic *anuc/- and 
*anid\n Old High German enit, anut, NPI. enti. Old Saxon anad. Old English aened. Old 
Icelandic gnd. Modern High German 'Duck'; Balto-Slavic * 5/7/- from *anat-\n Lithuanian 
antis. Old Prussian antis, proto Slavic *gty, serb. utva. Old Russian utovb (Akk.), kir. utja " 

Latin anat/ha {sc\\. card) 'duck's meat': Lithuanian antfenads. 

In occidental Romance languages and lllyrian the old laryngeal ^^ became initial k-: 

French canard, Wallon canard, Wolof kanara, Romagnolo zacvar duck'. 

The initial A- of occidental Romance languages is present in some Slavic languages as 


Czech {*kant-ska) kachna : Slovak kaeica; kaeka : Ukrainian KaHKa kachka : Yiddish 

katshke : Polish kaczka 'duck'. 

Celtic cognates correspond to Basque one: 

Venetian arna; anara, Paduan anara; arna, Italian anatra; anitra, Calabrese anitra, Catalan 

anec, Galician anade, Spanish anade, Basque ahate, Breton {* ang'^h-at-) houad, Cornish 

hos, Welsh {*houad-en) hwyaden; chwadan; hwyad, Valencian anet, Bergamasco nedra, 

Bresciano nedra, Reggiano nader; nadra, Greek gr. vnaaa, Boeotian vaaaa, Albanian 

{*ratsa) rosa, Furlan {*anrata) raze, Hungarian {*anrata) rece, Irish {*anracha) lacha, 

Romanian {*anracha) rafja. 

Maybe rhotacism n/r of alb. {*anracha) rosa' duck ': Rumanian {^anracha) rata' duck ' 

Swedish anka< Finnish ankka' duc\C are related to: 

Proto-Turkic: *An(k)lt 

Meaning: wild duck 

Old Turkic: an+t (OUygh.) 

Karaklianid: ar)it(MK) 

Turkisli: angut 'orapb', ankit (dial.) 

I\^iddle Turkic: anqud (SngI) 

Uzbek: anyirt 'red duck' 

Sary-Yugliur: an+t 

Azerbaidzlian: anGut-boGaz 'fljinHHOujeuM' 

Turkmen: ar)k 'red duck' 

Kliakassian: at 

Karaim: anqlt, ankit 'ostrich, vulture, dragon' 

Kumyk: hanqut 

References: WP. I 60, WH. I 44, Trautmann 10. 
Page(s): 41-42 

Root / lemma: anghen- 

Meaning: "smell, odour; person' 

Material: Armenian anjn{ior older *anj). Gen. anjin^ soul, being, person ' = Old Norse angi 

m. " odour, smell '. 

maybe alb. 5/7/ "swell, puff' [common alb. ng > nj\. 

References: Liden Arm. Stud. 38 f., WP. I 58, Meillet Esquisse 77 ff. 

Page(s): 43 

Root / lemma: angh- {*hengh-) 

Meaning: "narrow, *press' 

Material: Verbal: Avestan qzarjhe^io press', lengthened grade Avestan ny-azata^ she 

squeezes herself into her corset ', ny-azayen " to wedge oneself in ' (with a = 5; ved. 

ahema possibly " let us arm = gird on the sword ' is remote to the meaning; anaha RV. 8, 

46, 5 is unclear); 

Maybe zero grade alb. Geg {*anza-) zane'to capture, grasp, press', Tosc ze\ Avestan 

qzarjhe^io press' [common alb. -gh- > -z-]. 

gr. ayxu) " ties up, strangles ', Latin ango^ to press tightly; of the throat, to strangle, 
throttle; in gen., to hurt, distress; of the mind, to torment, make anxious '; 

Old Church Slavic as /■ verb gzg, gz/t/" restrain '; in addition with zero grade very 
probable Old Church Slavic vgzg, vgzat/" bind ' (suggestion that v- is filling hiatus, see 
Meillet MSL. 14, 369, maybe becomes steady through influence from 1////" coil, bind, wind' 
which may also have influenced meaning?). 

anghu-s' narrow ': Old Indie only in amhu-bhedTi. " narrow lacuna ' and in the Abl. Sg. 
n. arhhoh^ crowdedness, quality of tightly packed together, affliction ' (derivative arhhura-^ 
pressed, unhappy '); gr. in apcpriv (see below); Latin in angiportus {* angu-portus) " narrow 
alley, a narrow street '; 

Gothic aggwus " narrow ' (at first from *aggus, as manwus irom *manus, m/ comes from the 
oblique cases). Old Norse gngr, 0ngr, Old English enge. Old Saxon engi. Old High 
German angi, engT narrow ', Middle High German bange Mn. {bi+ Adv. ango). Modern 
High German bange, furthur derivatives with g. Armenian anjuk^ narrow ', mit /rOld 
Church Slavic gzi^-ki, " narrow '. 

Cymr. e(h)ang (*eks-angu-, Indo Germanic *nghu-) " far, wide, extensive ', mcymr. 
eingyaw^ be restricted, be contained in ... ', Old Irish cumcae {*kom-ingia) gl. " 
compression of the throat, suffocation; of the mind, distress, anguish, trouble ', fairsing^ 
far, wide ' ( *for-eks-ingi-), cumung {* kom-ingu-, Indo Germanic *nghu-) " narrow ', ing^. 
{*nghTj " crowdedness, affliction ', from *kom-angio-C)/vc\r. cyfyng, in this way yA7^ (also ing, 
Morris-Jones, Welsh Gr. 110)' narrow ', Middle Breton encq {*angio-) " narrow '. 

Maybe alb. eA?^ "deaf and dumb (*narrowed)' 

anghos-, anghes^ oppression, affliction, crowdedness ': Old Indie amhas-u. " Fear, 
distress, need ' (as well as amhatf-hi.), Avestan c[zah-' badgering, need, captivity ', qzo- 
Jata^ killed by strangulation ': Latin angorm. " compression of the throat, suffocation; of the 
mind, distress, anguish, trouble ', angus-tus' narrow ' (from *anghos-to-s)\ angustiae^ 
narrowness; hence, of space, a strait, narrow place; 'spiritus', shortness of breath; of time, 
shortness; of supplies, shortness, poverty; of circumstances, difficulty, distress; of 
disposition, narrow-mindedness; of reasoning, subtlety '; 

maybe zero grade in alb. {* angus-tus) ngushte' narrow'. 

about Celtic see above; Old Norse angrrw. (maybe originally more neutrally es-stem, Fick^ 
III 12) ' Annoyance, loss, pity, affliction, frustration ', Old Frisian angost. Old High German 
angust. Modern High German Angst {irorr\ *a/7^/7c»5-//- changing the vowel aiter * anghu-); 
Old Church Slavic gzostb " restriction, constriction, limitation, narrowing '; 

Lithuanian ankstas " narrow ' {k- insertion, not guttural change) cannot stand for *an^a]s- 
tas or *anz-tas. 

Words for " nape ' as ' the narrowest place between head and trunk ' ( the idea also 
plays a role " where one strangles one ' in light of this?): gr. Aeolic apcpriv and aucpnv " 
nape ' (after Schuize GGA. 1897, 909 A. 1, as *aYxF-nv substantivization of ^-Adj. *anghu- 
s by means of forms -en-; 

about auxnv see also Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 296), Gothic hals-agga^ r\a^e\ kir. vjazyP\. 
"Neck', Czech vaz^ neck, nape ' (to v§zatisee above). Old Prussian (as Slavic loanword) 
m'nsus' neck ' (also Armenian i//z' neck, throat, cervix ' with preposition i/-?), see 
Pedersen KZ.38, 311; 39, 402, Vondrak SI. Gr. I 184, Adontz Mel. Boisacq I 10, as well as 
below under augh-, ugh. 

Other formations: gr. ayxovr) " cord, choking, strangling ' (from it Latin ang/na' the 
quinsy, as suffocating '), ayKirip m. " braces, bandage ', ayx'. cjyXoO, ayxoGi " close to ' 

(compare French pres^ close to, near': Latin pressus'a pressing, pressure'), compounds 
ciaaov " nearer, very near ' (*aYX,iov; aaaov hence has changed after jjaaawv = *|jaKiu)v, 
Osthoff MU. 6, 60 ff.); common gr.-lllyrian -ks- > -ss-\ 

bret. concoez^ geode ' {*kom-angeid-\ compare also dial, ancoe^ uvula in the throat '; 
Ernault RC. 7, 314; 19, 314 ff.); Old Church Slavic qzota^ narrowness '. 

Gall. PN Oc/oc/i/ms absents, because Irish ochte^ narrowness, straitness ' does not 

Van Windekens (Lexique 5) puts here Tocharian A amgar^ weak, flimsy (?)'. 

References: WP. I. 62 f., WH. I 47. 
Page(s): 42-43 

Root / lemma: ang''(h)i- {* eg'^hi-, og'^i- and egh/-) 

Meaning: "snake, worm, *fish (*hedgehog = snake eater)' 

Note: eg"/?/-, og^hi- and egh/- ds., at least two etymological different, but early the crossed 

kinship whose relations still are often unclear. 


Root/ lemma: ang''(h)i-\ 'snake, worm, *fish' derived from an extended Root/ lemma: 

angh- {* hengh^: 'narrow, *press' 

Material: Latin 5/7^^/s = Lithuanian angis{i.). Old Prussian angis^ serpent, snake ' 

(Latvian uodzei. ' snake '), Old Church Slavic *gzh, russ. uz, poln. m/^z' snake ', 

Armenian a^y(Gen. -/) ' snake ' (Meillet Esquisse 154, Dumezil BSL. 39, 100); 

Middle Irish esc-ung^ eel ' (*'water snake ', esc' water ' + *ang"hd), cymr. Ilys-yw-en, PI. - 

yw-od ds. (Pick 11^ 15; to brit. zero grade from z;^ before usee Pedersen KG. I 107). 

In addition with zero grade and voiced-nonaspirated (the latter could be in itself also in 
the Latin and Balto-Slavic) Old High German unc^ snake, adder ', gr. (illyr). apsic; £X£i<; 
Hes. {*ng"'f-). Note: common lllyrian g"'- > b-. 

To these forms with voiced-nonaspirated at first is ippr|P"i £YX£^U(;, MsGupvaToi Hes. 
{* eng"-eri-: to i compare Solmsen Beitr. 1215), where because of r- suffixes are to be 
connected Balto-Slavic *anguria-\n Slavic *ggorbrr\. russ. ug(o)rb, poln. wggorz, Czech 
uhdr, Serb, ugor, sloven, oggr^ eel ', Lithuanian ungurys ds. 

(assim. from *angurys, compare Finnish ankerias). Old Prussian angurgis^ eel ' (Church 
Slavic ^gulja, jgguija ' eel' probably from Latin). Hirt IF. 22, 67 connects these gr. and 

Balto-Slavic eel names to an independent equation (nevertlieiess, compare tlie A-suffix of 
Old High German angaretc, see below). 

Another Indo Germanic equation for " eel ' is perhaps gr. eyxs^u^ f., Latin anguilla (see 
esp. W. Meyer KZ. 28, 163, Johansson KZ. 30, 425, J. Schmidt KZ. 32, 369, Osthoff IF. 4, 
270, 292, Hirt IF. 22, 67, Indo Germanic 619 f.), although the details are still unclear (in the 
Gr. *aYX£^uo(; assimilated etc. to zsxthjoc,, or £ and the pure gutural through the influence 
from £xi<;; in Latin -///a instead of-e//a after the fluctuation in real diminutive under 
determining influence / of anguisl). 

With r- suffix: 

Gr. imPhP"^ eel' 

Maybe in -dz- > ^/ending stem: 

Maybe from Greek lllyrian syxsAuc; " eel ' > alb. ngja/e' eel ' [common Albanian Slavic yx- 
> dz-] lllyrian TN Encheleae^ snake men? ' : Hungarian ango/na'eeV [from native lllyrian 
TN Paeones]. 

In the meaning ' worm, maggot ' and with A-suffix (compare above ijjpnP"^ etc) : Old High 
German angar^ grain maggot' ' engirinc^ larva ', Modern High German Engerling, 
Lithuanian ankstiraT^ maggots, cock chafer grubs, grubs ' (and similar forms, see 
Trautmann Old Prussian 301), Latvian anksteri^ maggots, cock chafer grubs ', Old 
Prussian anxdr/s{\.e. anxtris), however, 'adder' (about the -st- these Baltic forms compare 
MiJhlenbach-Endzelin Lett.-D. Wb. I 71), russ. ug(o)rb ' blister, raised bubble on the skin 
that is filled with pus, fin ' (also " eel', see above), poln. wqgry^ blister, raised bubble on 
the skin ' (Bezzenberger GGA. 1874, 1236, BB. 2, 154; not better about angar, ugorb ders. 
GGA. 1898, 554 f.). 

Nasalized forms: 

Gr. £xi<; m. (f.) "snake', £Xi5va ds. (for *£xi5via, Specht Dekl. 377), Old High German 
egala^ leech, bloodsucking worm ', Danish Norwegian igle^ a parasite sheet worm in the 
viscera of the animals and in the skin and the branchia of the fish '. 

Moreover gr. £xTvoc;, Old High German Old English /g//(lndo Germanic *eghinos). 
Modern High German Igel, actually ' snake eater ', W. Schuize Gnomon 11, 407, 
Lithuanian ezys. Church Slavic yiezi. ' hedgehog (snake eater) '. 

Armenian /z" snake, viper ' can be put as *eg"'h/s\.o ocpic; (Meillet Esquisse 75); 

gr. 6(p\q " snake ' {*og"his)\ cymr. euod {*og"h-) " sineep worms ': Old Indie ahi-, Avestan 
azi- " snake '. 

It is uncertain apposition from Old Saxon egithassa. Middle Low German egidesse. Old 
English (corrupted) at^exe. Old High German egidehsa. Modern High German Eidechse 
mit ewi-, egi-, Indo Germanic *og"'hi-= ocpic; (Zupitza gutturals 99 after Kluge; Falk-Torp 
under 0gle) + Germanic *t^ahsid. Old High German *dehsa^ spindle, newel '. 

Whether in this variety so order is to be brought that *arjg"'hi- and *eghi-, *oghi- (gh) an 
intersection form would have caused *eg"hi-, *og"hi- , remains undecided. Taboo images 
have also probably helped in it. 

References: WP. I 63 ff.. WH. I 48, Specht KZ. 64, 13; 66, 56 f.. Havers Sprachtabu 44 f. 
Page(s): 43-45 

Root / lemma: ank-1 
Meaning: "need, necessity' 

In e- grade: 

Brugmann Grdr. 12382) wherewith Irish echt{*anktu-or *nktu-, *enktu-) " manslaughter' at 
first is to be connected (see Falk-Torp 17, 1430), root-like with ank- " compulsion ' (: " 
press, kill '?) originally is same, or connected to *enek- " kill ', as well as Hittite hi-in-kan, 
he-en-kan {henkan) " death, epidemic, plague '. 

Maybe alb. Geg /7e/re 'agony'. 

Old Irish ecen{ec- irom *ank- or *nk-), mcymr. anghen, cymr. angen, corn. bret. anken 
"need, necessity', in Irish also "spoliation, act of violence'. 

In a- grade: 

Gr. avayKri " necessity, compulsion ' (normally as reduplicated respectably), Ionian 
avayKairi ds. (from avcx^Kaxoc, " indispensable, necessary ', avayKa^u) " compelled, forced, 
obliged '); 

Although " compulsion' from " hostile distress, pursuit ' were comprehensible, it makes 
does gr.-Celtic meaning - concordance, nevertheless, doubtful, whether phonetically 

correspondent Old High German ahta^ hostile pursuit ', Modern High German Acht, Old 
English d/7/(proto Germanic *anxtd), Germanic EN Actumerus(\.e. n. Axtumeraz, 1. year 

References: WP. I 60. Pedersen Hittitisch 183 f., Hendriksen Unters. 28, Benveniste 
Origines 155. 
Page(s): 45 

Root / lemma: ank-2, ang- 

Meaning: "to bend, bow, *flex; wangle; turn; curve, snake coil, anchor' 


Old Indie a/7ca//(Middle Persian ancltan) and (zero grade) acati^ bent, crooked ', participle 
-akna-{W\Vc\ a-, ny-, sam-),-akta-{m\h ud-, ny-) 'crooked, bent'; arjka-hru. " bend, hook, 
bend between breast and hip ', arjkas-u. " Bend, inflection, curve, crook ' (= gr. to aYKO(; " 
valley, gulch, canyon, gorge '), arjkasam^ side, points '; arjku-'xu arjkuyant-^ curvatures, 
bends, searching side ways '; 

Avestan anku-pesemna-^ with hooks, adorning themselves with clasps '; 

Old Indie ankuga-h^ hook, fishhook, elephant's sting ', arjkura-h^ young shoot, scion 
(originally germ point, crooked germ), hump, tumefaction, a heavy swell ' (= gr. aYKuAo(; ' 
crooked ', German Anger fishing rod ', Old Norse oil, air cotyledon, germ, sprout, bud ' see 

Avestan Akan\. ' hook, bait ', ^A/75/7 (Bartholomae Stud. 2, 101, Airan. Wb. 359) "rein'; 

gr. ayKcbv ' bow, elbow ' (D. PI. ayKaai to ayKn = ayKaAri), £Tr-r|YK£v-i5£c; " fixed planks in 
the ribs of the ship ' (Doderlein, Bechtel Lexil. 129), ayKOiva ' all writhed, humped, curved, 
stooped ', ayKiGTpov ' fishhook '; aYKuAo(; ' crooked ', ayKuAr) ' strap, thong, brace ' (= Old 
Norse 61 a/ds.), ayKupa " anchor '; ayKaAr) " elbow, bay, all stooped '; to ayKoq (see 

maybe Ancyra -aet capital of Galatia, in Asia Minor, (ancient district in central Anatolia - a 
Celtic, (lllyrian?) settlement). 

With o:6\/Koq " barbed hook ' = Latin uncus' hooked, curved; Subst. hook ' (6ykTvo(; = 
unc/hus' hook, barbed hook '); ungulus' a finger-ring, a ring ' Pacuvius, from Festus 514 
L. as Oscan called, ^/7^^s/i/5 'hook-shaped stuff ' Paulus ex Fest. 519, see below under 
ang-); oyKn yojvia Hes.; 

Maybe from also Latin unguiculus -/m. "a finger or toe-nail', unguis -is m. "a finger or toe- 
nail; of animals, claw, hoof, unguia -aet 'a hoof, claw, talon' : Rumanian ungii/e'naW and 
in zero grade alb. {*nguilist), g/fs/it l\nger, toe' : Latin ungulus^ a finger-ring, a ring ' 
[common alb. -s > -s/ shift]. 

Latin a/7c^5 'somebody having a crooked arm', ancrae^ an enclosed valley, valley, 
gorge' (" curve, canyon, a bay; an inlet ' as to q^koq, = Germanic *angra-)\ 

Old Irish ecath^ fish hook ' = cymr. anghad^ clutch, hand ' (to craf-anc' claw ') from 
*arjl<ato- = Old Church Slavic gicofb ' hook '; 

Maybe zero grade alb. {*ncus) tiiua " nail, claw '. 

gallorom. ancorago, ancorafvjuskom *anl<o-ral<os^ Rhine salmon, hook salmon ' 
schwd. Anl<e " Lake of Constance trout ' (gall. *anko- ' curved, hooky ' and *ral<o- " in front ' 
from *prdl<o-, cymr. rtiag^ before '); 

Old High German ango, angui^ fish hook, sting ', Old Icelandic angi. Old English onga^ 
point, sting ' ( *ar)l<6n-, about Gothic tialsagga^ cervical bend, nape ' see rather angii-); 
*angra {up to gender = Latin *ancrae) in Old Norse angr^ bay, curve ' (in local names like 

Maybe zero grade alb. {*anguij ngui "\ab, stick, hook' 

Old High German angar. Modern High German /4/7^e/'(Germanic VN Angrivarii)\ 
synonymous Old Icelandic eng {* angio-) " grassland, meadow '; Old High German awgui 
(= gr. aYKu-Ao(;, see above). Middle High German angei'the part of a blade that is 
connected to the handle (of a sword) by a tang ', Old Norse gngoil^ fishhook ', Old English 
ongei^ a fishing-hook. Also, a rod and line '. 

Maybe zero grade in alb. {*ngelos) ngec, nge/'be stuck, be hooked' : ngui^ to jab, claw '. 

Much puts here Latin-Germanic VN Anglii, Old English Angel, Ongelas " resident of the 
Holsteiner bay ' to Old Icelandic PN Qngull, which did not cover meaning " angle, bay ' 
(Hoops Reallex. I 61); 

with original initial stress Old Norse oil, all^ cotyledon, germ, bud ' {*anhla-, Noreen Ltl. 25; 
to meaning compare except Old Indie arjl<ura-liye\. Norwegian dial, ange^ germ, point, 
prong ' from *ankdn-), Old Norse oi, ali. " long strips, thongs, riems ' (basic form *anhuld, 
compare ayKuAr), or at most *anfild, standing near gr. ayKaAri); 

Slavic yi^C6/77y" barley ' as " thistly, thorny, spiky ' (Berneker 268), compare the above 
words for ' point, sting, cusp '; 

Lithuanian ankat " noose, snare, loop ' (= gr. 6yKr| yoovia Hes.); Old Church Slavic 
gkotb ' hook ' (see above); 

Tocharian A anca/' bow, arch, curve ', arikar-' fangs, bulwark '; also A otikalam, B 
oiikolmo^ elephant '? Van Windekens Lexique 6, 13, 82. 

ang-, esp. to the name of extremities (compare Gothic liPus " limb, member ': *lei- ' 
bend '): 

Old Indie arjgam^ limb, member', arjguli-h, arjguri-hi. " finger, toe ' (thereof arjgulTyam^ 
a finger-ring, a ring '), a/jgusfha-h' big toe, thumb ' = Avestan angusta-m. ' toe ', 
Armenian ankiun, angiun' angle ' and anjalf-hru. 'two cupped hands held together'; 

gr. aYYO(; n. ' Bucket, bowl ', ayysTov (*aYY£a-iov) " vessel ', actually ' twisted vessel '; 

Middle Irish aigen^ frying pan ' is dial, additional form of * aingen 6s.\ 

Old High German ancha, enkai. " neck ' and " thigh, osseous tube, bone tube ' 
{*ankidn-). Old Norse ekkja^ ankle, heel '; Demin. Old High German anchal, enchil 
(reinterpreted anklaom., anchala, enchilai.. Middle High German Middle Low German 
enkel. Old Frisian onkel, onkleu. Modern High German Enkel, 

Maybe in -e- grade lllyrian TN Encheleae (Enchelleae)\\\)/x\av\ TN associated with the coils 
of the snake, llirus and Kadmos. 

Old English (reinterpreted) ancleow, engl. ankle. Old Norse gkkia {* ankulan-) " ankle on 
the foot '; also Latin angu/us {\N\r\\c\r\ is unrelated to Old Church Slavic gg{b)/b ' angle, nook 
') " m. a corner, angle; nook, esp. either a quiet corner, retired spot or fig., an awkward 
corner, strait ' (besides with o- grade Latin ungulus, ungustussee above). 

References: WP. I 60 f., WH. I 46, 49 f., Meringer WuS. 7, 9 ff. 
Page(s): 45-47 

Root / lemma: an-1{*han- 1) 

Meaning: 'male or female ancestor' 
Note: babble-word 

Root / lemma: an-1{*han-) : "male or female ancestor' derived from zero grade of Root/ 
lemma: gen-1, gene-, gne- gnd-\ 'to bear (mother, father)' [origin of the old laryngeal g- > 


Material: Armenian /7a/7 'grandmother', gr. avvi(; MnTp6<; n naTp6(; Mnrrip Hes., compare 

Inschr. avib; Latin annai. ' nursing mother'; (under the influence of common Celtic -/7S^, - 

nt- > -nn-), lllyrian EN "Ava, "AvvuAa, Annaeus etc, as well as Messapic lllyrian ana = 

noTvia lllyrian origin (W. Schuize KZ. 43, 276 = Kl. Schr. 214, Krahe IF. 46, 183 f.); 

compare furthermore Latin anus, -Js'an old woman; also used like adj., old', also Anna - 

aef. sister of Dido; 'Anna Perenna', an Italian goddess. 


Armenian, gr. and lllyrian have preserved old laryngeal /?-; 

lllyrian and Latin display common -//a diminutive suffix, suggesting the same origin. 

Maybe alb. Tosc aneja ' mother' , alb. ane's\6e, bloodline' similar to German\c Ahnenre/he 

'genealogy, line of descent from an ancestor', alb. anoj'to incline, like'. 

Old High German ano. Middle High German ane, an, ene. Modern High German Ahn^ 
grandfather, great-grandfather, forefather '; Old High German ana. Middle High German 
ane^ grandmother, great-grandmother, ancestress '. diminutive formations are: Old Norse 
Ali{*anilo), Old English Anela, Old High German /4/7e/o family names; Middle High German 
ener grandfather, grandson '. Further Old High German eninchil. Middle High German 
enichlTn, Modern High German Enkel(t\\e young ancestor'). The grandson was looked by 
Indo Aryans as an effigy or substitute of the grandfather; compare gr. AvTinarpoq. Against 
this represented view of W. Schuize KZ. 40, 409 f. = Kl. Schr. 67 f. endorsed Hermann, 
Nachr. d. Ges. d. Wiss. to Gottingen, Phil. -hist. Klasse 1918, 215 f., the bayr. enl, ani, 
osterr. seni, anI etc the meaning ' of grandfathers ' and ' grandson ' carry and the one here 
with same occurance has to do like with Modern High German l/e//e/'(originally ' of the 
father's brother ', then also ' of the brother's son '); the salutation is returned by the 
grandfather to the grandson. This older view is notable (compare the literature by 
Hermann aaO.). 

Prussian 5/7e'old mother'; Lithuanian 5/7J//5 'mother-in-law'. 

Hittite a/7-/7a-as 'mother'; ha-an-na-as {hannas) 'grandmother', Lycian ;^/7/7a ds. 
(under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-). 

Probably rightly puts M. E. Schmidt KZ. 47, 189 Armenian aner' father of the woman ' 
moreover. It is similar formation like in Latin materfera ^ mother's sister, maternal aunt ', 

cymr. ewythr' unc\e\ acorn, eu/tor, bret. eontr{pro\.o Celtic *aventro-, see Pedersen Celtic 
Gr. I 55). *anero-\\a6 the original meaning ' anything like the forefather'. 

It is unsafe Old High German hev/anna^rom which reshuffled Middle High German 
hebamme. Because Old High German*a/7/7a 'woman' is not to be covered, Klugel 1 238 
origin from *hafjan /^o'y'yd accepts " the lifting ' from which the later close interpretations 
have originated. However, compare PBB. 30, 250. 

References: WP. I 55 f., WH. I 50, Pedersen Lycian under Hittite 26, 66. 
Page(s): 36-37 

Root / lemma: an-2 

Meaning: there, on the other side 

Material: Gr. av ' probably, possibly, in any other trap ' (sav from z\ av, Ionian pv from *n 

av, avfrom ai av); Latin an' conj.: in direct questions, or; in indirect questions, or whether 

', secondarily interrogative particle, extended anne. Old Irish an-d' here ', (common Celtic 

-ns-, -nt- > -nn-), Gothic an' then, now '; Lithuanian an-gu' or ', Old Prussian anga-anga' 

whether = or whether '. 

maybe alb. {*ane) andej'there' : Old Irish an-d'here' [rather common alb. shift n > nd\. 

Thereof derived: 

anjos' other' in: 

Old Indie anya-' other', Avestan anya-, ainya-. Old pers. an/ya-6s. compare above S. 

anteros'o\her' (from second) in: 

maybe zero grade in alb. {*anteros) nderroj" change, alter', nderrese' change, the other 

Old Indie antara-, oss. andar'oVnef, Gothic anf^ards.. Old Icelandic a/7/7a/7'" other, 
second', (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-). Old High German andar. 
Old English d^'er" other'. Old Prussian anters, antars {*antras) 'other, second', Lithuanian 
antras, Latvian i/oZ/'s beside Lithuanian antaras. East Latvian utors6s., Slavic *gterb, 
*gtorb\n Czech uteryrw. ' Tuesday', Upper Serbian wutory'oVner, second'. About Old 
Church Slavic v-btor-t "second' s. £//-" asunder, apart '. 


It seems Root / lemma: an-2\ "there, on the other side' is a zero grade of the extended 
Root/ lemma: al-1, ol-\ "besides; other' into *alny-, *any-. 

Maybe zero grade in alb. {*nyatra) fjeter' other' [common alb. n > nt > /] : Old Indie anyatra 
"somewhere else'. 

Perhaps alb. dial. {* heter) jater, Jeter, alb. [ attribute /e'of + antef\, tjeter' other, second'; 
similar to formation in alb. Geg {*te mel= of milk) /a/77//"milk' where te is the alb. attribute 
particle. Initial alb./ seems to have substituted the old laryngeal form /?-. 

References: WP. I 56, 67, II 337, WH. I 44, Trautmann 10/11, Debrunner REtlE. 3, 1 ff. 
Page(s): 37-38 

Root / lemma: an4, anu, and, no 

Meaning: a preposition ("along a slanted surface, etc.") 

Note: (compare the summary by Brugmann Grdr. I|2 2, 798 f., also about the syntactic). 

Material: Avestan ana. Old pers. a/7a(Proto Aryan * ana or *ana) " about there ' (m. Akk. or 

Instr.), " along, on ' (m. Akk.), Avestan anu. Old pers. anuv^ after, according to; up there ' 

(m. Akk.), " lengthwise, along ' (m. Lok.), also proverb; 

maybe alb. anes "along' 

Old Indie anu^ after (timewise m. Akk., Abl., Gen.), after (order), after there, along, 
behind, according to, with regard to, against ' (m. Akk.), Adv. " on it (auslaut-i/ appears to 
be comparable in Lesbian Thessalian anu beside Attic airo. Against Wackernagels 
explanation from Indo Germanic *enu^ along, according to ' see WH. I 677; to-^see below 
ap-u); Armenian am- in am-barnam ham-barnam^ I raise, uplift ', ham-berem^ I endure ' 
maybe from -an (the h by mixture with a borrowed sound from the Pers. ham- " together '; 

Ionic-Attic ava, ava " on, upwards, along ', Doric Boeotian Arcadian Cypriot av, Lesbian 
Thessalian Arcadian, z. Part Cypriot 6v, isolates Arcadian Cypriot uv (from 6v) ds. (the 
monosyllabic form appears the original and to be extended ava only after Kaia; compare 
Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 622; it is likely according to Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 275 6v originated from 
civ; Adv. avu) " upward, up '; 

A Latin remainder appears an-helo^ breathes strongly and with difficulty ' {an + 
*ansld); Umbrian an-, (with e/7"in' become synonymous and with it alternately, hence, en- 
tentu bes\6e.) an-tentu "\r\ter\6\to' , ansen'ato 'observatum', ang/ar^ osc\r\es' {*an-k/a to 
clamo) etc 

Maybe here Old Irish an-dess^ from the south ' etc; 

Gothic ana{v(\. dat. mid Akk.) " on, in, against, because of, about ', Old Norse a Adv. 
and preposition m. dat. and Akk. ' on, in ', m. dat. " on, in, up, by ', m. Akk. " after, up, on, 
against ', Old Saxon an. Old English on. Old High German aua, an. Modern High German 
an{*anaor *and, *ane) preposition m. dat. and Akk. and Instr. ' on, up, in, to, against '; 

maybe zero grade in alb. {*ana) ne^ on, in '. 

Lithuanian anote, anofm. Gen. " accordingly, according to '; about the first on proto 
Slavic *c»/7 going back to Slavic Slavic vh{n)- ' in, on ' see Brugmann Grdr. 112 2, 828 and 

With zero grade of the first syllable, thus initial sound n: 

Lithuanian nudm. Gen. " from down, from away ' (these where from meaning only 
from the connection with the ablative originated anew), as a Nominal praf. nuo-, as a 
Verbal praf. /7i/- (proklit. abbreviation as in pri-bes\de pne), let. nuom. Gen. ' from', as 
prefix nuo-; 

Old Prussian no, nam. Akk. " on (where), against, about there ', as prefix " after; from 
away ' (see also BezzenbergerKZ. 44, 304); Old Church Slavic nam. Akk. and Lok. ' on 
there; up, on, in ' (in addition aiier pre: pre-db neologism na-db " upside, above, about ' m. 
Akk. and Instr. and proverb); Old Indie na- perhaps in nadhita^ pressed ', see below na-^ 
help '. 

Here presumably Lithuanian -na, -n " in (direction where) ', postal position with verbs of 
the movement, Avestan na-zdyah-. Old Indie nedJyas- " closer '(' * moved near '); root sed- 
" sit '; presumably similarly Gothic nelv. Old High German nah Mn. ' near' as " looking 
near, turned near ' (with root oq "-as 2nd part); see Brugmann Grdr. I|2 2, 798 f., where 
also about the ambiguous Old Indie adhT about, on', ap. adiy^'w! (*-/7dh/or "ed^/; *cA^n). 

maybe alb. {^naH) ngalrom' [common alb. n > /7^ shift] 

About Gothic anaksa6v. " suddenly, straight away ', supposedly to Old Bulgarian 
nag/b " suddenly, abruptly ' (?), s. Feist 42. 

References: WP. I 58 f., WH. I 43 f., 49, 677, Feist 41 a, 373, Trautmann 200. 

Page(s): 39-40 

Root / lemma: ansa, ansi- 

Meaning: noose, snare 

Material: Latin ansa^ clutch, handle, a handle; (hence), occasion, opportunity', ansae 

crepidae' the eyelets on the straps of the shoe soles through which the shoelaces were 

pulled ' = Lithuanian c[sa\. (Akk. ^s^) ' pot handle, loop with the knot apron ' (compare 

also Latin ansatus= Lithuanian qsotas^ (furnished with or having a handle) with a handle 

'), Latvian uosa^ handle, loop, eyelet ', next to which /-stem Old Prussian ans/s' hook, pot 

hanger, kettle hanger ', Latvian uoss (Akk. uos/) ' handle '; 

Maybe alb. {*ues) vesh ' handle, ear ' 

Old Icelandic aesi. {*ansjd} " hole in the upper edge of the shoe leather for pulling through 

of the straps ' = Middle Low German osei. 'ring-shaped handle, loop' (out of it Late Middle 

High German Modern High German Ose; or West Germanic word to O/?/" according to 

Kluge and Weigand-Hirt s. v.?); Middle Irish e(i)siP\. " rein ', gr. pvia, Doric avia ds. 


Maybe truncated alb. {*enha) ena'pot (*pot handle)' [common alb. -s- > -/?-]. 

References: WP. I 68, WH. I 51, Trautmann 10. 

Page(s): 48 

Root/ lemma: ansu-, psu-{*henku-r-\n centum languages) 

Meaning: ghost, demon 


Root/ lemma: ansu-, psu- {* henku-r-): ghost, demon, derived from Root/ lemma: ank-2, 

ang-\ "to bend, bow, *flex; wangle; turn; curve, snake coil, anchor'. 


In e- grade: 

Lycian esa- ' grandchild, grandson '; Lycian B qzze, qezmmi, ^^^^/^(Shevoroshkin), 

Lycian A qehn' offspring, descendants, progeny ' (Tischler 191 ff) 

In a- grade: 

Hittite: has- (11,1) ' testify, bear ', hassa- ' grandson, granddaughter ', hassu- c. 'king, ruler, 

sovereign'; h.l. has(a)- 'create, engender, breed', hasmi- ' offspring, descendants, progeny 

', hasusara- ' queen '; (Tischler 191 ff). 

Comments: ' grandchild, grandson ' in Hittite may be a result of contamination: cf. Hittite 

hammasa- ' small child ', Luvian hamsa-, h.l. hamasa- ' grandchild, grandson ' (see 

Tischler ibid, and 141-142). 

Old Indie asu-, Avestan arjhu-^ breath of life, breath, life, spirit, world ', asu-ra-, Avestan 

ahura- " ruler, lord ' ( *nsu-)\ Venetic ahsu- (= asu-) " cult effigy, cult figure ' = Germanic 

*ansuz' god, ace ' in Old Icelandic ass, Runic a[n]suR, Old English ds" ace ', Gothic-Latin 
anses' demigods '. 


The inanimate suffix -ur- : Old Indie asu-ra-, Avestan ahura- " ruler, lord ' : UAupioi , oi, 

lllyrians, UAupia , n, lllyria, alsoUAupi? , n. Adj. UAupiKO? , n, 6v, lllyrian: -ys\, the region 

or province of lllyria, UAupi^U) , speak the lllyrian language, 'IAAupla:-hence Adv. 


References: H. GiJntert Der Aryan Weltkonig 102, Feist 52 b. 

See also: Perhaps to an(9)- " breathe '. 

Page(s): 48 

Root / lemma: ans- 
Meaning: favourable 

Material: Gothic anstst, Old High German anstan6 (zero grade) unst, Middle High 
German gunstirom *ge-unst. Old English es/" favour, mercy ', Old Norse ost, gst^ favour, 
love ', Old High German abanst, abunst. Old Saxon avunst. Old English ^/fes/ 'distrust, 
resentment, disfavor'; Middle High German gundm. ' favour'. Old Norse gf-undi. " 
disfavor '; preterit present Old High German an, unnum{\ni. unnan, preterit onsta, onda) " 
grant ' (gi-unnan). Old Saxon Old English unnan^ grant, concede, wish ', Old Norse unna 
{ann, unnom, preterit unnan irom *unt^a) " love, grant, concede '. un-nu-m {irorw * unz-nu- 
m-) is an old present the neu-, nu- class, wherefore the new Sg. ann. (under the influence 
of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-). 

Which root beginning as Germanic an-, un-, has in a/75/5 the suffix compound -s-ti- to see 
(see Brugmann Grdr. I|2 2, 437), while Middle High German gund. Old Norse gfund\he 
easier one contained -//-. 

However, is because of basic Germanic *ansi{s) root probably as Germanic a/75-, uns- to 
begin (Kluge ZfdtWtf. 9, 317, Brugmann Grdr. I|2 3, 332), ^/7/7^/77 consequently originated 
from *unz-num {\n6o Germanic *ns-nu-me), whereupon then Sg. ann, and new weak 
preterit *un-t^a{0\6 High German onda. Old Norse unna) beside Old High German onsta. 
Old Saxon gi-onsta, then also Middle High German gund. Old Norse gfund (suffix-t/-) new 
creations have become after 5- part to unnum, unnan. 

Also gr. npoa-nvnq "friendly', aTT-r\\/r\q " unkind, hard ' (: ab-unst) is the most likely = 
*TTpoa-, aTT-avari(; (see Brugmann aaO.). 

In divergent formal judgement Bechtel Lexil covers. 49 gr. - avpt; on neutr. Subst. 
*5/7c>s whose suffixale zero grade lies as a basis Germanic *an-s-ti-. 

References: WP. I 68, Feist 53. 
Page(s): 47 

Root / lemma: antro-m 

Meaning: cave, hole 

Material: Armenian ayr. Gen. PI. ayric^ cave, hole ', gr. avrpov ds. 

References: WP. I 56^, Schwyzer Mel. Boisacq II 234^, KZ. 68, 222, Gr. Gr. I 532, Pisani 

KZ. 68, 161 f. 

See also: Perhaps to an(a)- breathe ', as originally " vent, air vent '. 

Page(s): 50 

Root / lemma: ants 

Meaning: forward, before, outer side 

Material: Old Indie anta-h^ end, border, edge ' (therefrom antya-h^ the last '); 

Alb. {*anta) 5/7a'side, end'. 

gr. Gen. Sg. KaTavT£(; (= kqt' avT£(;) ' down the forefront ', Dat.-Lok. avri (Schwyzer Gr. 
Gr. I 5486, 6225), Akk. sia-avTa " in the face ' {*ant-m), ev-avra, av-avra, Kar-avra etc (W. 
Schuize, Kl. Schr. 669, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 632under), adverbal avra ' towards, opposite ', 
thereafter avrau) " meets '; about avTopai see Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 722 under.; about avrnv 
s. Brugmann Grdr. I|2 2, 687; 

Old Irish etan {*antono-) " forehead '; perhaps here mcymr. enhyt, cymr. ennyd^ time, 
moment ' {*ant-iti- to Old Indie ///- " gait, way '), mcymr. anhaw' old ' ( *ant-auo-), nir. eata " 
old; age ' {*ant-odio-?), compare Loth Re. 48, 32; 50, 63; (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-). 

Hittite ha-an-za {hant-s) " forefront ', therefrom ha-an-te-iz-zi-is {hantezzis)= *ant-etios, 

Lycian x^tawata^ leader ' (Pedersen Lycian under Hittite 17); 

Tocharian A antule^ outside, to ... before ', anfus'a\so'. 

Hittite: hant- c. 'forehead', hanta 'towards' , handai- (I) ' order, lead '; Luvian hantilf- 'former, 
previous, prior, first ', handa(i)-' decide, order ', Lycian xntawata' leader, king ', Lycian 
anTe- ' prescribe, determine ' (Tischler 149ff) 
Tokharian: A ant, B ante ' forehead, front ' (PT *ante) (Adams 43) 

Maybe alb. hunda^ nose' : Hittite: hant- c. 'forehead'. 

see also under antios. 

In addition as pristine cases: 

anti\n the face of'> ' towards, opposite, against ', etc. 

Old Indie ant/ Adv. 'opposite itself, before itself, near', from what ant/ka-h^ near', n. 

Armenian and ^ there', a/7o' preposition 'for, instead of m. Gen. and ' along, about (in, 
on) somewhere there ' m. Akk. (compare Gothic and), in meaning 'aside' m. Abl. and ' 
with, by ' m. Lok. (which has dwindled vowel in the final sound is not determinable; ani. 9- 
from a-), as proverb 'on'; in addition andran/k' firstborn, the first (earliest) ' (Bugge KZ. 32, 
2; compare to meaning Latin ante ' before, of place or time ' and the above mentioned 
words for 'forehead' as a 'front'), probably also ancanem ' to go past ' (Pedersen KZ. 39, 
425, compare gr. avTopai; cfrom /+ the aoristic s, compare the Aor. e-anc). 

Maybe alb. andej'there, in the other side, opposite'. 

Gr. avTi ' in view of, towards, opposite, before; for, instead of m. Gen., also proverb, 
e.g. avGiarriiJi; hom. kqt' avrnoTiv ' in the opposite point of view, against ' is fine to Bechtel 
Lexil. 46 from *avTi-aTi-<; reshuffled after avrnv TarriMi; avTiKpu, Attic avTiKpu(; ' almost, 
against ' (ambiguous ending), avriau), avTia^w ' meets '. 

Latin ante (from *ant/, compare antisto, as well as antTcus, antiquus) preposition m. Akk. 
spatially ' against, before ', timewise 'before', also proverb (e.g. antecedd), antid-ea, -hac^ 
before ', antid-Tre^ lead the way ' {-daMer prod); in addition anterior^ earlier ', antarium 
bellum ' war before the town ', antTcus ' the front ' (c after posticus ' behind '), antJquus ' 
old ' (the ending and the contraction in temporal meaning after novus, Indo Germanic *anti 
+ *ok"- ' looking '), antes, -ium ' rows or ranks (from soldiers, vines)', originally possibly ' 
fronts ' (about antaesee, however, under *andta' door post '). 

Hittite ha-an-ti {hanti) ' in front, esp., in particular '. 

a/7/a 'against there ' (direction); to -5 see Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 622 f. 

Gothic a/70' preposition m. Akk. ' up there, about there, along '. With therefrom more 
divergently meaning the nominal prefix and verbal prefix Germanic anda-, and 'against, 
opposite', also in verbs normally ' from - away ': Gothic anda-, and{e.<^. andniman' accept 

', andanems^ agreeable, pleasant ', andbindan^ unbind, untie, be confined '), Old Norse 
Old Saxon Old English and. Old High German ant-, int-. Middle High German Modern High 
German ant-, (e.g. create Antlitz, Antwort). 

compounds Old Norse endr, enn^ earlier, formerly, again, after' {endr= Gothic andiz- 
uh^ either'). Old English e/7o''before' {*andis). Old High German enti^ earlier, yore ' 
(Germanic *andiaz). Middle High German ent, endKou]. " previous, before ' (e.g. Falk-Torp 
192, 1455). 

Lithuanian ant, older antam. Gen. ' after-there, up, on '. 

About gr. avra see above. 


A weaker ablaut form (*/?/-) shows Gothic andm. dat. ' avri, for, around ', unt^a- {*nto-) 
in un^a-^liuhan^ escape'. Old English od-{*unt^-) in odgangan^ escape', udgenge^ 
fleeting' = Old Norse unningi, undingi{*unt^, * andgangia-) " escaped slave ' (Brugmann 
Grdr. I|2, 803). 

Other meaning points Gothic undm. Akk. "until, to'. Old High German unt\'r\ ^/7/-az "until, 
to' and unzi{= untzi) "until, to'. Old Saxon und^\}v\W\, to', unti, unt{and+ /e" to '), unto {and 
+ to), engl. unto^ to, until ', Old Norse unz{an6 es) "until, till that ', Old English (with 
grammatical change) od^ in addition, besides, until, to ', Oscan antm. Akk. " up to' 
(likewise from *nt/, see Walde Kelten and Italiker 54; because of Germanic andnot to 
place exactly attuning meaning = Latin ante^ before', e.g. v. Planta II 443), Lithuanian /nt 
"after' (rather contamination from /nan6 ant). 

The fact that these forms show an extension preposition *en, *n "in' (Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 
629 f., where also about gr. dial, svts), is possible as then Lithuanian /nt with /"after' 
corresponds in the application. However, could be of this one additional use adjustment as 
a result of the sound resemblance and Indo Germanic *nt{-/, -a7) " until, to ' belong as " up 
against there, on the opposite side over ' to antr, also the words for the "end' (see below) 
are originally the purpose waving on the opposite side, and with Old Saxon unt is also ant 
{and+ te) preposition m. Akk. " wholly, completely ' synonymous what, even if only new 
intersection are from i//7/with and, however, the concept relationship of both explained. 

a/7//05 "against, recumbent before ' (formed from the adverb anti): 

*a/7//o- (Germanic *andja-) in Gotliic andeis, Old Norse endir, Old Saxon endi, Old 
English endem., Old High Germans/?//; ent/m. and n., Modern High German Ende, also 
gr. dvTio(; "against' (in addition Evavriov ds., svavrioc; ' situated against; opponent ') 
probably goes back (compare Schwyzer Gr. Gr.l 379) to *avTi6q. 

Against it is from *anto-{see above) derived ant/o-\n Old Norse enn/n., Old High 
German and/, end/n. " forehead ' = Latin ant/ae' the hair growing upon the forehead, 
forelock '. 

A quite different word is Modern High German and, Old High German unt/, ant/, enti , Old 
Saxon endi. Old English engl. a/7o''and', Old Norse en{n) " and, but ', with Old Indie atha^ 
thereupon, thereon, then, ditto ', Avestan a&a^ also ', Oscan antm. Akk. ' all the way to, 
up to, towards ', Lithuanian //7/m. Akk. "after' (however, see above), Tocharian B entwe 
"also' belongs to *en, /7"in'. 

Maybe alb. in {*ende) edhe'and, also', zero grade {*ende) dhe' and, but'. 

References: WP. I. 65 ff., WH. I 53 f.. Feist 46, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 619, 621, 629 f., 632 f., 
722,726, II (BV2bd3). 
Page(s): 48-50 

Root / lemma: apelo- 

Meaning: strength 

Material: Gr. av-ansAaaac; avappwaGsiq Hes., Ionian sunnsAriq " strong ', hom. oAiynnsAiri 

" swoon, Ionian avnirsAin aaGsvsia Hes., Elis: MN T£UTi-anAo(; (after Prellwitz BB. 24, 214 

ff., Kretschmer Gl. 18, 205 here AnsAAwv, AnoAAwv, with vocal gradation Thessalian 

"AttAouv; after Sommer IF. 55, 176^ rather pregreek); lllyrian MN Mag-aplinus, Aplus, Apio, 

Aplis, -inis, FN ApIo, -onis, gall. VN DT-ablintes " the powerless, the weak ' (from *- 

aplentes); Germanic GN Matronis Aflims, Afliabus^ effective magic ', Old Icelandic afiu.. 

Old English afol, abalu. " strength '. 


The Root/ lemma: apelo-: "strength' seems related to Root/ lemma: ab^ro-: "strong, 

mighty' [the shift I > i\. 

References: WP. I 176, Feist la, Kretschmer Gl. 24, 250. 

Page(s): 52 

Root/ lemma: aj/O-/ (proper ap-) : ep- 
Meaning: to take, grab, reach 


From the reduced Root / lemma: ghsb"^-'. "to grab, take', derived Root/ lemma: aj/O-/ (exact 

S/7-) : ep-\ "to take, grab, reach, *give' > Root/ lemma: epi-\ comrade' > Root/ lemma: 

ai-3\ "to give'. 

Maybe alb. Tosc {*he-ip-m}) epjap, Geg nep{*na^us' + ep^g'we') "give us (*take)' : Hittite 

e-ip-mi{epmi) "take', 3. PI. ap-pa-an-zi (apanzl) : gr. anru) ' give a hand. 


In e- grade: 

Hittite e-ip-mi{epmi) " takes ', 3. PI. ap-pa-an-zi (apanzi). 

hom. niracpov " cheat'. 

Maybe alb. Tosc {*h2ap) jap, nasalized alb. Geg {*hienp) nep^ give' common /7>y- Slavic 


In a- grade: 

Old Indie apnoti' achieved, attained ', more recently apta-h' clever, suitable, trusted '; 

Avestan apayeitT achieved, reached ', 3. PI. apanteirom *apuantar. 

About Old Indie apf-h " friend ', gr. v\-u\oc, " friendly' see below epi- 

Armenian unim^ own' {*dp-n-7), snd-un/m ^ atta\n'; (common arm. Celtic alb. 

gr. aTTTOJ " give a hand, attach, pick a quarrel, light, kindle ', anTsoGai " touch ', acprj " 
touch, adherence etc. ' will be delievered in spite of the spirit here. Kretschmer Gl. 7, 352 
assumes influenced by snu); hom. acpau) (acpaw) " touch, palpate, feel, finger', Ionian 
dcpaaau) ds., common gr.-lllyrian -ks- > -ss-, 

hom. anacpioKU), niracpov (with Aeolic adnocpsTv anarnaai Hes.) " cheat, barter, exchange 
', anocpcbAioc; " phantasmic, delusive, fallacious ', KaTr|cpn(; "low-spirited' (actually " got 
down '). 

Pedersen KZ. 39, 428 puts with gr. anru) Armenian ap^ " the hollow hand ' (ostem, 
however, Lok. y-ap ias -/-stem, thus probably older neutr. -os-stem) together, which word 
should correspond to gr. cx\^oq, " joint, hinge '; because oi p (= Indo Germanic ph) 
nevertheless, uncertain (compare Meillet BSL. 36, 110); 

Latin apTscor^ touch, reach, attain, come to, come by ', adipTscor' to come up to, 
overtake; hence to obtain. Perf. partic. adeptus, used passively, = obtained ', coepi^ has 
begun, commenced ', later coepl 

The connection with Latin *apid, *apere^ to bind together, unite, joint, connect, link, tie 
round ' (imper. ape^ hinder, prevent, restrain '), aptus^ as partic. fitted, fastened, 
connected. Transf., depending on; also prepared, fitted out; fitted up with, equipped with, 
with abl. (2) as adj. suitable, appropriate, fitting. Adv. apte ', copula {co-apula) " a link, 
bond, tie, connection; a rope, a leash; plur. grapnels ' is probably certain. Maybe is derived 
from a common primary meaning " touch, summarize '. 

Also Latin apud'at, near, by, with, in' will be best of all suit here. The primary meaning 
would be ' in close connection ' {compare Juxta). One has derived from the part. Perf. 
neutr. *apuod {irom *apuot^ having reached '). Additional form apor, ap^/'(mars.-Latin 
apurfinem) points on originally-o'S 

Latin apex, -ids " cusp ', esp. " the top of the conical cap of the Roman 'flamines', or the 
cap itself; hence any crown, tiara, helmet; fig., highest honor, crown; gram., the long mark 
over a vowel ', maybe belongs to *apid; compare also EM. 60; 

In o- grade: 

Tocharian A oppaggi^c\eyef (Van Windekens Lexique 82); 

References: WP. I 45 f., WH. I 57 f., 60, 847, Pedersen Hittite 128, Couvreur H 93. 
Page(s): 50-51 

Root / lemma: ap-3, ap- 

Meaning: old; damage 

Material: Old Indie apva^ illness, failure ', Avestan (from an -es-stem) afsa-m. ' damage, 

evil '; Lithuanian opus^ weak, sore, frail ' (Charpentier KZ. 40, 442 f.), presumably gr. 

nTT£5av6(; "frail, weak' (Bezzenberger BB. 1, 164; to the ending see Risch 98; differently 

Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 530). 

References: WP. I 47, Specht Dekl. 345. 

Page(s): 52 

Root / lemma: apo-{p6, ap-u, pU) {*h2aph30^ 

Meaning: from, out, of 


Root / lemma: apo-{p6, ap-u, pU) {*h2aph30-)\ "from, out, of derived from Root / lemma: 

abh-(*/72abh-): "quick, abrupt' < Root/ lemma: sb'^ro-{^h2Sb'^ro^\ "strong, mighty' < root 

/pbh-(A?-): < with /-formant {n^'^eli): < Root/ lemma: {en^^-2)\ /7ebh-, errio'^-, /pb^-: " wet, 

damp; water; clouds '. 

Gradually Root/ lemma: apo-{pd, ap-u, pU) {*h2aph30^\ "from, out, of became the prefix 

p/7/e-, p/7i-, p/7ia-, p/7jo-. 


In a- grade: 

Hittite: happarnuwasha-c. 'sunbeam, rays of sunshine', happin(a)-' open flame '. 

References: Tischler 162, 165. 

Old Indie apa^ off, away, back ' as adnominal Prap. m. Abl. " away from ', Avestan ap. apa 

" away from '; about privatives *ap- in Iran, and Gr. see Schwyzer Zll. 6, 230 ff.; gr. ano, 

ano m. Gen. (= *ablative) " away from, ex, from '; maked. an-, ap-; 

alb. prape^ again, back ' ( *per-apd)\ Latin abx^. Abl., " prep, with abl. (1) of motion or 

measurement in space, from, away from. (2) of time, from, after. (3) of separation, 

difference, change, from ; so of position or number, counting from ; and of the relation of 

part to whole, out of, of. (4) of origin and agency; esp. with passive verbs, by, at the hands 

of, because of. (5) viewed from, on the side of : 'a tergo', in the rear; hence in connection 

with, as regards ' (before voiced consonant from ap, still in ape/yiofrom *ap-uerid\ perhaps 

also in aprlcus, s. WH. I 59; about Latin afs. just there 1; abs= gr. ai|j " back, again '; out 

of it as- before p-, as-porto; a before voiced consonants), Umbrian ap-ehtre " from without, 

from the outside; on the outside, outwardly ' (about other, unsafe Oscan-Umbrian Belege 

s. V. Planta I 209, 426, II 454 f.); 

Gothic a/prefix and preposition m. dat. " from, away from, from here ', Old Norse af Adv. 
and preposition m. dat.. Old English sef, of, Old Saxon af, Old High German aba, ab- " 
from, away from ', Modern High German ab-. 

compare also Lithuanian apacia " the lower part ' (as " turned away part ', *apotia, to Old 
Indie apatya-y\. " progeny ' and Hittite ap-pe-iz-zi-ia-as {appezuas) " back '. 

As Celtic derivatives are taken up from *apo acyrur . ncymr. o " ex-, from, of ', a.-mcorn., a.- 
nbret. a ds. However, comes for this poor in sound brit. form rather affiliation to Old Irish o, 
ua\n consideration (Thurneysen Gr. 524), so that of all Brit, it remains quite unsafe. 

In Hittite a-ap-pa (apa) " behind, back ' (compare gr. aTTo-SiSoopii " give back, return ') 
have maybe collapsed Indo Germanic apo and ep/XPedersen Hittite 188, Couvreur H 94 f., 
Lohmann IF. 51, 324 f.). 

Derivatives: apo-tero-, ap-ero-, ap-io-, ap-6ko-an6 above apotia, apetio-. 

Old Indie apataram Mn . " farther away ', ap. apataram Mn . ' apart, somewhere else 
', gr. anwTspu) " farther distant ' (anwTaTU) " very far away '); maybe Gothic aftaro^ from 
the back, backward ', aftuma, aftumists^ the last ', Old English aeftemest^s. and Gothic 
aftra " back, again ', Old High German Old Saxon aftar My. " behind, after ' and Prap. m. 
Dat. ' after, behind, according to ', Old English aefterdiS.. 

In e- grade: 

Old Norse ept/'r Adv. and Prap. m. Dat. and Akk. " after', aptrMv. " back, backward '. 

For this Germanic However, words relationship also stands with gr. oniGsv, Indo 
Germanic *epi, *opi\.o the consideration (Schuize KZ. 40, 414 Anm. 3), compare still 
Gothic a//a "behind'. Old English aeft^ behind, later ', Gothic aftana^irom the back'. Old 
Norse aptan. Old English aeftan. Old Saxon aftan. Middle High German aften ' afterwards'. 

Old Indie apara- ' back, later, following, other ', Adv. -a/77' after, later ', Avestan ap. 
apara-^ back, later, following ', Adv. -a/77, -am. Sup. Old Indie apama-, Avestan apama-^ 
the one farthest away, the most distant, the last '; 

Gothic afar My. and preposition with dat. and Akk. " after, afterward ', Old High German 
avar, Sit*^/" (latter from *apu-r6-m, as Old Norse aur-^ bottom, lower, nether, back ' in 
compound, see Falk-Torp, 11 f.) " again, once more, against it ' (Modern High German 
abei). Old Norse afar^ esp., very much ' (compare to meaning Old Indie apara- a\so " 
outlandish, peculiar, extreme, extraordinary ', Liden Stud. 74 ff.; Old English eafora. Old 
Saxon abaro^ descendant '). see still * apero- ' shore '. 

maybe alb. {*apai) pare^i\xs\, top', a/^e/''*away, close', a/^e/777 'relative, descendant', {*aper- 
) prejlrom'. 

Gr. amoq " remote, far ' 

In e- grade: 

(probably also Old Norse e^'at ' bay in a river in which the current runs back ', Old English 
ebbam. " low tide ', Old Saxon ebb/at, mndd. ebbe, where borrows from Modern High 
German Ebbe, as " ebb, the outward movement of the tide; the return of tidewater towards 
the sea '). 

Old Indie apaka-^ recumbent apart, distant, coming from the front ', Armenian haka-as 
1 . composition part ' against ', hakem " piegare ad una parte, inclinare ', Old Church Slavic 
opaky^ again ', Church Slavic opako, opaky, opace^ back, inverted ', in which, admittedly, 
forms can be partly also related to *opi, gr. oniGsv (compare Latin opacus^ shaded, shady; 
dark, shadowy, obscure ' = ' turned away from the sun '; 

Literary formation by (Brugmann Grdr. I|2 1, 482). Besides Old Norse gfugr^ after, turned 
backward ', Old Saxon abuh, avuh. Old High German abuh, abah^ turned away, inverted, 
wicked ' (Modern High German abig, abicht). Old English *afoc\x\ engl. awkward, from 
*apu-ko-s (or from *opu-ko-s : oniGsv, so that in the ablaut to Gothic ibuks ' being on the 
decline ', Old High German ippihhon^ roll back '? Johansson PBrB. 15, 230, in the 
consonant relegating to nu-yn, see also Falk-Torp under avet). 


Avestan pa-zdayeiti^ let to move away, scare off '; Latin po-situs, pono^io put down, set 
down, put, place, set, fix, lay, deposit' from *po-s[i]nd, po-lio, po-lubrum, porceVio keep 
off, keep back, to hinder, restrain' from *po-arcet, alb. pavc\. Akk. " without ', pa- 'un-' (Gl. 
Meyer Alb. Wb. 317); Old Frisian fan^ from, of. Old Saxon fana, fan. Old High German 
fona, fonm. Dat (= *Abl.) ' from, of ' (Old High German -o-is after Persson IF. 2, 215 to 
derive from Indo Germanic *yO^ beside *pd). 

A similar form pursues Trautmann Old Prussian 389 in Old Prussian pan-s-dau 
"thereafter'. Is totally unsafe whether Armenian oiork^ polished, slippery, smooth ' 
contains according to Liden Arm. stem 60 ff. o- from *po-. 

Maybe suffixed alb. pas 'behind, back' pas/ay "later, thereafter'. 

Against it here in spite of often divergent meaning (Brugmann Grdr. I|2 2, 808 considers 
absorption from Indo Germanic *upo, and for Slavic po\x\ meaning ' behind, after ' m. Lok. 
probably properly origin from *po^: Old Church Slavic po " after, in, with, about a little bit 
there ' (Lithuanian pdwith Gen. under dat. "after', with Instr. "under'), as essential only 
more perfective verbal prefixes Lithuanian pa-. Old Church Slavic po- (as nominal prefix 
Old Church Slavic pa-, Lithuanian paan6 po-, compare e.g. Old Church Slavic pambneti^ 
remember ', pamgtb " memory'); 

Maybe alb. nominal prefix pa- in ph2e-lor, plor^ ploughshare ', ph2e-rrua^ stream '. 

Old Prussian pa- essential in nominal, po- in verbal compound, compare Trautmann 203, 
Meillet Slave comm.2 505. 

About Slavic po-dh " below, under ' see Brugmann Grdr. I|2 2, 733 f. - S. still Indo 
Germanic "^po-Z/and *po-s. 

Maybe alb. {*po-s) posMe'be\o\N, under' from the same root as Slavic languages Slavic 
podb 'below, under ' from Root / lemma: apo- {po, ap-u, pU)\ (from, out, of) not from Root 
/ lemma: ped-2, p6d-\ (foot, *genitalia). 

a/7-:/stands beside *a/OC» (Lithuanian see below *pu) in Arcadian Cypriot Lesbian 
Thessalian aTTU, in Old High German abo= aba. Old Norse au-virdiv\. " contemptuous 
person ' (Falk-Torp 1 1 f.), compare also above *apu-ro- beside *apero-, *apu-ko-, and *pu 
beside *po. That -^ maybe enclitic Particle ' and, also ' (Feist 3a, 508a, WH. I 87). 
compare also Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 182. 

pu{see obove *apu) mostly in meaning (" turned away ' =) " behind, back ': 

Old High German fona{see above). Old Indie punar^ again back ', gr. nupaTO(; " the last 
'; quite uncertain Latin puppis^ the poop or stern of a vessel; poet the whole ship '. 

maybe alb. pupa " the poop or stern of a vessel ' : poln. /j^pa "bottom". 

References: WP. I 47 ff., WH. I If., 842, Feist 3a, Trautmann 1 1 . 
Page(s): 53-55 

Root / lemma: appa 

Meaning: father 

Material: compare gr. anrra, arrcpa, ancpa, ancpuc; (Theokrit) ' dad '; Tocharian B appakke^ 

father ' (this -(a)kke\xoxx\ ammakk/" Mutter'). 

References: WP. I 47. 

See also: compare also pap(p)a. 

Page(s): 52 

Root / lemma: apsa 
Meaning: asp 

Material: Old High German aspa. Modern High German Espe, Old English sespe. Old 
Norse gspi. ds., Latvian apse (from *apuse). Old Prussian abse6s.. North Lithuanian 
apusisi., Lithuanian apuse, epusei. ' aspen, trembling poplar ' (after Bezzenberger BB. 
23, 298 supposedly free diminutive-formation from *apsa), russ. osfna {* opsTna) ' aspen ', 
poln. osa, osika, osina^ aspen '. 

The fact that in this aspen name the sound result -ps-, is not the original -sp-, confirm 
among others tijrk.-osm. apsak^ poplar ', tschuw. ewes^ aspen ' as a loanword from the 
proto Armenian to Pedersen KZ. 30, 462. Specht places because of gr. ansAAov aiY£ipo(;, 
6 EGTi £i5o(; 5£v5pov Hes. a root noun ap- . 
References: WP. I 50, Specht Dekl. 60. 
Page(s): 55 

Root / lemma: ar4 (er, or?), / 
Meaning: now, also, interrogative particle 

Material: Gr. apa, ap, pa (from j) ' now, thus, consequently ', Cypriot sp, cipa interrogative 
particle (*n apa; yap, maybe from y' ap); likewise zero grade Lithuanian /?" and, also ', 
Latvian //""also'. Old Prussian //""and, also' (= gr. pa, zero grade Lithuanian ar, Latvian ar 
as an introduction of an interrogative sentence. Old Lithuanian also erwith the same Baltic 
vacillate from a- and e-as between Latvian a/"" with, in ' and Old Prussian er^ to '; 
Tocharian B ra- emphat. particle. 

References: WP. I 77, Trautmann 12, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 342, 622. 
Page(s): 62 

Root /lemma: a/d^- 

Meaning: pole 

Material: Armenian ardn^ lance, spear ': Lithuanian ardasm. " pole scaffold for drying flax 

', old ardamas' a (light) pole or spar, a sprit, which crosses the sail diagonally (and serves 

to make it taut) ' (see to meaning Bezzenberger GGA. 1885, 920)7 Petersson KZ. 47, 245 

(Lithuanian words not better according to Leskien Abl. 329 to ardyti^ split, distinguish ', 

see below e/"-' rare, loose, crumbly '). 

References: WP. I 84. 
Page(s): 63 

Root / lemma: ardi-, fdi- 

Meaning: point, edge 

Material: Old Indie a//" bee, scorpion ' (from *adi, Indo Germanic *rdi) = gr. ap5i(; " head of 

the arrow, sting '; Old Irish aird{*ardi-) " sharp, peak, point of the compass ', Old Norse 

erta {* artjan) " stir up, stimulate, tease ' (another interpretation from e/Ya under er-, er-d-^ 

set in motion '). 

References: WP. I 83 f., LiJders Schriften 429. 
Page(s): 63 

Root / lemma: areg- 

Meaning: to lock 

Material: Old Indie argala-h, argala^ latch, bolt ', maked. apysAAa ' bathing hut, bath hut ', 

from which borrows alb. ragali. " cottage, hut '; kimmer. ap\/\Kka {*arg-ef-Ja) " subterranean 

dwelling '; Old Saxon racud. Old English recedvn. " building, house '. 

References: WP. I 81, WH. I 63, Jokl IF. 44, 22. 

See also: compare *areq-^ protect, close '. 

Page(s): 64 

Root / lemma: ar(e)-g- {arg-?), fgi- {* her-(e)-g-) 
Meaning: glittering, white, fast 


Old Indie ///-pya" darting along ' epithet of the bird syena- ("eagle, falcon'), Avestan erszi- 
fya- (cf. gr. ap^i(po(; asroq rrapa FlEpaaK; H., aiYiTTOijj), Armenian arcui{< *arci-wi) "eagle' 
prove that from Root/ lemma: er-1, or- : "eagle, *fast' derived extended Root/ lemma: 
ar(e)-g-{arg-?), fgi-: "glittering, white, fast' and its subsequent zero grade Root/ lemma: 
{*a)reg-1\ "right, just, to make right; king'. 


In e- grade: 

e-vocalism shown by those of Osthoff MU. V, S. V, and MU. VI 33 considered for 
Gothic unafrkns^ impure, unclean ', afrkmPa^ cleanness, genuineness ', Old High German 
erchan' right, just, real, true, genuine ', Old Uorse jarknasteinn, (under the influence of 
common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), Old English eorcnanstan' precious stone, jewel ' (in 
addition also Old Horse Jarte/knn. " emblems ' from *jai{kn]-teikn, Liden by Noreen Old 
Icelandic Gr.s^p. 281 , 6); compare also Feist 25b. 

Maybe alb. {*herg-) Jarge "white saliva' Common h- > j- Slavic Albanian; h- >j-, y- Old Indie 

As securely one cannot consider the affiliation of Germanic words, however, was 
concerning the vocalism intersection from Germanic *ark- = Indo Germanic *arg- with *erk- 
= Old Indie arcat/, Indo Germanic *erk- at least conceivable. 

In a- grade: 

Hittite har-ki-is {harkis) 'white'. 

Tocharian A arki, B a/'/rtv/ "white' {*arguio-), arcune^ epithet of the royal title ', A arki-sosi 
' white world ' (compare cymr. elfyddS. 30); 

Maybe alb. hare, harcaP\. "rocky landscape'; alb. has preserved the old laryngeal /?-. 

Old Indie arju-na-h^ bright, white '; rajata-^ whitish ', rajatam hfranyam^ whitish gold, 
i.e. silver ', rajatam " silver ' with flashy, in spite of Osthoff MU. VI 33 not from zero grade/ 
(or likewise) deducible vocalism compared with Avestan arszata-n., Old pers. ardata-' 
silver ' {/-) : TN lllyrian Ard/ae/ common alb. - lllyrian -g- > -d-. 

Maybe Albanian argjend: Bresciano arzent: Romagnolo arzent: Zeneize arzento 'sWver' 
(common Avestan Slavic g- > dz-, z- = common alb. dz- > gj-). 

Latin argentum, Oscan aragetud 'sWver', Old Irish arggat. Middle Irish airget, cymr. arian{t), 
corn. Middle Breton argant, nbret. arc'hanC silver', gall. PN Arganto-magus, arcanto-dan^ 
coin minter, mint-master, the master or superintendent of a mint ', Armenian arcaf "silver', 
Tocharian A arkyantH. PI. f.; with other formation gr. apyupoq "silver' (in spite of these 
equations the knowledge of the silver for the primeval times stands not sure, see about 
that point and about the borrowing question Schrader RL.II^ 394, G. Ipsen IF. 39, 235 f., 
Festschr. Streitberg 228), Messapic argorian{\ apyupiov) ds., argora-pandes {*arguro- 
pondjos) "quaestor, state treasurer '. 

Thrak. apyiAoc; " (*white) mouse ', FIN "Ap^oc; {*Argios). 

Gr. apyoc; " white, fast ', in compounds apyi- : apyi-Kepauvoc; " with shining thunderbolt ', 
apYi-65(ji)v " with brilliantly white teeth ' (thereafter also *apYiv6(; for apY£vv6(;, further 
formation to apyivosK;, epithet of towns situated on white lime or chalk mountains); 
dpyaivu) " is white '. 

apyoc; probably after Wackernagel Verm. Beitr. 8 f. from *apYp6c; dissimilated, 
wherefore /-stem apyi- of compounds behaves as Avestan derezi-ra&a-^ possessing 
steady chariot ' to derezra-^ solid '. With apyoq phonetically same Old \'r\(i\crjra- connotes 
also " shining ', is in this meaning with apyoc; "white' etymological identical (in addition also 
Old \v\(i\crjTti-,rjJka-^ radiating '). Old Indie ^//Aa-" fast ', Rji-svan-^ the allied Indras ordering 
about fast dogs ' = gr. apyoc; "fast' (likewise of dogs, also already proto linguistic epithet, 
see Schuize Kl. Schr. 124), apYi-nou(; " fleet-footed ', horses n65-apYO(;, upholds Persson 
Beitr. 828 from apyog {rjra^ " white ' different word (to the root reg- " straight, right, directly 

' in Old \nd'\c rjTsa- ' rushing straiglit for ', ^///-yoya " darting along ', etc), against Bechtel 
Lexil. 57, the concept of the lights allows to have flowed from that of the quick movement 
(compare ' as quick as a flash, at lightning speed ') as well as Schuize aaO. Sides of the 
same observation considered as to try illuminating power, brightness of the color, and 
quickness of the movement (compare Latin micare^vnove rapidly to and fro, vibrate, 
flicker; to shine, glitter, sparkle'). 

apysfjov, apysfja n. ' the whiteness (in the eye, nail)', apynsK;, Doric apyac; (*apyaF£VT(; 
'shining'; es^stem in £vapyr|(; " perspicuous, clear ', apy£a-Tn(; epithet oivoioc,, " 
elucidative, brightening ' (see lastly Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 500''), apy£vv6(; ' white sheen, 
white luster, white-gleaming ' (*apy£a-v6(;); maybe also in apy£i(p6vTr|<; epithet of Hermes 
(' in slaying brilliance '?). 

On account of es-stem Avestan arazah- " afternoon and evening ' so that belongs 
together etymologically, at least half the meaning is quite doubtful, see. Bartholomae 
Airan. Wb. 202, Bechtel aaO. 

Maybe alb. {*ar9z-) e/re/'dark', e/r'darken' : Avestan arazah-' afternoon and evening ' 

apYn(;, -i]ioq, -£ti, -£Ta ' white-gleaming '; ap\/\hKoq and apylAoq ' white clay ' (Latin 
loanword argilla, argTIa): apyu-poc; see above, apYU-(po(;, apYU-(p£0(; ' shining white ' (in the 
word ending probably to root b^a- " shine ', Prellwitz BB. 22, 90, Bechtel Lexil. 57 f.). 

Maybe Galician arxila : alb. argJ/7e'\Nh\te clay, mud' ' white clay ' (common Avestan Slavic 
g- > dz-, z- = common alb. dz- > gj-). 

Latin argentumsee above; arguo^io put in clear light; to declare, prove; to accuse, 
blame, expose, convict ', argutus^o the eye, expressive, lively; talkative to the ear, 
piercing, shrill, noisy; of omens, clear, significant; of persons, sagacious, cunning; (since 
Cicero also:) beaming, shimmering ' and " shrewd '. 

About that of Uhlenbeck KZ. 40, 552, 560 considered for Lithuanian arzuolas, qzuolas, 
dial, auzuolas. East Lithuanian dial, uzolas^ oak ', see rather Bezzenberger KZ. 42, 263, 
Trautmann Old Prussian 301, whereupon anz- (compare Old Prussian ansonis) the 
original form is (different Zupitza KZ. 36, 66, Germanic gutturals 214). 

By Hirts (Abl. 124) basic *ar(e)g- cause Germanic words difficulty, however, see above. 
The basis of a 2th root vowel {areg-) is given only by Old Indie rajatam " whitish ', thus 

References: WP. I 82 f., II 362 f., WH. I 66, 848, Feist 25, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 260, 447, 
481, Frisk Nominalbildg. 4. 

Specht (Dekl. 1 141) places because of gr. appn Aeukh Hes. a color root in ar-, he 
equates with a/-{see above S. 31). 

Page(s): 64-65 

Root / lemma: arenko- 

Meaning: a kind of cereal, type of grain 


Latin arinca^ variety of grain, olyra (which resembles spelt) ' ("Galliarum propria' Plin. n. h. 
18, 81; foreign, presumably gall, word, despite Niedermann eand /'30 not genuinely Latin), 
gr. apoKOc; " leguminous plant growing as a weed among lentil plants ', apoKOi oarrpiov ti. 
TO 5£ auTO Koi AaGupov Hes. 

Because of the meaning difference quite doubtful equation; no objection offers sure 
enough the not sufficing confirmation from apoKO^ in 6popO(; spspivGoc;. Non-related in 
spite of Fick 11^ 16, 17 are gr. apTO(; ' bread ' (to dark origin, see Boisacq 84), Middle Irish 
arbar^ grain ' (see *ar- ' to plough, plow '), aran " bread '. 

References: WP. I 84, WH. I 67. 
Page(s): 66-67 

Root / lemma: areq- 

Meaning: to guard, lock 

Material: In detail Osthoff IF. 8, 54 ff. m. Lithuanian 

Armenian argeF hump, block, check, fence, hurdle, barrier, drawback, obstacle, 
hindrance, balk, impediment ', denomin. argelum^ resist, hold from, hold back '; maybe 
with o gradation 0/777' wall, mural ' {*ork-mo-?)\ 

gr. apKEOJ " resist, reproach, protects, helps; express disappointment, be sufficient, be 
enough ' (apKsaw, npKEoa) probably from *apK£i(jo; apKO(; n. ' protection, cover, shelter' 
(Alkman); apKioc; " sufficing, enough ', auT-apKr|<; " oneself enough ', no5-apKr|<; " with 
sufficing feet, fast ' (see also Bechtel Lexil. 279 f.); 

Maybe alb. (*apKO(;) argesh "crude craft supported by skin bladders, crude bridge of 
crossbars, harrow', zero grade in alb. {*argo-) //-o^e 'alpine meadow (to be guarded)'. 

Latin arced, -ere^ to shut in; to keep at a distance, hinder, prevent, keep away ', arca^ a 
chest, box; esp. a money-box or coffin; also a cell ' (actually " fastener, shutter ', compare 
arcanus^ shut, closed; hence silent, secret, confidential '; from Latin derives Gothic etc 
arka ' boxes, money boxes, ark '; 

maybe alb. arke^ box, money boxes, ark '. 

Old High German arahha, archa^ ark ' and from Germanic again Old Church Slavic raka^ 
burial cave'. Old Prussian arkankVk. Sg. 'ark'), arx^ fortified hill, castle, fort ', arcera^ 
canopied chariot ' (suffix after cumera, compare WH. I 63) Oscan trffbarakavum^ to build, 
erect, establish; to create, frame ' (constitutes beforehand *trebark-' to enclose a house, 
to put up a fence around a house '); 

Old High German rigil. Middle High German riger latch, bolt ', Middle English rail{0\6 
English *reogol), GiJntert Kalypso 136; 

Lithuanian raktas^key\ rakintr to lock, shut '; 

Hittite h3i{k)- " hold, clamp, to hang (kill s.o. by hanging them) ', Gotze and Pedersen 
Mursili 50. 


Maybe alb. {*hark-) i/a/ig"row, chain, ring'; common prothetic alb. i/- before bare initial 

Through the meaning little is recommended to citation of cymr. archen^ clothes, shoe ', 
bret. arc'henna^ wear shoes ' (Middle Irish acrann^ shoe, clothes ' probably reconverted 
with metathesis from arc-, Stokes KZ. 41, 381). (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-). 

About that of W. Foy KZ. 35, 62 as " castle hill ' interpreted Old pers. mountain names 
arkadri-see Justi lA. 17, 106 (supposedly (H)ara-kadris' mountain ravine, mountain gorge 
'), but in addition again Bartholomae Z. altiran. Wb. 1 05 Anm. 1 , 116. 

Against apposition (Bruckner KZ. 45, 108 Anm.) recommends meaning from Slavic raciti 
" want, grant '. 

As form mit ogradation (or at most with or= j) covers Latin Orcus " Orcus, the infernal 
regions. Transf. the god of the lower world; death, realm of the dead ' (uncertain ' lock, 
seal, shut, trap, close, lock up, shut up, close up '?). 

References: WP. I 80 f., WH. 62 f., 848. 

See also: Similarly aleq-^ refuse, protect ' and areg-{see d.)- 

Page(s): 65-66 

Root / lemma: ar(a)- 

Meaning: to plough 

Material: Armenian araur^ plow ' {*aratrom\ HiJbschmann Arm. stem I 21); 

gr. apou) (npoaa, apoTO(;) ' plough, till ', ap6Tr|<;, aporrip ' plowman ', aporpov ' plow '; 
with original vocalization of the 2nd syllable herakl. apa(;ovTi, gortyn. aparpov. apou) etc 
placed after Persson Beitr. 669 an Indo Germanic "a/r*- besides *ar9- ahead (compare 
Tocharian are), or appeared instead of apaw at the same time with the reshuffle many 
denominative causatives in -aw to such in -6u) after in addition basic o- formation, under 
special influence from vsou) ' plow up the land anew '. 

Latin aro, -are " to till, plow, farm, cultivate. Transf., to furrow, wrinkle; of ships, to plow 
the sea ' (for the older *ar9-mi), arator^ ploughman, husbandman ', aratrum^ plow ' {-a- for 
*-a- after arare); 

Middle Irish airim^ to plough ', cymr. arddu {^rom *arj-) " to plough ', arddwr^ plowman ', 
Middle Irish arv\. " arable land ', cymr. ari. ds.. Middle Irish ar-an^ bread ', arathar 
{*aratrom), cymr. aradr, corn, aradar. Middle Breton arazr, nbret. arar^ plow '; Middle Irish 
airem{*ariomd). Gen. aireman' plowman ', also PN Airem-6n\ 

Gothic arjan. Old Norse erja. Old English Old Saxon erian. Old High German erran. 
Middle High German e/r?" to plough, till ', Old Norse ardr^ plow ', Old High German art^ 
furrowed land ', Old English eard, ierdi. " furrowed land, yield ' (see also under *ar-^ yield, 
acquiesce ' about Modern High German Art), Middle High German arl. Modern High 
German Arl, Ar//ng'p\o\N' (from loanword from Slavic *ord/d? genuinely Germanic after 
MeringerlF. 17, 121); 

Lithuanian ar/u, art/'to plough', arklas {*ara-tlom) " plow ', arklys^ horse ' (as " a plow 
animal '); artojas' tiller, plowman ' {*ar9-taja-). Old Prussian artoys' tiller ' (with secondary 
zero grade Lithuanian ore^ ploughing time ', compare gr. noAunpoq noAuapoupo(; Hes.), 
Latvian ar'u' to plough ', ara, are^ arable land '; Lithuanian armena^ superficially furrowed 
layer of earth '; 

Maybe alb. ara^ arable land '. 

Old Church Slavic orjg, oratr\.o plough'; ralo {serb. ralo, poln. radio) "plow' {*ar(9)- 
6!^lom:\-\Vc\\}av\\av\arklas), ratajb " plowman '; about Slavic *ora-s. Trautmannn 13; 

toch AB are "plow', concerning this pertains: 


Armenian haravunk' " arable land ' (Scheftelowitz BB. 29, 58), Latin arvus, -a, -um^ 
plowed, plowed land ', esp. arvum^ plowed land, a field; in gen., a region ', Umbrian 
an/am-en"\n plowed land' (= Latin fem. arvasA. PI.), ar{u)v/a' crops, field crops '; 

Middle Irish arbor {* ami) " grain ', Dat. arbaim. Gen. (already Old Irish) arbe{*aruens), PI. 
N. A. arbanna {r1 n-sienw Stokes KZ. 37, 254, Pedersen KG. I 63, II 106; therefrom 
airmnech' the man who owns a lot of grain ', Corrnac's Gl., with -mn- = -vn-, Stokes KZ. 
38, 458); (common alb. Celtic -v- > -b-), gr. apoupa " arable land ' (formally not yet clearly; 
probably after Benveniste Norns 113 from *apo-Fpc(, extension of apo-Fap from *aro-ur, 
compare Middle Irish arbor Unglauhhaft Otr^bski KZ. 66, 78). 

Through its old e-divergence cymr. erwi. " field ', PI. erwi, er-wydd, corn, erw, ereu6s., 
abret. Middle Breton eru, nbret. e/c" furrow ' belong against it to Old High German ero^ 
earth ', gr. £pa, Armenian erk/r^ earth ' (for the latter supposes Pedersen KZ. 38, 197 
likewise *eru- as a basis), however, have taken over like the use for farmed field of one 

From the lack of Aryan correspondences may not be closed against the acquaintance 
with the plow in indo Germanic primeval times. 

References: WP. I 78 f., WH. I 69, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 362, 683. 

After Specht KZ. 68, 42^ furthermore to root *ero- {er-5) " disjoint, sever ' as " tear the 
ground open.'? 

Page(s): 62-63 

Root / lemma: ario-? 

Meaning: master, lord 


Root/ lemma: ario-?: master, lord, derived from Root/ lemma: ar-1', themat. (a)re-, 

schwere Basis ara-, re-und /-Basis (a)n-, rei-\ to move, pass: gr. apiaroq " best in birth 

and rank, noblest'. 

Material: Old Indie ar(i)ya-^ mister, convivial ', ar(i)ya-^ Aryan ', aryaka^ venerable man '; 
Avestan airyo. Old pers. ariya- " Aryan '; 

gall. PN. Ario-manus{Q\\-, III 4594); Irish aire{Q\. primas) besides airech, where is to be 
formed *arJo-av\6 *arJako-, which to Old Indie aryaka behaves as gr. [jsTpa^ "youth' to Old 
Indie maryaka- 'male' (Pedersen Celtic Gr. II 100). Against it belongs Middle Irish ruireuoi 
here, but from ro + rV king of kings '. 

About Old Indie aryamanu. " hospitality ', m. " guest's friend ', Avestan airyaman-, 
npers. erman^ guest ', see above under al-1. 

W. Krause (rune inscriptions 539) should read properly Proto Norse arJosteRH. PI. ' the 
most distinguished, the noblest ', thus would have to be attached indeed an Proto Norse 
*arjaR^ posh, lofty, noble, plush, gentle, kingly, polite, courtly, elegant, genteel, stately, 
highbred, exclusive ' and an Indo Germanic *ario-, in the Old Indie phonetically with a 
derivative from arf-^ alien, stranger ' would have collapsed. 

Celto-Germanic PN Ar/o-v/sf us however, proves nothing, because Ario- could stand for 
*Hario-. Also Old Irish aire, airech ' suitor ' are ambiguous, see above under al-1. 

Maybe Arrianes lllyrian TN. 

References: WP. I 80. 

Page(s): 67 

Root / lemma: ar-1', themat. (a)re-, heavy basis are-, re- and /-basis (a)n-, rei- 

Meaning: to move, pass 


Root/ lemma: ar-V, themat. (a)re-, heavy basis are-, re- and /-Basis (a)n-, rei-\ "to move, 


and Root/ lemma: er-3: or-. r-\ "to move *stir, animate, fight, struggle, rise; to spring up, 

be born' derived from the same root Root/ lemma: er-1, or- : "eagle'. 


In e- grade: 

*) E.-M. 74 determine because of Armenian er/" horse's hock or point of shoulder, 
shoulder of animals ', y-e/7i//'e/" fit; blend in; fit on; suit; adapt; key; tune; adjust; 
accommodate; readjust; bring into line; mate ' posit a basic form *er- . But Armenian eh 

derives after Liden Mel. Pedersen 88 f. back to Indo Germanic *reito-, *reiti\ compare 
Trautmann 242. 

In a- grade: 

Hittite: ara- n. ' wealth, welfare, well-being, happiness, prosperity, fortune, right, propriety ', 
c. ' friend ' (Tischler 50). 

Avestan arante^ they settle, get stuck ', Old Indie ara-h^ wheel spoke ', aram, alam 
Adv. {aramkar-, alamkar^ prepare; get ready; make up; get up; dress; trim; prink ' and ' 
be in service; serve; do one's service; accommodate; be of service; be of help; be of 
use ', for what probably ara-//-' servant; manservant; valet; servitor; follower ' and /"a-//- 
" willing; eager; prompt; ungrudging; unhesitating ', Avestan /"a///" compliant, servant ') ' 
suitable, enough '; Avestan arsm^ suitable, accordingly ' {ar§m-pi&wa^ midday ' = " the 
time suitable for the meal ', next to which ra-pi^wa 6s. With zero grade ra- besides *ara-, 
from what aramMv., Bartholomae Airan. Wb. 189, 1509), ratu-m., " judge, arbitrator' and 
" period (of time) ' (common primary meaning possibly " the act of arranging something 
(neatly) ', from which ' the act of arranging the law ' and " right time '); Old Indie ar-p-ayatr 
puts, fixed, clamps, cleats, affixes, appends, fastens, fixates, fortifies'; about Hittite har-ap- 
{harp-) " to arrange, situate, put down '? compare Couvreur H 1 14 f.; 

Armenian arnem " produce; do; make; cook; render; cause; proffer; offer; hold out; 
volunteer; give; contract; fix; put; matter; get; have; take; win; pull down; put down ', 
y-ar^ , I consent, conjoin, continue, press so ' {arar^ has done, has made ' = gr. apaps), 
whereof yaAe/T?' add, subjoin, splice ' (Bugge KZ. 32, 21), par" bad; poor; unsavory; 
unsavoury; poorly; inferior; unsatisfactory; low; stale; foul; hard; lamentable; 
decayed; wrong; faulty; amiss; maladjusted; uneasy; evil; unkind; wicked; corrupt; 
off; unhealthy; chronic; ill; sick ' with negative c[= c»c| " not suitable ' (Bugge aaO. 23); 

gr. apapioKU), Perf. apapa " join together', apfjsvoc; " annexed, appended, attached, 
appendaged, suitable ', oap " wife ' (probably after Brugmann IF. 28, 293, Schwyzer Gr. 
Gr. I 434 here with prefix *o-, barely to root *ser- or root *uer-, a-Feipoj); in addition oapi^u) 
" have close relations with '; also ' chats confidentially '; xciAKO-apa(; ' ironclad, armoured ', 
also xspi-apcc; tektojv Pind., ap-0pov " limb, member, joint (wrist, ankle) ', ap9[j6(; " 
connection; connexion; contact; touch; liaison; tie; splice; affiliation; junction; 
conjunction; coupling; communication; link-up; interconnection; link; line; combination; 
association; incorporation; compound; relation; relationship; marriage; wedding; 
society; union; juncture, friendship ', ap9piO(; ' joins, unites, unifies, combines, conjunct, 
collective '; with /- suffixes homer. 5a|j-ap-T- " housewife ' (' the woman in charge of the 

house '), Aeolic SopopTK; Hes.; iruAapTnc; " Hades as the one who locks the gate(s) to the 
underworld ' (Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 451, 5); dps- in apsoKU) ' even out, ease, reconcile, settle, 
redress, compensate for, equalize, balance, make up for, make good, give satisfaction ', 
aptoKE\ [^o\ " It suits me, I like it ', apsaKsaGai, apsaaaoGai " come to an agreement, come 
to an agreement with somebody; make oneself inclined, reconcile ', common gr.-lllyrian - 
ks- > -SS-, apsTH ' ability; competence; efficiency ', apsiajv ' better ' (in respect probably 
stands dpi- " very much, very ' in compounds, wherewith Reuter KZ. 31, 594a 1 also Old 
Indie ari-gurta-, -sfuta- as ' keenly praised ' would like to compare; uncertain because of 
gr. £pi- " very much, very ' see Boisacq s. v., above S. 24 Anm.); apiaTO(; " better, best ', 
apiGTEpog " left, on the left '. 

With lengthening 9up-npr|<; " appealing well, complacent ', 6ijr|po(; ' husband; hostage, 
pledge ', opripsu) ' to meet '; after Birt Philol. 87, 376 f. was "0|jr|po(; actually ' companion, 
the blind person who goes with his leader '. 

From Slavic perhaps poln. ko-jarzyc' attach, connect, combine, remember' (e.g. 
Miklosich EWb. 100, Berneker 31, 532). 

Maybe alb. ku/'toj" attach, remind, remember ' an early Slavic loanword. 

About maybe related gr. apa, Lithuanian irs. 4. ar' now, thus '. 

Tocharian A arwar, B arwer, arwar^ ready ', A aram, B ere^ face ' (compare Latin 
figura^a form, shape, figure'). Van Windekens BSL. 41, 56, Duchesne-Guillemin in the 
same place 173. 

/-formations: ft-, art- " joint together '. 

Old \v\6\crta-v\. " suitable, uQ\\\.\rtamv\. " well attached, holy order' (to meaning see 
Oldenberg GGN. 1915, 167-180; not ' sacrifice; victim; oblation; offering '),//e/7a' rite ', 
Avestan arsta-, ersta-u.. Old pers. arta- (in compound) ' law, right, holy right '; Avestan 
ass- under, ' what is sure, true ', Old \v\6\c rtavan(t)-^ proper, fair ', Avestan asavan/t/-. Old 
\v\6\crt'u-h^ certain time, order, rule \rti-ht " kind, way ' (to ours root after Kluge PBrB. 9, 
193; see also Meringer IF. 17, 125, B. Geiger WZKM. 41, 107), Avestan aipi-arata-^ 
appoints, destines, firmly assigned '; 

Armenian ard. Gen. -u{= gr. apTU(;, Latin artus, -us, compare also on top Old \n6\crtu-h) 
" structure, construction, ornament ' (HiJbschmann Arm. Gr. I 423, Bugge KZ. 32, 3), z-ard 
"apparatus, ornament '; ard' just now, now, currently ' (= gr. apri) (Bartholomae Stud. II 
23, Bugge aaO., Meillet Esquisse 36), ardar' fair, just, right ' (HiJbschmann Arm. stem I 

21 , Arm. Gr. I 423; Persson Beitr. 636 a 2 considers for it also Indo Germanic d'^; compare 
Avestan aredra-^ faithful, reliably, loyal to belief, pious, godly ' and the other 
undermentioned d^- derivatives), 5/'0''/^/7'struttura (Pedersen KZ. 40, 210); 

gr. aijaprn '(at the same time) simultaneous ' (Instr. *ap-apT6c; ' joint together, 
concurring, coincidental '), op-aprsu) ' connect oneself to somebody, accompany ' (due to 
*6p-apT0(;); //-stem in apri-Fsnric; ('well versed in word structure '), c(pTi-no(u)(; ' with 
healthy feet ', apri-cppajv ' able-minded, with sharp mind, with a sturdy mind ' (presumably 
also in apTapo(; ' butcher, slaughterer; murderer ', whereof apraijsu) ' slaughter, cut up, 
divide ', after J. Schmidt Krit. 83 f. from *apTi- or at most *apTOTapo(; ' workmanlike cutting 
', compare Old Indie „/f5-/7/-' justly leading ', rta-yuj^ properly harnessed '); probably also 
a^iz\xx\c, ' fresh and healthy ', probably dissimilated from *apTi-5£pnc; to Ssijac; ' with a well- 
built body '; apri " just ' of the present and the most recent past (compare above Armenian 
ard^ just now, now ' and ard-a-cin^ newborn ' as gr. apri-ysvriq; morphologically not yet 
quite clear, perhaps Locative); an-apri ' exact, just ', aprioc; ' adequate, just, complete ', 
apria^u) ' plays rightly or oddly ', apri^u) ' finishes, prepares ', apaiov 5iKaiov Hes., 
avapaioc; ' hostile ', snaprnc; ' prepares '; 

apTuv cpiAiav Kai aupipaaiv, apruc; auvra^ic; (= Latin 5/Yi/s "narrow, tight') Hes., apiuw, 
apTuvw ' joins, prepares ', apTuva(;, apTuvo(;, apTurrip title of a public servant or official of 
Argos, Epidauros, Thera. 

Latin artus^ narrow, tight (in space and time), close; 'somnus', fast, sound; of supplies, 
small, meager; of circumstances, difficult, distressing ' (Adv. arte, originally instrumental as 
aijaprn); ars, -tis " skill, method, technique; 'ex arte', according to the rules of art. (2) an 
occupation, profession. (3) concrete, in plur., works of art. (4) conduct, character, method 
of acting; 'bonae artes', good qualities ' (actually " articulation, assemblage, pack a gift 
properly ' = Middle High German art}, in addition the compounds in-ers^ unsophisticated, 
sluggish, untrained, unskillful; inactive, lazy, idle, calm; cowardly; ineffective, dull, insipid ', 
soll-ers^ clever, skilful ', alters, alers^ taught, learned '; artio, -ire^ insert tightly, wedge, 
crowd, join fast, press together ' (more recently artare); artus, -us ' the joints; 'dolor 
artuum', gout; poet., limbs ', articulus^ in the body, a small joint; in plants, a knob, knot; of 
time, a moment, crisis; in gen., a part, division, point '; 

Lithuanian arti^ near' (Lok. //-stem); 

Middle High German arti. " kind, manner and way ', Old Norse ein-ardr^ simple, 
sincere', eingrd^ reliability; dependability; trustworthiness; sureness; steadiness '; 

Tocharian B ar(t)kye^ rich, valuabe ' (?). 

A. From the light basis ar-. 

Armenian y-armar^ suitable, adequate ' (Bugge KZ. 32, 21); 

gr. apij6(; ' seam, assemblage, joint ', appoT ' just, recently ' (apijo^w ' connect, join, 
adapts, orders ', appovia ' connection, alliance, regularity, harmony '), apjja ' chariot ' 
(about these words see Sommer Gr. Lautst. 133, Meillet BSL. 28, c.-r. 21 f. \;arsmo-l\, 
Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 306; farther Lithuanian by Boisacq 79), appaAia ' assigned food, 
provisions '; 

Latin arma, -drum ' defensive arms, armor, weapons of war; hence war, soldiers, 
military power; protection, defense;in gen. tools, equipment ', armentum^ herd of horses or 
cattle, cattle for plowing '. 

Hence sounds in Old Horse Jgrmuni^ bovine animal, horse ' and the PN Gothic 
*Afrmana-reiks, Old English Eormennc, Old Icelandic Jgrmunrekr, Middle High German 
ErmenrTch, the same first part to the name from a little bit big also e.g. in Ermunduri^ great 
Thuringia ', Old Horse Jgrmungrund^ the wide earth ' = Old English eormengrund. Old High 
German irmindeot. Old Saxon Irmin-sul, and in the short form Herminones. 

However, Bruckner KZ. 45, 107 rightly challenges, that " cattle, horses ' is the original and 
" large ' out of it derived meaning and decides vice versa for ' large, serene' a starting 
point because of Slavic ramen-b " immense, strong, violent, sudden ' (from here Lithuanian 
ermas^ immense , monstrous ', Latvian grms^ monkey, clown, strange appearance '?), as 
" shot up ' to *er-, *or- {or/oretc; compare formal 6piJ£V0(;), not as ' sturdy, stout, well built, 
massive ' belongs to *ar- ' to join, connect '. 

Old Church Slavic y5/'i./77b" yoke ' (e.g. Miklosich EWb. 100, Berneker31), sloven. 
jermen^ yoke strap, strap '; with zero grade initial sound and themat. vowel: Old Church 
Slavic remenb, serb. remen etc ' strap '; Specht Dekl. 149 f. 

Tocharian B yarm, AB yarm' measure '. 

B. From the heavy base ara-mo-: f-mo-^ arm '. 

Old Indie frma-h' arm, shoulder' (originally " shoulder joint ', compare apGpov, Latin 
artus 'joints') = Avestan arama- " arm ', osset. arm " cupped hand ', alm-ann, arm-arm " 
elbow ', 

Latin armus " shoulder or shoulder-blade; also, of an animal, the side, the uppermost part 
of the upper arm, scapula ' (from *ar/9/mos), gall, aramo^ bifurcation, point of separation ', 
(Wartburg 1119, Jud by Howald-Meyer Rom. Schweiz 374 ff.). Old Prussian irmoi. " arm ', 
Lithuanian /rmede {'gout ', i.e.:) ' gout in the joints ', irm-liga' gout, arthritis ' (see 
Trautmann Old Prussian 347); 

zero grade Lithuanian zem. PI. tant. armaf Vorderarm am Wagen ' (ibd.). Old Church 
Slavic ramo, ram§, serb. rame "shoulder', Gothic arms. Old High German etc arm " arm ', 
arm. armukn^ elbow ' (HiJbschmann Arm. Stud. I 21). 

Root form re-, re-: 

Latin reor, rerV to think, suppose, judge ' (the most primitive metering and counting is 
accompanied by the putting on top of each other or layers of the pieces to be counted), 
participle ratus^ in the opinion, sense ', but also ' determined, settled; calculated, certain, 
valid, legal ', ratio^ a reckoning, account, consideration, calculation; a reason, motive, 
ground; a plan, scheme, system; reasonableness, method, order; a theory, doctrine, 
science; the reasoning faculty '; after EM. 793 here {prd)port/d irom port/one =prd rat/one; 

Gothic *garaf^Jan {on\Y participle garat^ana) " to count ', Old Norse hundrad. Modern 
High German Hundert{ *rada n. " number ' = Latin ratum "to ratify, confirm, make valid'; s. 
Pick ll|4 336); Old High German girad' even (only from numbers) ', Modern High German 
gerad{ov\\)/ from numbers divisible by 2; different from ^e/'5o' = straight ahead), with new 
ablaut Old Norse thr0dr actuaWy " count after tens ' (Pick 111^ 336); Gothic rat^jo^ number, 
bill, account ', Old Saxon rethia' account ', Old High German radja, redea^ account, 
speech and answer, story ', Old Prisian birethia^ accuse ', Old Saxon rethidn. Old High 
German red(i)dn^ talk ' (determines the precise correspondence from rat^jdW\Vc\ Latin ratio 
"a reckoning, numbering, casting up, account, calculation, computation' e.g. Kluge'''' s. v. ' 
speech ' to the assumption of borrowing Germanic words under influence from garat^ian; 
more properly Palk-Torp 886 rat^jdio determine as primary -/o/7-derivative from Germanic 
root *ral=>-[garal=>janj). 

Whether here also Old Norse rgd^ row, line, series, chain, range, string, tier, battery, file, 
turn, run, procession, rank, order, progression, number, set, bank, esp. increment lining 
along the shore ', Middle Low German rati. " row, line, series, chain, range, string, tier. 

battery, file, turn, run, procession, ranl<, order, progression, number, set, banl< '? (Ficl< 111^ 
337; ' row; line; series; chain; range; string; tier; battery; file; turn; run; procession; 
rank; order; progression; number; set; bank ' as ' added on each other, stratified '?). 

Old High German ramen^ strive for something, strive, aim ', Old Saxon /(9/770/7 "strive ', 
Middle High German Middle Low German ram " aim, purpose, target ' our */'(9-maybe suit 
as ' to arrange in one's mind, calculate ', if, besides, this (the previous newer proves) 
Subst. rammusi have been as formation with formants-/77c»- starting point. 

d^-extension re-d^-, ro-^"^-, ra-dh-; 

Old Indie radhnoti, radhyati^ prepares (suitably), manages; gets, succeeds, with 
which has luck; contents, wins somebody ', radhayatT manages, gives satisfaction ', 
radha-hm., radhahu. " blessing, success, relief, gift, generosity '; 

Maybe alb. radha^ro\N\ radh/t'count'. 

Avestan rada/'t/' makes ready ', rada-m. ' social welfare worker ', radah-n. ' appropriate 
for oneself, making oneself available, willingness (in religious regard) ', Old pers. rad/y 
(Lok. Sg.) ' weigh ' (compare Old Church Slavic rad/see below), npers. arayad, arastan^ 
decorate; adorn; bedeck; trim; attire; array; drape; gild; emblazon; embellish '; Old 
Irish imm-radim' considers, thinks over ', acymr. amraud^ suppose, think, mean ', ncymr. 
amrawdd^ conversation ' with ders. meaning as Old Irish no-raidiu, no-radim^ says, tells ', 
mcymr. adrawd' tell ' and Gothic rodjan. Old Norse r0da " talk ' (compare further also 
placed above Modern High German Rede, reden, no-raidiu av\6 rodjan, like Slavic raditi 
kaus.-iter. *rd(i'^ejd); Gothic garedan^ whereupon be judicious, take precautions ', urredan 
" judge, determine ' (compare to meaning esp. Latin reri), undredan^ procure, grant ', Old 
High German ratan^ advise, confer, contemplate, plan, incite, indicate (riddle), request, to 
look after something, procure, provide, get ', Old Saxon radan. Old Norse rada. Old 
English r^dan {\a\^er also ' read ', engl. read), Subst. Old High German ratvn. " available 
means, council, piece of advice, advisement, decision, intention, precaution, stock, supply 
', similarly Old Saxon rad. Old Norse rad. Old English r^d. Old Church Slavic raditi^ take 
care; be accustomed; look after; care for; be in the habit; tend; provide; supply; cater; 
fend; ensure; insure ' (serb. radfm, raditi^ work, strive ', rad^ business, work '; see 
Uhlenbeck KZ. 40, 558 f.), radi^ weigh ', next to which */'ad^'- in Old Church Slavic nerodt ' 
neglect (of duty?) ', sloven, rgdim, rgditi^ provide, take care '. 

Maybe (*rqd) alb. Geg rande^heavy (weight)', randonj"\Ne'\gh'. aor. ra laW, strike' 
[nasalized form], , /le'care, attention', roje'guard', ruanj'to guard'. 

Root form (a)fi-, re/-{see Person root extension 102, 162, 232; Beitr. 741): 

Gr. apapioKU) (if not neologism, see above S. 56), apiGpoc; "number", vnpiTO(; " 
countless ', Arcadian snapiroc; 'sniAsKTOc;, select; choice; exquisite ', apipa^si appo^ei 

Latin ntus, -us' conventional kind of the religion practise, usage, ceremony, rite, manner', 
nte " in due form, after the right religious use, with proper ceremonies, properly, fitly, rightly 
' (Lok. one beside n-tu-s\y\ng conservative stem */>/-); 

Old Irish A/TT? 'number', aram {*ad-ri-ma) ds., do-rJmu' counts ', cymr. /"^//'number'. Old 
Norse /W7n. ' reckoning, calculation ', Old Saxon unrJm' immense number' ', Old English 
nmv^. "number'. Old High German rTmv(\. " row, order, number' (the meaning " verse, 
rhyme ' from Old Norse and Middle High German rJm probably after Kluge'io s. v. Reim 
from French rime, which has derived from rythmus). 

Maybe also *rei-' thing ' (Latin res'a thing, object, matter, affair, circumstance' etc) after 
Wood a^ 226 must be added as root noun meaning " stacked up goods, piled-up 
possessions '. 

Maybe is to be added also *rei-' thing ' (Latin reseic.) to Wood ax 226 as a root noun 
meaning " having stacked up property '. 

In addition probably as di^-extension /eAclh- (compare above /"e-d^. besides re-): 

Goth\c gara/Ps ' arranged, certain ', raidjan, garaidjan' prescribe, determine ', Old 
Norse g-reidr' ready, easy, clear', greida' disentangle, order, arrange, manage, pay, 
disburse, remit ', Middle High German reiten' get everything set up, prepare, arrange, 
count, calculate, pay ', reite, gereite, bereite. Old High German bireiti' ready ', antreitV 
series, ordo ', Latvian riedu, rizV order ', raids' raring, ready ', ridi, ridas' device, clamp '. 

Quite doubtfully is not borrowed by Persson aaO. considered affiliation from Old 
Church Slavic or^dije' apparatus, instrumentum ' (from Old High German arunti' 
message ', see Pedersen concentration camp. 38, 310), /"^o'b 'order', Lithuanian rfnda' 
to\N ', Latvian rinda " row, number '. On condition of that these continue Indo Germanic d, 
not dh {*re-n-d-), one adds (e.g. Pick 1^ 527, Pedersen aaO., see also EM. 711) thus the 
following kin in: 6p5£U) " put on a fabric ', opSiKOv tov xitcjovIgkov. Dapioi, 6p5r||JC( n ToAunr) 
TU)v spiojv Hes., 

Latin ordior, -Tn, orsus sum (from weaver's language, Breal MSL. 5, 440) " to begin a web, 
lay the warp, begin, commence, make a beginning, set about, undertake ', exordior^ to 
begin a web, lay the warp, prepare to weave ', redordior^ to take apart, unweave, unravel 
', ordo, -inis^a series, line, row, order' (also Umbrian urnas/er seems to be = ordinariis^oi 
order, usual, regular, ordinary', Linde Glotta 3, 170 f.; differently Gl. 5, 316), the connection 
agrees with aA 'put; place; fix; formulate; ordain; decree', which would have been 
needed then also by the weaving mill, to (Persson root extension 26, Thurneysen Thes. 
under artus, -us), so would be justified vowel from *or-d-eJdas a causative iterative 

Is even more doubtful, from after Reichelt KZ. 46, 318 as /r-extensions of the bases ar9-, 
ar- with the same application to the weaving mill are to be added: 

Maybe alb. {*aranea) arnoj^io repair, mend, sew, weave', ame 'patch, piece of fabric' from 
Latin aranea, -eus ' spider '? 

Gr. apaxvri ' spider', Latin araneus^ of a spider; n. as subst. a cobweb ', aranea, -eus^ 
spider ' ( *ara-k-sna, the word ending to *sne- ' to spin; weave, interweave, produce by 
spinning ' as ' a net spinner, a woman, a girl (or a spider) that spins a net '?); supposedly 
in addition (Walter KZ. 12, 377, Curtius KZ. 13, 398) gr. apKuq ' net ', apKavr) to pappa cb 
Tov GTniJova syKaTanAsKOUGivai Sia^opsvai Hes. (see also Boisacq 79), wherefore after 
Bezzenberger BB. 21, 295 Latvian er'kuls^ spindle; a bunch of oakum, a wad of oakum 
(for spinning)' (which can stand for *arkuls). Liden IF. 18, 507 f. puts it better apKU(; to 
Slavic *orkyta, serb. rakita ' red pasture ' and Latvian ercis, gr. apK£ueo(; ' juniper ' as 
shrubs with branches usable against lichen. 

References: WP. I 69 ff., WH. I 69, 70, Trautmann 13 f. 
See also: S. unten arqu- and erk-. 
Page(s): 55-61 

Root / lemma: ar-2ex er- 

Meaning: to distribute 

Grammatical information: with Indo Germanic /7^-present 

Material: Avestan ar- (present eranav-, aranv-, preterit Pass, aranav?) ' grant, allow to be 

given; do guarantee ', with us- and fra^{ as an allotment) suspend and assign ', fr§rata-v\. 

' allotment (of sacrifices ), offering ' (Bartholomae Altiran. Wb. 184 f.); 

Armenian arnum^ I take ', Aor. 5r(Hubschmann Arm. Gr. I 420; meaning from medial " I 
allot to myself, I assign to myself, I allocate to myself, I appropriate to myself ' compare Old 
Indie dalamT give ': a date^ to take something, to accept something '; also in:) 

gr. apvu|jai " acquires, tries to reach, conceives, acquire esp. as a price or wage ', 
durative compared with apsoGai " acquire, win ', Aor. apopriv, np6|jr|v; |jia9apvr|<;, 
IjiaGapvoc; ' potboiler, day laborer, wageworker ', cx^oc, n. ' usefulness, profit, use ' 

Hittite ar-nu-mi^ I bring ' (Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 696) belongs probably rather than a 
causative to 3. er-^ start to move '. 

Hittite: {ar-nu-zl) arnuzi " take there, bring here'. 

The full grade vocalisms of the root guaranteeing forms are absent. 

References: WP. I 76 f. 
Page(s): 61 

Root / lemma: ar-3 

l\^eaning: nut 

Note: (extends by -ei-, -oi-, -u-) 


In a- grade: 

G. Meyer Alb. Wb. 17 combines gr. apua m DHpaKAsajTiKa Kapva Hes., alb. arrei. " 
walnut-tree ', For the relation to Lithuanian rfesutas, ruosutys' hazelnut ', Latvian rieksts^ 
nut, hazelnut ', Old Prussian buccareisis^ beechnut ' (see Trautmann Old Prussian 314) 
accepts Specht Dekl. 62. 

In o- grade: 

Old Church Slavic orech-b " nut '. 
References: WP. I 77. 
Page(s): 61 

Root / lemma: ar-5 

Meaning: to refuse; to lie 

Note: (with /7-formant) 

Material: Gr. apv£0|jai (*apv£-F-o|jai) ' refuses ', arrapvot;, s^apvot; " refusing, denying 

everything ', apusi avTiAsyEi pog Hes.; 

alb. rrem' false ', rreme, rrene^ lie ', nerroj {iroxr\ *rren6j) " denies everything ' (//'from rn; 
Pedersen KZ. 33, 542 Anm. 2). Is even more doubtful whether Armenian uranam^ denies 
everything, refuses ', urasf denial ' would be used (with ur-\xoxx\ or-). 
References: WP. I 78, Meillet BSL. 26, 19, Esquisse 111, 142. 
See also: see also or-, ar-'reden, rufen'. 
Page(s): 62 

Root / lemma: aro-m {*gher-, ghel- ) 

Meaning: reed 

Material: Gr. apov n. " bistort, kind of reed ', api-aapov ' therefrom a small kind '; 

Latin harundo^a reed; meton., for an object made of reed, a fishing rod; limed twigs for 
catching birds; a pen; the shaft of an arrow, or the arrow itself; a shepherd's pipe; a flute; a 
weaver's comb; a plaything for children, a hobby-horse'; to formation compare hirundo^a 
swallow' and nebrundines : vscppoi "the kidneys'. 


Maybe alb. {* ghalandus) dalendyshe^a swallow' : Latin harundo -inisi. "a reed; meton., for 

an object made of reed, a fishing rod; limed twigs for catching birds' : hirundo -inis, f. 


Common Latin gh- > h- : alb. gh- > d-. 

Similar phonetic setting alb. dimen^\N\v\{ex' : Latin Nemo -are'\.o winter, spend the winter' 

[see Root/ lemma: ghei-2. ghi-\ "winter; snow' 

Latin and alb. prove that the original Root/ lemma: aro-m\ "reed' was {*gher-, ghel^. Only 

Latin, alb. and gr. have preserved the old laryngeal /?-. 

There is no doubt that from lllyrian-alb.- Latin {* harundinis) dalendyshe^a swallow' 

[common alb. gh- > d-] derived gr. x£Ai5u)v "swallow', therefore from Root/ lemma: ghel-: 

"to call, cry' derived Root/ lemma: aro-m\ "reed' {*gher-) where ///allophones. 

From Persson De orig. gerundii 59 added Latin arista " the beard of an ear of grain; 
hence the ear itself; also a harvest ', aristis " holcus, a green vegetable ' is defeated 
because of his suggesting to genista^. " the broom-plant ' suffix strongly to the suspicion 
to be Etruscan (see Herbig IF. 37, 171, 178). 

From Mediterranean language? 

References: WP. I 79, WH. I 635 f. 
Page(s): 68 

Root / lemma: arod-, arad- 

Meaning: a kind of waterbird 

Material: Gr. pu)5i6(;, spwSioc; ' heron ' (spcoSioc; folk etymology in ending after -iSioc;), Latin 

ardea^a heron' ds. {*arad-). Old Norse arta. Old Swedish arta^ teal ', Demin. Old Norse 

ertia, Norwegian erle^ wagtail ', serb. roda^ stork ' {*rada). 

Maybe truncated alb. (*poi)5i6c;) rosa, /'ose'duck', /7/ra "duckling, duck', Rumanian {*rada) 

/•a/a "duck'. 


Alb. and Rumanian prove that from Root/ lemma: anat-: (duck) derived Root/ lemma: 

arod-, arad-: (a kind of waterbird) [common rhotacism n > r\ 

References: WP. I 146 f., WH. I 64. 

Page(s): 68 

Root / lemma: arqu- 
Meaning: smth. bent 

Material: Latin arcus, -i7s(stem is in -qu- from, compare Old Latin Gen. a/ic/^/; further 
argues, arquitenens) " a bow, arch, arc; esp. the rainbow ', arquatus, arcuatus {morbus) " 
icteric, yellowed as if from jaundice, jaundice, relating to jaundice; m. as subst., a sufferer 
from jaundice ', probably actually " rainbow-colored, green and yellow looking ' (compare 
Thes.); arcuatus a\so " arched-shaped, bow-shaped, supported by arches, covered 
(carriage) '; Umbrian arglataF a round cake; ', wherefore v. Planta I 341, Gotze IF. 
41, 91 ( *a/'/re/c»- with loss of the labialisation); Gothic arfvaznai. " dart, arrow ' {arfva-zna, 
compare hiaiwazna). Old Norse (?/'(Gen. grvai) f. " dart, arrow ', Old English earhi. ds. 
(engl. arrov\/}, Germanic *arhvd. 
Maybe alb. hark'boM\/' [alb. is the only IE tongue that has preserved the old laryngeal /?-] 

For the basic approach arqu- (and not arqu-) would speak russ. rak/ta, Czech rokyta, 
serb. rokitaeic " a kind of willow tree ', where *arqOta {UMosich EWb. 226, Torbjornsson 
BB. 20, 140) forms the basis, and gr. apK£u9o(; " juniper ', which word with with all 
likelyhood concerning this is to be drawn Liden IF. 18, 507; in addition apK£u9i(; " juniper 
berry '. 

Indeed, Liden takes relationship with gr. apKU(; "net' (see Bezzenberger BB. 21, 285) in for 
what one compares under ar-1, S. 61. 

Another connection for gr. apK£u0O(; and russ. rakftaeic seeks Endzelin KZ. 44, 59 ff., 
which more properly compares Latvian ercis, ec/'s ( *erc/s) " juniper '; 

further erceties^ torment oneself, grieve, straiten ', ercesa^ a very quarrelsome person '; 
Latvian erks(k')is^ thorn shrub ' would be to Endzelin mixture from *e/'/r/s and Lithuanian 
ersketis " a thorn plant ' corresponding as regards the root of the word form; gr. dp- then 
would have to contain zero grade from *er-. S. under e/ifr- 

References: WP. I 81, WH. I 64, EM. 69. 
Page(s): 67-68 

Root / lemma: arua {*heru3) 

Meaning: intestines 

Material: Gr. opua f. " bowel ', Latin arvTnai. " grease, fat, lard, bacon ', originally " 

intestinal fat '? (compare Old High German mitta-garni^ recumbent fat in the middle of the 

bowels '); appivvri Kpsac;. IikeAoI Hes. is Latin loanword 


Gr. {*horua) opua, alb. {*ghorna) zo/re" bowel' [common alb. gh- >z-] prove that Root/ 

lemma: arua {* herui): "intestines' derived from Root/ lemma: gher-5, ghor-na\ "bowels'. 

This discovery might shed light on the origin of the old larygeals in PIE. 

References: WP. I 182, II 353, WH. I 71. 

Page(s): 68 

Root / lemma: ast(h)- 
Meaning: " bones ' 
See also: s. ost(h)-. 
Page(s): 69 

Root / lemma: ati, ato- 
Meaning: over, etc. 

Note: compare to the meaning question esp. Brugmann Grdr. I|2, 844 f. the colouring of 
the beginning vowel stands firm through Latin-Celtic (Greek) as Indo Germanic a-, and it 
gives no good reason before, Balto-Slavic, Germanic (and Aryan) forms can be attributed 
to Indo Germanic *o-, by the book - following rules in a (very) strict way just because it 
would be a textbook example of ablaut to e- formed from *e//bildete. With et/{see there) 
at least equality meaning and exchange existed in the use. Is a// reduction grade to etf? 
Material: Old Indie at/"about- onto (adnominal m. Akk.), exceedingly, very much ' (Adv. 
and proverb), Avestan a/t/-, Old pers. at/'y- ds. Adv. (as 1. compound part and proverb 
(before /- " go ' as " go by, pass by ' and bar- " carry, bear ' as " bring over again, to carry '); 
Aryan a// can also represent Indo Germanic *et/. 

Gr. presumably in ar-ap " however ' (compare aurap from auT ap; Brugmann-Thumb 
623, KVG. 616; by connection with arsp, Gothic sundro, the Attic it remained kind of 
unexplained). Latin a/" but, yet, moreover; sometimes introducing an imaginary objection, 
but, you may say ' from increasing - to opposing ' beyond it ', what latter meaning in at- 
avus, at-nepos {not in appnme , see Skutsch AflL. 12, 213). 

Gall, ate- (from *aff-) in Ategnatus {= Middle Breton {h)aznat, nbret. anat^ acquainted, 
known ') , abrit. Ate-cotti^ the very old ', Old Irish aith-, preceding ad- " against, un- ', 
mcymr. at-, ncymr. ad-, eo'-(Belege e.g. by Pick 11^ 8, Pedersen KG. II 292); 

here as *a/e-/rc»-/7 probably Middle Irish athachu. " a certain time ', cymr. adegxw. ds., 
compare gall. ATENOVXiriame of 2th half month), Thurneysen ZcP. 20, 358? 

Gothic at^-t^an^ but, however ' (very doubtful is against it derivation from Gothic Old 
Saxon ak. Old English ac^ however ', Old High German 0/7" but, however ' from *al=>- + ke 
= gr. ys; differently, but barely appropriate Holthausen IF. 17, 458: = gr. ays, Latin age^ go! 
well! '). 

Lithuanian at-, ata-, more recently also at/-, in nominal compound ato- ' back, off, away, 
from, up ' (see Brugmann Grundr. I|2 2, 844 f.). Old Prussian et-, at- (probably only from 
Baltic at-, Trautmann 46); 

Old Church Slavic ot-, otb^ away, since, ex, from ', adnominal m. d. Gen.-Abl., 
introduces Meillet Et. 155 f. back to gen. -ablative *atos(\n front of, before; in return for; 
because of, from = Old Indie atah^ thenceforth '? rather Pron.-stem *e-with ablat. Adv.- 
forms -tos); Indo Germanic *5//(and *et/) would be in addition Lok.; both remain very 

The double aspect Lithuanian ata-\ ato- reminds in pa-\ pd{see *apo), (see *apo), 
and it is doubtful about whether one may see in ablative *atdda kind of ostem formation. 
In the Slavic the form on long vowel is formed further in russ. etc. otava ' grommet ', as 
Old Prussian attolis, Lithuanian atolas, Latvian atals, atals^ grommet ' speaking for Indo 
Germanic older short vocalized form Lithuanian ata-= Indo Germanic *5/c»- (compare to 
ending *apo, *upd)\ 

Old Irish do, to- prefix "to' with (Indo Germanic?) zero grade of ani. vowels (Meillet 
aaO., Stokes BB. 29, 171, Pedersen KG. II 74), probably also lllyrian to-, alb. /e' to, by ' 
(Skok by Pokorny Urill. 50). 

References: WP. I 42 f., WH. I 75, 421 f., 863. 

Page(s): 70-71 

Root / lemma: at-, *atno- 
Meaning: to go; year 


Gr. hioc, 'year' : Latin annus^yeaf {*atnos) 'year' : Old Indie hayana- year\Y' , hayana-m. 
n. year' prove that Root/ lemma: en-2: year' : Root/ lemma: at-, *atno-\ to go; year' : 
Root/ lemma: uet-\ 'year' [prothetic i/- before bare initial vowels] derived from Root/ 
lemma: ghei-2, ghi-, ghei-men-, *gheimn- : 'winter; snow'. 

Material: Old Indie atati^ goes, walks, wanders '. Moreover Latin annus'year' from *atnos 
(under the influenee of eommon Celtie -ns-, -nt- > -nn-) = Gothie Dat. PI. at^nam 'year', 
eompare Fiek |2 338, W. Meyer KZ. 28, 164, Froehde BB. 16, 196 f. (meaning 
development like with Germanie *jeram 'year' \.oJe- ' go '). 

Maybe alb. Geg {*ant) vajt, Tose vete, vajtiaox. 'to go', (*///) i////'go around, year, all year 
around' [eommon alb. prothetie v- before initial bare vowels - proof of aneient laryngeal h. 
Latin has followed alb.s t > nt > n, elearly Latin annus ' year ' derived from Old Indie 
{*antanti) a tat/] 

Etrusean follows alb.s Etrusean Avil : year, Avilxva :yearly // derivated from Avil, by 
adding a adjeetival suffix -xva. 

Osean-Umbrian eorresponds akno-'year, festival time, saerifieial time ' (with -tn- to -kn-, 
Brugmann IF. 17, 492). Reeeived the word is durable in eompounds Latin perenn/s' the 
whole year; eontinuously ' [perenn/s -e 'lasting throughout the year; durable, perennial', 
perennitas -atisi. 'duration, perpetuity', perenno -are 'to last many years'.], sollennis ' 
festive, annual, eustomary, returning or eelebrated annually, solemn, eeremonial, 
ritualistie; usual ' (additional form so//e'/77/7/s absolutely analogieal results; Thurneysen AflL. 
13, 23 ff., after omnidl); Umbrian sev-acni-, per-acni-^ so\\ev\v\\s\ Subst. ' vietim, saerifiee, 
saerifieial offering '. 

References: WP. I 42 f., WH. I 51, 847. 
Page(s): 69 

Root / lemma: augh-, ugh- 
Meaning: nape 

Material: Charpentier KZ. 46, 42 places together Old Indie usnihai. ' neck ' (only PI.) and 
gr. auxnv " nape, throat, straits '. 

In usn/habeiore lies diminutive suffix -/ha-, gr. -ixa- . The beginning is *ugh-s-n-fgha\he 
first gh\s reduced being produced by dissimilation. To 1/^/7-5-/70 stands *augh-en-\n gr. 
auxnv compared with here Armenian awj" throat ', awji-k^ cervical collar '; Aeolic apcpnv " 
nape, neck ', Aeolic aucpsv ds. must be separated therefrom, in spite of Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 
296; about gr. Sacpvp: Cypriot 5auxva " laurel ' better WH. I 775 f. (compare above S. 43 
and Hoffmann Gr. Dial. II 500, Meister Gr. Dial. I 120). 
References: WP. I 25, Adontz Mel. Boisacq 10. 
Page(s): 87 

Root / lemma: aug- 
Meaning: to glance, see, dawn 


Probably Root/ lemma: aug-\ " to glance, see, dawn ' derived from Root/ lemma: ayes-: ' 
to shine; gold, dawn, aurora etc.'. 

Material: Gr. auyn " shine, ray, daylight; eye ', auya^co " shines, illuminates; sees ', epi- 
auYr|(; ' shining very much '; 

alb. agoj^ dawns ', agume^ aurora, morning, dawn ' (see Persson Beitr. 369); 

It seems Albanian cognate has wrong etymology. 

Maybe Basque N egunsenti: Estonian : N agu: Albanian : N agu, agim: Turkish : N 

agarma^ dawn, daybreak'. 

Turkish V gun agarmak : alb. agon : " to dawn ' 

Estonian N aeg : Turkish N gun, gundiJz, donem, zaman : Basque egun^ day ' 

Turkish N gijnes : Basque eguzki N " sun '. 

from also Slavic iugh^ south ' (Pick KZ. 20, 168), russ. uzinh, uzinal 

Probably wrong etymology since Slavic iugi^ "south' : alb. yi/^ "south' must have derived 
from Latin iugum -/n. "a yoke' - a constellation in the southern night skies, see Root/ 
\&r(\T(\a\jeu-2,Jeua-,Jeu-g- : to tie together, yoke 
References: WP. I 25. 
Page(s): 87 

Root / lemma: au1 

Meaning: interjection of pain 

Material: Old Indie o, Latin au'OV\\ ', Old English ea, Middle High German ou(we). Modern 

High German au, Latvian au, 5i/ (disyllabic au, ai/i/with displeasure, refusal, 

astonishment, surprise), poln. au, Czech ounder 

References: WH. I 78. 

Page(s): 71 

Root / lemma: au-2, au-es-, au-s- 

Meaning: to spend the night, sleep 

Material: Armenian 5^a/7//77 "spends the night ', vair-ag^ living in the country ', aut^ spend 

the night, night's rest, station '. 

Gr. iauu) " sleeps ' from redupl. *i-ausd, Aor. i-auaai, next to which unredupl. Aor. asaa. 
Inf. aF£a(a)ai; quAk;, -xboo, ' place of residence, camp, stable, night's lodging ', auAi^oijai " 
is in the court, spends the night ', aypauAo(; " spending the night outside ', auAri ' court, 
courtyard, dwelling ' (originally probably " the fenced in space around the house in which 
the cattle is rounded up for the nighttime '); from iauu) comes except iauGpoc; " Night's 
lodging ', 

Mr|^iciu6M6(; ' sheep stable ', bj\a\}Q\x6c, " place of residence ' (: hom. Eviausiv " have his 
rest accommodation ') also gr. £viauT6(; actually ' rest, rest station ', therefore the solstices 
as resting places in the course of the sun {solstitium), then ' year, solstice, anniversary ' 
(different Specht Indo Germanic Dekl. 15, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I, 424^, s. also en- " year '). 

A heavy base *aue-, *aud- ^robabVj to be added hom. awrsTc; unvov (from Schuize 
Ounder ep. 72 directly to iauw put under formal comparison from £p(F)u)Ta(ji) : sipopiai from 
*£pFo[jai) and awpoc; (Sappho), wpoc; (Kallimachos) 'unvo(;' (Benfey Wzl.-Lex. I 298), 
wherefore Old English werig, engl. weary. Old Saxon worag, worig' tired, weary ', Old 
High German wuorag^ inebriates '; about Old Indie vayatT gets tired '; see however, root 
aue- ' strive oneself, exert '. 

References: WP. I 19 f. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 690. 

See also: Uber £/e5- "verweilen' see below besonderem Artikel. 

Page(s): 72 

Root/ lemma: au-lo-s{: eu-l^ [*heu-l^ 
Meaning: tube, hole, *street 

Material: Gr. avKoq m. " pipe flute, long cavity ', zv-avKoq m. " riverbed ', auAcbv m. f. " 

mountain valley, gulch, ditch, canal, strait '; 

Old Church Slavic u/bjb, Lithuanian au/ys and secondarily av/7ys' beehive ', originally the 

cavity in the tree in which the swarm settles; 


[probably Old Church Slavic av/7ys' beehive ' < vaulys, but prothetic v- before bare initial 

vowels has been attested in lllyrian, alb. and Slavic tongues; maybe through metathesis au 

> ua a\b. Tosc {*hau-lo-) huall, Geg huell, hoje PI. ' beehive, cavity ' = Latin alvus' 

beehive, cavity' [common alb. shift I >j\, alb. /7c»//e" narrow, thin', alb. is the only language 

to have preserved the old laryngeal /?-. Clearly the Latin cognate derived from lllyrian and 

Slavic cognates. 

From {*halvus, alhwus) Latin a/i/^s "beehive, cavity' derived Rumanian a/b/na^bee', 

Portuguese at>e/ha'bee\ Spanish abeja'bee', French abe/7/e'bee' [common Italic and 

Greek -/7iy- > -b-. 

Old Church Slavic u//cat " street, - in a built-up area - hollow, ravine, gorge, narrow pass 

', Lithuanian au/ast, Old Prussian aulinis^ bootleg ', Old Prussian aulis^ shinbone '. 

Maybe zero grade in alb. Tosc udhe u//e'roa6, street' [the common alb.-lllyrian-Latin -dh- > 

-II-, -d- > -I- shift] 

Maybe Root / lemma: au-lo-s{. eu-l^ : "tube, hole, *street' derived from Root/ lemma: 

uegh-\ "to move, carry, drive' [common alb. -gh- > -d-] 

Armenian ut uH^ way ' and (compare the meaning " belly ' from Latin alvus) yH^ 
pregnant ' (with ablaut 0, Pedersen KZ. 39, 459; derivatives ufarkem and ylem^ send in 


*) Armenian word with the ablaut grade Indo Germanic u. from with the same Latvian 
ula, ula^ wheel hub '? (would be the " tubularly hole ' in which the axis is inserted; Liden 
IF. 19,321). 

New Norwegian aul, au/e and (with Indo Germanic eu- as a high step to au-) Jdr 
angelica silvestris ', Old Norse {huann-) joli' the hollow stems of angelica archangelica ', 
both plants call in Norway also sl0ke, whose basic meaning likewise " tube, pipe ' is (Falk- 
Torp 474 and 1492 underyb/and from Schroederto Germanic ablaut 58 f. likewise boat 
name jolle "dinghy'). 

Here with Latin metatliesis of aul- to alu- also alvus m. f. " belly, womb, stomach; hold of 
a ship, beehive ', alveus^ a hollow, cavity, trough; hence boat; also the hold of a ship; 
bathtub; bed of a stream; beehive; gaming-table ', although time and limitation of the 
metathesis are still totally unclear (see Thurneysen IF. 21 , 177, Sommer Hdb.^ 78). 

References: WP. I 25 f., WH. I 34 f., different Banateanu REtlE 1, 122. 
Page(s): 88-89 

Root / lemma: au-3{aue); ue- 
Meaning: from, away, of 

Material: Old Indie ava ' from, down ', mostly prefix from verbs and Subst., rarely 
preposition m. Abl., Avestan ap. 51/5 prefix " down' and (while more the purpose than the 
starting point of the movement came to the consciousness) " whereupon to, to what, near ' 
(e.g. avabar- ' to take there, carry away ' and ' to take there, procure, supply, get '), also 
preposition m. Akk. " there, there in '; therefrom Old Indie avara- "inferior' and Avestan 
aora^ after, below, down ' (after /jara extended from avara); 

Avestan avara Mv. " below, down '= Old Indie avarPN . I 133, 7; Old Indie avah{avas) " 
down ', whereof avastad' under '; without auslaut vowel (compare Avestan ao-ra) Old 
Indie o-e.g. in o-gana-h^ single, pathetic ' (: gana-h' troop, multitude '; Wackernagel Old 
Indie Gr. 154); 

gr. au- probably in auxaiTsiv avaxwpsTv, avaxa^soGai Hes. (Schuize Qunder ep. 60); 

lllyrian au- ' (of motion), towards, to (a person or place), at ' in proper names? (Krahe IF. 
49, 273); 

Latin au- ' away , off, gone ' in auferd'\.o take away, bear off, carry off, withdraw, 
remove' (= Avestan ava-bharati, Avestan ava-bar-), aufug/o'to flee away, run away, 

gall. au-tag/s'b\dm^\q7' (Vendryes BSL. 25, 36); 

Old Irish perhaps o, ua^ from, with, by ', as a preposition m. dat., acymr. hou, more 
recently o'if, o preposition 'from'; 

Old Prussian Lithuanian Latvian au- ' away, from ' (e.g. Latvian au-manis^ not- sensical, 
nonsensical '), Old Church Slavic i/ prefix " away, from ', e.g. u-myti^ to give a wash, wash 
away ' {u-bezati^ flee from '), as preposition m. Gen. ' from ' (with verbs of the desire, 
receive, take) and, with fading of the concept of the starting point, " by, from '; 

maybe alb. particle of passive ^"by, from' used before verbs in passive voice. 

Hittite proverb u- {we-, wa-) " here ', a-wa-an^ away ' (Sturtevant Lg. 7, 1 ff.). 

thereof with /-forms aut(/Jo-:gr. qutux; ' unavailingly, in vain ', auaiO(; ds. and Gothic 
aul=>ja-{H. Sg. *aul=>eis ox * aul=>s) ' desolate, leave ' (*"remote '), aul=>ida^ desert ', Old High 
German odi. Modern High German ode. Old Norse audr^ desolate '; Old Irish uathad^ 
item, particular, sort '. - goes to the frightening wilderness, wilderness also Middle Irish 
uath^ fright, terrible ' (are to be kept away cymr. uthr^ terrible ', corn, uth, euth, bret. euz^ 
fright ')? At least is their connection with Latin pavere^ to quake with fear, panic; transit, to 
quake at, tremble ' everything rather than sure, see pou-^ fear '. 

Beside aut(i)o-s\.Q\\\. perhaps changing through ablaut u-to-\x\ alb. huf in vain, blank, 
vainly ', ue-to-{sQQ unten *ue^ in gr. ouk ubc, " not free of charge, not without reason ', 
£TU)aiO(; (Fby Homer) " in vain, without success, pointless '. 

Maybe truncated alb. (*/70/) koV in vain, without success, pointless '; alb. is the only IE 
language to preserve the old laryngeal h- > k-. 

to combine *ue- with *a£/- probably under *aue-. 

Latin *ve- in vescor^o eat, feed on; to use, enjoy' originally " whereof to eat up ' (: 
esca), from which back formation vescus ' greedy; fastidiously in food (*merely nibbling 
off); underfed '; 

again alb. es/7/re "fungus' : Latin esca "food, victuals, esp. as bait'. Prothetic v- added to 
bare initial vowels is an alb.-lllyrian. 

ve- to indication faulty too much or too little, ve-cors " senseless, mad, moves, treacherous 
', ve-grandis^ diminutive, not large, tiny ', vesanus^ mad, insane; of things, furious, wild ', 
Ve-jovis, Umbrian ve-purus{kb\. PI.), wheather "(ispa) anupa'. 


Also in alb. ve- to indication faulty too much or too little: alb. i/es/?///-© "difficult, hard' from 
{ve- 5/7///-e (participle of alb. 5/7/KA7y"push with difficulty') see Root /lemma: (s)teu-1\ "to 
push, hit'. 

uo-.'Gr. Fo- in Arcadian Fo-(pAr|K6ai, Attic o-cpAioKavw, ocpsiAw, Lesbian 6-£iyr|v " open ', 
Attic oiyw, more recently oiyvuiJi (Prellwitz2 345, Brugmann IF. 29, 241, BSGW. 1913, 

ues-:W\\h Old Indie avas'dosNn' attached together formant Germanic wes-'\n Modern 
High German IVest, Old High German westar' westwards ', Old Norse vestrn. ' westen ', 
Adv. " in the west , against west ' ( *ues-t(e)ro-, compare Old Norse nor-dr). Old High 
German westana^ from west ' etc (Brugmann IF. 13, 157 ff.; about the explanation of the 
Wisigothaeas ' West-Goths, Visigoths ' s. Kretschmer Gl. 27, 232). 

Here (after Brugmann aaO.) the initial sound of the word for evening, Indo Germanic 
uesperos and ueqeros, see there. 

Relationship from Indo Germanic *au-, ^e- with the Pron.-stem au-, u- " yonder, over 
there ' as " on the other side, from there ' is conceivable. 

References: WP. I 13 f., WH. I 79, 850, Trautmann 16. 
Page(s): 72-73 

Root / lemma: au-4, u-{\ ue-, uo-) 

Meaning: that; other 

Material: auo: 0\d Indie Avestan Old pers. ava- " that '; Old Church Slavic Old Russian 

ovh-- ovh-' on the one hand - on the other hand which appears - other ', ovogda - ovogda 

" one time - the other time ' (from this correlative use only poln. dn/ corresponds to English 

deictic "I" and serb. ovaja deictic word meaning "that", also New Bulgarian -v [*uo-s] 


u-:0\d Indie amu-{Akk. Sg. amum etc) 'that, yonder', arise from Akk. Sg. m. *am{= 
Indo Germanic *e-m 'eum') + *um (Akk. Sg. of ours stem u); s. Wackernagel-Debrunner III 
550 f. 

Tocharian A ok, B uk' still ', A o/r/' as, and ', A okak' up to ', perhaps only *u-g {zero 
grade to Gothic auk); from in addition B om(p)ne, omte " there '? 

Particle Old Indie u^ thus, also, on the other hand, there again, against it ', emphasizing 
esp. after verbal forms, Pron. and particles {no^ and not, not ' = na u, athd= atha u), gr. -u 
in TTOv-u " even very much ', 

Gothic -^interrogative particle (also the enclitic -uhirom -u-q^e, s. Brugmann IF. 33, 173); 
this ^also in Old Indie a-sau rw. f. "that, yonder', Avestan haum. f., ap. hauvxw. "that, 
yonder', Wackernagel-Debrunner III 529, 541. 

Particle Old Indie u-ta, in both parts " on the one hand - on the other hand, soon - soon, 

- as ', or only in the second part, a little bit opposing " and, thus ' (nachved. in ity-uta, kim- 
uta, praty-uta), 

Avestan uta, ap. ^/a'and, and also'; gr. huts " just as ' from *nF(£) + uts (originally ' as on 
the other hand ', " as, also '), but horn, euts "ote' from £u + t£ after Debrunner IF. 45, 185 
ff.; 5£0t£ is formed in addition to 5£upo; also ouToq, aurn, touto most probably from 6, a, to 
+ UT£ with additional final inflection; 

West Germanic -od\v\ Old Saxon thar-od. Old High German thar-of thither, there ', Old 
Saxon her-od. Old High German her-oV here ', whereupon also Old Saxon hwarod^ 
whither, where ', Old High German warot^ whither, where ' (from * ute? or iroxu * uta? A\so 
*aute, *auti, see below, would be possible basic form). 

Here Avestan uiti, Gatha-Avestan uitr so ', but not Latin i//and utT, Old Latin utei. 

Beside u, uta etc. stands with the ablaut grade Indo Germanic au-: 

gr. au " on the other hand, again ', *auTi " again' (extended to Ionian qutk;, gort. auTiv, 
after antique grammarians for ' right away, there ', where from auriKa " at the moment, 
straight away ', au-9ron the spot, here, there ', auT£ ' again, thus, further '; Latin aut{*aut/) 
" or', autem " however ' (to the form see WH. I 87), Oscan aut, auti^ or ' and " but, on the 
other hand, on the contrary, however ' (to meaning see v. Planta II 465); 

maybe alb. Geg o "or' from Italian o'or' 

Umbrian ute, o/e'aut'; perhaps Gothic auk^ then, but ', Old Norse 5^/r'also, and'. Old 
English eac. Old Saxon ok. Old High German ouh^ and, thus, but ', Modern High German 
also = gr. au-Y£ ' again '. 

Pedersen Pron. dem. 315 supposes gr. au suitable form in the initial sound of from 
alb. a-qe^ so much'. - Brugmann BSGW. 60, 23 a 2 lines up in gr. au-T6(; as " (he) himself 

- (he) of his own, self '; other interpretations see with Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 613 f. 

Maybe alb. {*aut-) vete^seW [common alb. prothetic v- before bare initial vowels]. 

With A-forms airan. avar^ here', Lithuanian aure^ see there! ', zero grade Umbrian uru 
' that, that yonder, that one; emphatically, that well-known; in contrast with hie, the former 
', ura-ku^a6 illam', ures'WWs' (o/'e/'ose rather with d= uas = Lithuanian ad); perhaps 
5£upo " here, well, all right, well then (an obsolete interjection meaning "come now") ' 

(5£upaj after oniaaoj , inschr. SsOps after ays) from *5£-upo (5s " here ' + aupo " here '), 
SchwyzerGr. Gr. I 612, 632. 

ue-, UO-: meaning "or' (= " on the other hand ') esp. in Old Indie va^ or' (also " even, 
yet; meanwhile; probably, possibly '; also confirming vai), Avestan ap. 1/5' or' (particle of 
the emphasis and assurance). 

Old Indie Avestan va- va' either - or ', gr. r|-(F)e, n (with proclitic emphasis, proclitic stress 
for n-(F)£, as yet in the second part of the double question), 

Latin -ve'or' (also in ceu, sTve, seu, neve, neu), also probably Irish no, abret. nou^or' (if 
from *ne-ue " or not ' ' with fading the negative meaning originally in negative sentences, 
Thurneysen Grammar 551; 

not more probably after Pedersen KG. I 441 a grown stiff imperative * neue oi the verb Irish 
at-no/' he entrusts with him ', gr. veuoj); Tocharian B wa-t' where'. 

compare also Old Indie /-va (: va = \-bz: bt) " just as, exactly the same way ', e-va " in 
such a way, exactly the same way, just, only ', evam ' so, thus ' (behaves to be confirmed 
1/5/and va- vaas e-na- ' this ' to na- na' in different way ', originally ' thus and thus '; with 
e-va corresponds gr. oI(F)oc; " only' (" * just only '), Avestan aeva-. Old pers. a/va- "an, 
one' (compare with no- demonstrative Indo Germanic *of-no-s^ an, one '). 

References: S. esp. Brugmann Dem. 96 f., Grundr. II2 2, 341-343, 350, 731 f. m. 
Lithuanian II23, 987, 

Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 629, 632, 804, Boisacq s. v. au, etc 

WP. I 187 f., WH. I 87, 209, Van Windekens Lexique 78, 80. 

Page(s): 73-75 

Root / lemma: aug^fh)-: uq'^fhj- and beside it probably as andere lengthened grade 


Meaning: cooking pot 

Material: Latin au//a, aula, vulg. olla^ jar, pot ' from *auxla, Demin. auxilla {VaWscau o/na'm 

ending after urna); probably alb. anei. " vessel ' (from *auq"'naR Jokl. Stud. 3); Old Indie 

ukha-hxr\., ukha^ pot, saucepan '; Gothic auhnsrw. {*uk"n6s) ' oven, stove ', with gramm. 

variation Old Norwegian ogn. Old Swedish oghn ds. 

Maybe alb. {*ahna) e/7a"dish' : \v\d\cAnvA "oven, furnace'. 

Besides forms with probably only to single-linguistic labial: gr. gr. inv6(;, older invot; " 
stove' (after Pick ll|4 29 between, Ostir WuS. 5, 217, GiJntert Abl. 25 from *Ueq"-n6s, not 
*uq"n6s, s. Boisacq m. Lithuanian), after E. Fraenkel KZ. 63, 202 from *ukFv6(; through 
dissimilatorischen sound change?? (W. Schuize GGA. In 1897, 908); 


Common gr. - celt, -k"- > -p-, -g"- > -b-. 

bret. offeni. " stone trough ' in spite of Loth RC. 43, 410 barely from * uppa. Old English 
ofneC small vessel ', ofen. Old High German ovan. Old Norse ofn^ stove, oven ' (likewise 
loadable back in *Ueq"nos, beginning u- caused as in wulfa- " wolf ' the development from - 
/i/-to -f-, during Gothic etc auhns goes back to Indo Germanic *uq"'-n6s, then the loss of w- 
in 0/fe/7then must be explained indeed from influence of this sister's form *uhna-). 

From the assimilated form Old Swedish omn, mundartl. umn'stove' is probably borrowed 
Old Prussian wumpn/s^ oven', umnode' bakehouse, oven, kiln, stove '. S. Meillet MSL. 9, 
137, Meringer IF. 21, 292 ff., Senn Germanic loanword studies, Falk-Torp under ovn, 
weigand herdsman and clever under Ofen. 

To the objective see Meringer aaO., Schrader Reallex. 592 f. 

References: WP. I 24, WH. I 84, 850, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 258. 
See also: (compare S. 84 f. aug- ueg-, oldest aueg-) 
Page(s): 88 

Root / lemma: aus- 

Meaning: to draw (water), ladle, *shed blood 

Root/ lemma: aus-\ "to draw (water), ladle' derived from the stem: au/e/-, auent-:a\ Root/ 

lemma: au(e)-9, aued-, auer-\ "to flow, to wet; water, etc.'. 

Material: Gr s^auu) " scoops, extracts, takes from ' (simple auw), E^auarrip psipou ovopa, 

Karauaai E^avrAnaai, KaraSuaai, KaOauaai acpaviaai (Spritus asper after the former 

present tense *auu) from *auou), Sommer Gr. Lautst. 2 f.) 

with zero grade *us- acp-uw, acp-uaaw (latter from Aor. acpuaaai) " scoops ', common gr.- 

Illyrian -ks- > -ss-; 

dcpuGiJOc; anavTAnaic; Suidas and apuw " scoops ', originally *Fap (: Old Indie var' water 

')*u[a]aj " scoops water ', apuarrip " vessel for ladling '. 

Old Norse ausa^ to scoop ', austr' scoop, backwash, the shocks, wake ', ndd. utoesen 
" to draw (water), ladle, scoop ', schwab. Ose^ vessel for ladling '. 

Lat haurid, -Tre, hausT, haustum^ to draw up, draw out or in; to drink up, absorb, 
swallow; to shed blood; to drain, empty a receptacle; in gen., to derive, take in; also to 
exhaust, weaken, waste ', then also " slurp, tie, suffers ', poet. ' wounds ', with secondary h 
as casual in humerus. 

References: WP. I 27 f., WH. I 637, 869, W. Schuize Kl. Schr. 190 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 


Page(s): 90 

Root / lemma: aueg-, yog-, aug-, ug- 

Meaning: to magnify, increase 

Note: with 5-forms auek-s-, auks-, uek-s-, uk-s- 

Material: Old Indie ugra- 'immense' (compounds Sup. ojTyas-, Sjistha- " the stronger one, 

strongest ') = Avestan ugra-^ strong, hard ' (compounds Sup. aojyah-, aojista-). 

Latin auged, -ere^ to increase, augment, enlarge, spread, extend ', auctor{= Umbrian 
uhtur) " a promoter, producer, father, progenitor, author etc', auctid^ an increasing; hence, 
from the bidding, an auction ', augmen(tum)' an increase, growth, a kind of sacrificial cake 
' (= Lithuanian augmud^ increase, growth ', Old Indie djman-rc\. " strength '), augur^ a 
seer, soothsayer, diviner, augur ' from *augos' aggrandizement ' (WH. I 83); 

Gothic 5^/ra/7 (preterit afauK), auknan^ increase ', ana-, bi-aukan^ to append, subjoin, 
add on ', Old High German ouhhon. Old Saxon okian^ increase ', Old English eacian^ 
increase ', Tecan^ increase ', Old Norse a^Aa (preterit yio/r and aukada) " increase ', stem 
participle Old English eacen. Old Saxon okan^ increased, pregnant '; 

Lithuanian augu, 5i/^// (lengthened grade) " increase, grow ', auginli, -inti^ allow to 
grow, educate, bring up ', changing through ab\3iU\ pa-ugeti^ grow up ', ugis^ growth, 
annual growth ', Latvian audzet, audzinaC gather ', Old Prussian aug/nnons part\c\e Perf. 
Akt. ' drawn, pulled ', Old Latvian aukfs' high ' = Latin auctus^to increase, augment, 
enlarge, spread, extend', Latvian augt^ grow ', as also thrak. Au9i-TTapo(; ' high ford ', Old 
Prussian Aucti-garbin, aucktai-rikijskan^ authority', aucktimmien^ chief, 

next to which with s of -es-stem (see below) Lithuanian aukstas, Latvian auksts "high' (: 
Latin augustus^ consecrated, holy; majestic, dignified '), Old Prussian auck-timmiskant 

(Akk.) " authority ', Old Prussian augus' costive, constipated ' (as " increasing '), 
Lithuanian augumas, Latvian augums^ increase, growth '; 

es-stem Old Indie Sjas- n. " vigorousness, strength ', Avestan aojah-, aogah- {a\so r- 
stem aogare) " vigorousness, strength ', Latin augustus see above (also Lithuanian etc 
aukstas); in addition with sin the verb: 

Common Satem Slavic lllyrian hau- > va- phonetic mutation in: 

Old Indie vaksana-m " strengthening ', vaksayati^ allows to grow ', Avestan vaxsaiti^ 
allows to grow ', next to which with the weakest root grade Old Indie uksati^ 'gains 
strength ' (Perf. vavaksa), Avestan uxsyeiti^ grows '; common Old Indie gh- > ks- 

Gothie wahsjan'grow' (= Old Indie vaksayati, Indo Germanic Iter.-Kaus. *uokseJ6\ with it 
that combined 6- gradation Perf. wohsio the paradigm; see Brugmann IF. 32, 180, 189); 

gr. a(F)£^u) ' grow, increase ', as^ofjai ' grows '; au^oj, au^avu) ' grow, increase ', Latin 
auxilium^ help, aid, assistance, support, succor' (originally PI. -/a' strengthening, 
reinforcements ', N. PI. auxilis " auxiliary troops, or in gen., military power '); 

Old Norse vaxa, vexa^grow', Old High German wahsan. Modern High German 
wachsen, wuchs, wherefore e.g. Gothic wahstus' accretion, growth, body size ', Old High 
German wa(h)smo " growth ' ; 

Tocharian A oks/s' grows ', A oksu, B auksu' old '; after Van Windekens Lexique 79 also 
here AB oko " fruit ', A okar^ plant '; against it Pedersen Tochar. 227. 

Here with zero grade uog-: Gothic wokrsm. " interest ', Old English wocori. " progeny, 
interest ' (compare gr. toko^ in the same meaning). Old High German wuohharm. " yield 
of the ground, fetus, progeny, profit, interest, usury ' (in addition steir. wiech^ extensive, 
excessive, rich in leaves ' as umlaut? 

A little bit differently Schroeder Abl. 57 f.), there in not with s expanded root form aueg- the 
grade ueg- is covered in Old Irish fer, cymr. gwair^ grass, herbage '; probably with the 
same ablaut Old Indie vaja-h^ strength, property, wealth, the prize (won in a contest) [The 
Greeks gave a wreath of laurels to winners in the Pythian games], race ', originally ' quick, 
successful, energy ', Oldenberg ZdMG. 50, 443 ff. 

References: WP. I 22 f., WH. I 82 f., 850, Feist 67, 541, 572, Pedersen Tochar. 227. 
Page(s): 84-85 

Root / lemma: auei-{auei-?) {*hek''ei-) 

Meaning: bird, *water bird 


Both Root/ lemma: auei- [auei-?) {*hek''ei-): bird, *water bird : Root/ lemma: ak^a- {* a/cra): 

ek"- : water, river, derived from zero grade of Root / lemma: ghag^h- : young of an animal 

or bird; common gr. gh- > h-. 

Material: Old Indie vih, vehm. 'bird' (Gen. veh, Akk. v/m), Avestan vis 6s. (G. PI. vayqm, 

also with themat. case from stem vaya-). Middle Persian vai, vayandak ^b'\rd', Old Indie 

vayas-n. " fowl, bird', vayasa-h' bird, crow '; verbal Avestan a-vayeiti^ flies up ' (from 

divinities). Old Indie vev/yate' flutters '. 

Gr. aieT6(; " eagle ', Attie C(£t6(;, aip£T6(;, a£T6(; nspYaToi Hes. (*aFi-£T6c;); 

alb. v/-do, vito, vidheze^ dove '; 

Latin avisi. "bird' (therefrom auca 'b'\rd, esp. goose '; 

Baek-formation from Demin. auce/fairom *avicella\ false by WH. I 79) = Umbrian avifkVk. 
PI. ' birds ' {aviekate D. Sg. ' the taken auspices ', aviekia " relating to an augur or augury 


cymr. hwyad, acorn, hoet, bret. houad^ duck ' from *auieto^ (Pedersen KG. I 55). 
Armenian hav^ bird, cock, hen ' can have indeed suggestion -/?, but also as */oa^- belong 
to *pdu- " the young, boy ' (Slavic pb/a" bird ' etc). 

References: WP. I 21, WH. 84, 850. 

See also: In connection with it stand most probably the words for 'egg', see below 6u-. 

Page(s): 86 

Root / lemma: au(e)-10, aue(o)-, ue- 

Meaning: to blow 

Grammatical information: participle ue-nt- 

Note: in Slavic languages often from the " throw dice ', i.e. to the cleaning of the grain of 

the chaff by throwing of the grains against the wind. 

Material: I. belong to light root form au(e)- 

a. Gr. aoc, (if not late neologism), -ox\c, (see below II a). 

b. Mcymr. awyd^ violent gust of wind ', acorn, awit^ air ' ( *aueido-)\ 

c. i/e-d'^ro- presumably in Old Norse vedrv\. "wind, air, weather'. Old Saxon wedam. " 
weather, bad weather ', Old High German wetar^ weather, scent, free air, wind (of 
animals)' and Old Church Slavic vedro " cheerful weather ', vedrb " jovial, merry (from the 
weather) '; 

£/e-£/- perhaps in gr. £5av6c; " fragrant '; in t/e-d'^- correlates Persson Beitr. 664 doubting 
still £0|jn ai\x6c„ Kanv6(; Kzuioc,, ai\xx\ Hes.). 

d. r-, A derivatives: gr. aupa ' aerial breath, draft ' (places light root form Sij/e-ahead, as 
asAAa, a£T|j6v, Wetter, see below); but app. Gen. n£po(; " smoke, fog, air ' stays away, see 
below uer-^ bind, hang up '. 

Also Albanian ajer: Furlan ajar: Latvian arija: Maltese arja: Sardinian Campidanesu airi; 
aria 'air'. 

Gr. asAAa, Aeolic ausAAa ' storm ' (*aF£A-ja); cymr. awen^ inspiration ', awelt " wind, 
breath ', acorn, auhe/'aura, heaven, breeze ', mcorn. awe/' weather', brit. loanword 
Middle Irish a/7e/(/7 hiatus sign), a/a/' wind, breath '. According to Thurneysen Grammar 
125 Old Irish oa/' mouth ' from *aue/a. 

e. au-et-vc\ gr. qstijov to nvsupa Hes., a£T|ja cpAo^ Et. M., arpoc; (contracted from 
a£Tpi6(;) ' vapour, smoke, smoke ', with zero grade, but analogical absorption of a-: aurpn " 
breath, draft of the bellows, the wind, smell, hot aura of the fire ', aurtjriv ds. 

II. belong to heavy root form: 

a. ue-, ua-:0\(i Indie vat/, Avestan va/t/' blows ', gr. anai ds., Cypriot ^asi (read ^an with 
Z, from *dp} Hes. (that a in anai perhaps prothetic; from light root form come gr. aoc; 
nveupia Hes.; 

maybe alb. {**ue-nts) Kes/7 'strike, blow, hit'. 

cxKpan(; " sharp blowing ', 5uaanc; " adverse blowing ', unspanq ' excessive blowing ' with 
stretch in compound); besides the participle *ue-nt-' blowing ' (Old Indie vant-, gr. Akk. 
aevTo) stand *ue-nto-s' wind ' in Latin ventus, Gothic etc w/nds. Old High German w/nt, 
cymr. gwynt' wind ', wherefore Latin ven t//a re '{* expose to a draught, brandish, fan), 
oscillate, vibrate', vent//abrum " throw shovel ', Gothic d/sw/n^jan " separate the grain (the 
wheat) from the chaff ', w/nt^/s/<aurd " throw shovel ' (Germanic /=>, next to which with 
gramm. variation d\v\:) Old High German w/nton^ winnow, fan ', w/nta, w/ntscOva/a^ 
winnowing shovel ', Old English windwian^ to expose to the hoist, winnow, fan ' (engl. 

winnov\/); Tocharian A want, B yente " wind '. (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, - 
nt- > -nn-). 

About Hittite hu-u-wa-an-te-es {h(u)uantes) " hoist ' (?) see Forrer by Feist 565, places the 
word as ' (hurrying) clouds ' to hu-wa-a-r runs, flees ', which also belongs here; see 
CouvreurH 119f., SchwyzerGr. Gr. I 6804. 

n- present: gr. aivu) from *aFa-v-iaj (compare to the formation Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 694) 
and qvecjo from *aFav£U) ' clean the grains by shaking up of the chaff, sieves ', Favai 
TTspinTiaai Hes. (delivers yavai nspinTuoai; see also Bechtel KZ. 46, 374); is based on 
such zero grade n- present, but in meaning "blow', thus Old Prussian w/ns^a\r', Akk. 
m'nnen' weather'? (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-). 

Jo-present (or from root form *uef- ?): Old Indie vayat/" blows ', Avestan fravaye/t/" goes 
out' ', Gothic wa/an waiwo. Old English wawan. Old High German wajan, waen' blow ', 
Old Church Slavic vejq, vejeti^ "blow' and " winnow, fan ' (therefrom russ. vejalo, sloven. 
vevnica, poln. wiejaczka^ winnowing shovel, a winnowing-fan '); nominal: Lithuanian vejas 
" blow '; Old Indie vay'u-h, Avestan vayus' blow, wind, air '. 

For root-like value of -/■ leads the sound grade *uT-to the following words in which give 
space, however, partly to other views: Old Church Slavic v/ja/b, vijalica^ storm, weather', 
russ. vbjalica " snow flurry ' (also vejalica\), vbjuga " blizzard, snowstorm ', zavbjatb " snow- 
covered, covered with snow ', Czech vati{ *vbjati) " blow ' (only Slavic developments from 
vortonigem ve}-l)\ 

r. -Church Slavic vichbrb ( *ueisuro-) " whirlwind ' (in any case, at first to russ. vichatb " 
shake, move ', vichljatb " toss, fling ', s. Brugmann Grundr. IP 1049, Pedersen IF. 5, 70, 
and probably as " whirl, swing in the circle ' to *ueis-' turn '); 

Lithuanian vydra, vidras' gale ' (see Leskien Bild. 438; in Lithuanian very rare forms -dra- 
compare really Lithuanian vetra " storm ' - urges to caution); 

hom. aiov pTop, Oupiov aiaOs, aiaOwv from breathing out or letting out the vitality (to last 
meaning Bechtel Lexil 21 f.), gr. root dFia-; mcymr. awyds. 82 above. 

b. aue-d-:0\6 High German wazan, wiaz. Middle High German wazen^ blow, exhale, 
inflate ', waz^ gust of wind ', Lithuanian vedinti^ ventilate, cool '; at most gr. aa^u) " 
breathes ' from *aFa5-iu) (rather, however, gr. neologism of after other verbs in -a^w); 

presumably also (from *au9-d-ro-) Lithuanian audraxw. " storm ', n. " thunderstorm ', Old 
Prussian wydra^ blow '. About Old Indie u(i!^arv\. " chillness, cold ', Avestan aodara, aota 
ds. compare Persson Beitr. 1 1 . 

c. j[/e-A?- perhaps in Latin evelatus^ scattered, dissipated, fan away, winnow thoroughly', 
whence i/e/Sit'/'a "something winnowing the grain' (Paul. Fest. 68, 3) and in Old High 
German wala m. n. ' fans ' (if not from *we-t^la, see below)? 

d. ue-s-:0\6 Indie vasa-h, vasaka-h^ fragrance ', vasayat/" fills with fragrance ', 
samvasita-h " makes stinking '; isl. vas " frigid aura ', vaesa " exhale, blow, breathe ', Dutch 
waas^ white frost, ripe, smell, fragrance ', Lithuanian vestu, vesti^ cool off, become chill or 
become aerial ', vesa^ chill air, coolness ', vesus' chilly, aerial '. 

e. /-further formations: Old Indie vata-h, Avestan vato^ blow'. Old Indie vatula-h {see 
below), gr. anTr|<; " blowing, wind ', ar|aupO(; " windy, aerial ' = Old Indie vatula^ windy ' 
(also " mad; crack-brained; demented; mind-boggling; insane; crazy; unbalanced '; in 
addition also perhaps gr. arjauAoq ' sacrilegious, outrageous, wanton, wicked ' after 
Brugmann BSGW. 1901, 94; in spite of aiauAo(; ds. not after Bechtel Lexil. 15 to Old Indie 
yatu-h^ spook, ghost '); 

Latin vannus^ winnowing-fan ' (from *uat-n6-s, compare the Demin. i/a////i//77 originally " a 
small winnowing shovel '; from Latin comes Old High German wanna. Old English fann^ 
winnowing-fan ', also Modern High German Wanne); (under the influence of common 
Celtic -/7s^, -nt- > -nn-). 

Old Norse vel, velT whisk, tail ' (about syncopated VeA'/a-from *val=>ila-). Old High 
German wediMs.; Old High German wadaF tail, fan ', Adj. ' wandering, fickle, beggar', 
wadalon^ sweep in a curve, rove ' (proto Germanic *waNa-, Indo Germanic *u9-tlo-). Old 
English wat^or wandering ', waedla' beggar, poor', wsedr poverty', waedlian^ beg, be 
poor ' (proto Germanic *weNa-), next to which Old High German wallon " wander, gad 
about, pilgrimages ', Old English M/e5///5/7' wander; roam; travel; journey; drift; float; 
rove; stray; migrate; hike; walk; ramble; tramp ' (from * wadl6-ja-n)\ Old High German 
wala^ fans ' (from *we-Na-ox *we-la-, see above); Lithuanian vetra^ storm', thunder- 
storm'. Old Church Slavic i/e//^"air, blow'. Old Prussian wetro^b\o^'\ Lithuanian vetyti 
"winnow, fan'. 

About Old Indie upa-vajayat/" make (fire / embers) blaze by blowing air onto (it / them)' 
(composed from Panini as Kaus. to va-) see Waekernagel KZ. 43, 292. 

Maybe alb. vatra, i/a/e^'hearth, (place where one blows the fire)' 

Maybe here gr. azQKoc, (see aue-1V strive oneself ') as ' gasp, pant, wheeze '? 

References: WP. I 220 f.. Feist 565 a, Trautmann 345, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 680. 
Page(s): 81-84 

Root / lemma: au(e)-9, aued-, auer- {*h2ahiue > aue-) 

Meaning: to flow, to wet; water, etc. 


The origin of labialized Old laryngeals: 

common Armenian Celtic *hu&- > gw- > g-. 

Material: a) {*h2auent-) au/e/-, auent-: 


The following mutations have taken place: Root: ak"a- > aku/e/-, akuent- > au/e/-, auent-. 

Hisp. FIN {*h2avo-) Avo[s]> span. Ave, PN A[v]o-briga, gall. FIN Aveda> prov. Aveze 
(Gard), /4i//5/c»/0C»/f^5(Alpes-mar.); 

Old Indie {*h2avo-) avata-hm. 'fountains, wells' {*auntos), avata-h' astern, tank' (with 
prakrit. /from /), Italian FIN Avens\n Sabine land (therefrom AventTnusm. hill of Rome?), 
>4i/e'/7//a (Etrurian), gall. Aventia, spring nymph oi Aventicum > French Avenches 
(Schweiz), numerous FIN Avantia {*auntia) > French Avance, La Vence, abrit. *AvantTsa> 
cymr. Ewennr, (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-),0\6 Lithuanian FIN Avanta, Latvian avudts 
( *auontos) ' sources, wellspring, spring '. 

b) {*h2aued^ aued-, aud-, ud-\ 


The zero grade of Root/ lemma: ak^a-'yNater, river' has been suffixed in nasalized -{n)dor, 

-{n)tor. *{a)ku/e/-, *{a)kuentor, \a)huentor) >\a)hued-, {a)ued-, {a)ud-, ud-. 

heteroklit. r/n-sievn uedor, u6ddr{Hov(\. Sg.), uden(i) {Lok.Sq.), udnes{Ger\. Sg.) " water', 
compare J. Schmidt PI. 172 ft., Pedersen KZ. 32, 240 ff., Bartholomae PBrB. 41, 273. 

Old Indie odatr the soaking, the flowing ', odman-n. " the waves, floods ', oda-na-m' 
mash boiled in milk ', Avestan {* h2auod-)ao5a- m. ' wellspring, fount '. 

Old Indie {* h2aunatti-)unatti {*u-n-ed-ti), 3. PI. undatr soaked, moistened '; Avestan 
vaidi-t " water run, irrigation canal '. 

Old Indie udan{i) Lok., udnahGen., udaNom. Akk. PI. " water' (Nom. Akk. Sg. udaka- 
m)\ from /'-stem derived samudra-h' sea ', anudra-h^ waterless ' (= gr. avu5po(;); 

{*h2audro-)udro-s^ water animal ': Old Indie udra-h^ a water animal ' = Avestan udra- m. 
" otter ' (= gr. u5po(;. Old High German ete ottar, compare also Latin /utra and with u 
Lithuanian udra, Old Chureh Slavic vydra ds.); 

Maybe nasalized alb. {*/utra) /undra' otter' a Latin loanword 

from -(ejs-stem Old Indie {*hutsa-) utsa-h^ spring, well ', compare Old Irish {* hudeskio) 
uisce {*udeskio-) ' water '; 


The followings have taken place: zero grade in arm: (a)kuent- > guet, zero grade in Slavic 

(a)hueda- > voda, zero grade in Phrygian (a)kuedu> p£5u [common Greek g"'> b, k"'> p\. 

Armenian {*gwet) geV river ' (basic form *uedd, Sandhi form to uedor, compare under 
Slavic voda; it corresponds also Phrygian p£5u "water', i.e. Veo'Jfrom *uedd, Kretschmer 
Einl. 225). 

Maybe alb. {*guet) det'sea' : Armenian get' river ' common alb. gu- > d-. 


Maybe Phrygian psSu "water' : nasalized lllyrian B/ndus 'water god' [common lllyrian gu- > 

The origin of labialized Old laryngeals: 

common Armenian Celtic *hue- > gw- > g- ; gw- > b- lllyrian Greek. 

Gr. u5u)p, u5aT0(; (*u5-n-T0^) "water' (with metr. elongation 05u)p); from /--stem derived 
avu5po(; " waterless ', uSpoq, u5pa " water snake ', £vu5pi(; f. " otter ', u5apr|(;, u5ap6(; " 
watery ' (u5aA£0(; ds. with suffix exchange; similarly uAAoc; " water snake, ichneumon ' : 
uSpoq = lak. eAAq : £5pa), u5£po(; " dropsy ', u5pia " water bucket ' (: Latin utef)\ from n- 
stem (compare u5vr|c; " watery ') derived DAAoau5vr| actually " sea wave, wave, the billow 
' (?), epithet of Amphitrite and Thetis (Johansson Beitr. 117; 

from also u5vov ' truffle ' as " juicy '??), as well as probably KaA-uScbv, -u5va (-upiva), 
KaAu5vioi, -upvioi (see Boisacq 998 a)? 

e5-stem to u5o(; "water' is only late poet. Norn. Akk. to Dat. u5£i. 

Maked. PN "ESEaaafrom *uedesja, Kretschmer RIEt Bale. 1, 383. common gr.-lllyrian - 
ks- > -SS-. 

Alb. uJe'\Na\.er' (after Pedersen KZ. 34, 286; 36, 339 not from *ud-nja, but from *ud-; or, 
nevertheless, from *udcR). 

The shift -dn- > nj > jo\ possibly alb. {*udna-h) uje, ujna PI. " water ' has also been attested 
in alb. shtynj, shtyj'poke, push' {*studnid)\ see Root / lemma: (s)teu-1\ "to push, hit' 

Luwian wvi/a- "watery' 

D-LPI u-i-da-an-za. 45 ii 6. 

See Watkins, Flex. u. Wortbild. 376. Cf. perh. witant ] at KBo 

XXIX 37,4. Contra Starke, S/^o7"31.567f, witi, °w/tas and 

witazaxe Hittite! 

Latin unda, f. " water, fluid, esp. a wave; fig. a stream of people ' (with n- infix from the 
present; compare Old Prussian {*gwundan) wundanu., undsxw. "water' and Old Indie 
unatti, undatias well as Lithuanian {*gwandud) vanduo, -ens, vandenj, zem. unduo, 
Latvian udensm. f. "water', and in addition Schuize EN. 243, Brugmann Grdr. I|2 3, 281, 
283, Trautmann 337); uter, utris' hose, tube ' {*udr/-s'* water hose ', compare gr. u5pia), 
/ufra " otter ' (A after /utum " mud, mire, dirt; clay, puddle '). 

Umbrian utum. "water' (= uSojp), Abl. une{*udni). 

Old Irish u{/)sce 'water' {*udesk/o-), odar' brown ' {*udaros), co/n fodorne' otters ' 
("water dogs '). 


Old Irish u(i)-sce: alb. {*u-i-) uj-e, uj-fwater' : Luwian u-/-fa-an-ta-a/-//-an ' oi the water(s)' 
genitive intervocalic -/■ vowel. 

Gothic watoin-stem), Dat. PI. watnam 'water'; Old Swedish vgetur{ge= Indo 
Germanic e?rather umlaut from Germanic a in the -in- case, see Bartolomae aaO.), 

Old Icelandic vatnn. (takes ostem, compare Gothic Dat. PI. watnam), vatr, nord. sea 
name Vattern; Old High German wazzar. Old Saxon watar. Old English waeter {* uodor) 

Old Icelandic otr. Old English otor. Old High German ottarm. "otter, water snake', in 
addition FIN Otter, old Uterna; with nasalization within the word (compare above to Latin 
unda) probably Gothic wintrus. Old Icelandic vetr. Old English winter. Old High German 
Old Saxon wintar^ winter ' as " wet season ' (Liden PBrB. 15, 522, Falk-Torp under vinter, 
not better to Irish find' white ', see below sueid-' shine '); 

perhaps to WasseroXso Old High German Old English wascan. Old Icelandic vasl<a. 
Modern High German waschen, wuscii {*wat-sk-); with lengthened grade e of the root 
shaped from Old Icelandic vatr. Old English wset, engl. wet' wet, soaked '. 

In Germanic also with A" Old English wadumm. " wave ', zero grade Old Icelandic unnr, 
udr, PI. unnir' wave ', (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-). Old Saxon 
utiiia, udia. Old English yd. Old High German undea ' wave, billow, flood ', like from a root 
variant *uet-, however, it is found nowhere else; Johansson Beitr. 117 f. sees therein the / 
of the type Old Indie ya/r-/. 

Lithuanian vanduo etc (see above); Lithuanian udra. Old Prussian udrot. East 
Lithuanian udras, Latvian udrism. " otter'; Old Church Slavic vydra, Serbo-Croatian v/dra 
(Balto Slavic Jo'-. Lithuanian vand-eni, see finally Trautmann 334 m. Lithuanian; to 
compare Pedersen Et. Lithuanian 54 f.); 

Maybe alb. vidra'sea otter' Slavic loanword. 

Old Church Slavic i/oo'a "water' (become Fem. because of the ending -a, here for Indo 
Germanic -o[/^); lengthened grade Old Church Slavic vedro'mboq, o^a\^voq' (with u5pia 
attuning well in the meaning, s. Meillet MSL. 14, 342, Trautmann 337); 

Hittite wa-a-tar {* watar) "water'. Gen. ue-te-na-as {e-grade as Phrygian p£5u, a of Nom. 
from e?). Nom. PI. u-wi-ta-ar, with unsettled vocalism in spite of Pedersen Hittite 167. 


The origin of labialized Old laryngeals as in: Hittite huel<-, hul<- " adjure ' : Tocharian A wal< 
f., B M/e/r "voice' 

common Armenian Celtic lllyrian * hue- > gw- > g-{see Root / lemma: uek"-: to speak]. 

Therefore the original Hittite root was as in Genitive Gen. ue-te-na-as'of\Na\.er' {*hue-te- 
na-a^ which became the zero grade wa-a-tar {* hwatar) 'water'. 

c) ^h2auer-) auer- " water, rain, river ' {uer- : Or-; to the ablaut Persson Beitr. 604, Anm. 

1. uer-, uer-:0\6 Indie var, variu. "water', Avestan varu. "rain' (with themat. inflection 
Iran. Avestan var^ to rain ', med. " allow to rain, let rain '), Old Indie vani. "water', Avestan 
vairi-xw. "sea'; 

Truncated Tocharian (^hwatar) A war, B M/a/'"water'; 

Armenian gayr marsh, mud ' {*Uerio-)\ 

The origin of labialized Old laryngeals: 
common Armenian Celtic lllyrian *hue- > gw- > g-. 

gr. perhaps in apuoo " scoops ', if *Fap u[a](jo (see *aus-^ scoop, draw water, ladle '); 

alb. (after Jokl SBAk. Wien 168 I 30, 89, 97) {*gvrende) vrende^ light rain ' (/?/- 


The origin of labialized Old laryngeals: 

common Armenian Celtic lllyrian *hue- > gw- > g-. 

alb. hur-de, hurdhe^ pond, tank, marsh ' {*ur-), shure^ urine ', shurre {* surna) (postverbal) 
f. " urine ' (prefix s/7from Latin ex or Indo Germanic *srn + ur-ne\ or + gr. oupsu)?); 


Albanian preserved the old laryngeal h- > s- like satem languages alb. {* surma) shurra " 
urine ' : Hittite sehur " urine ' : Latin urma' urine '. But in alb. hur-de^ pond, tank, marsh ' 
alb. preserved /?- laryngeal like centum languages. 

cymr. gwerr^. " suet, sebaceous, tallow '; 


The origin of labialized Old laryngeals: 

common Armenian Celtic lllyrian *hue- > gw- > g-. 

Maybe zero grade {^h2auer->*huer^ in cymr. gwerm. " suet, sebaceous, tallow ' : 
Armenian ^ntp (gour) ' water ' : alb. (*^/) uje' water '. 

Old Norse i/a/7m. " liquid, water '. 

2. {^h2auer^ Or-, auer-: Latin unna' urine ' (in which meaning influenced by oupov?), 
unnor, -art to dive ', unnator^ a diver '; 

Maybe alb. ^/e/a "water-pit' : Basque ura^^a\.er\ 

Old Norse J^'fine rain', yra^ to rain subtly ', urigr^ dew-covered'. Old English ur/g6s.; 

perhaps Old Norse urr, Gen. urar{u-stefr\), Old English ur, Old High German uro, 
urohso, Latin loanword urus^ a kind of wild ox ', Swedish Dialectal ure^ randy bull, a bull 
in heat ' ("*one that scatters, drops, one that inseminates ' as Old Indie vrsan- etc, see 

root form {^h2auer^ auer- in thrak. FIN Aupa(;, gr. (Persson IF. 35, 199) *aupa "water, 
spring ' in avaupo(; " without water, of brooks ' (about gr. 9r|aaup6(; and K£VTaupO(; 
compare Schwyzer Gr.Gr. I 267, 444); 

in FIN: Italian A^e/-5^ms (Bruttium), P/s5i//ic/s(Umbrien), gall. Avara> French Avre, Aura 
> French Eure, Aurana> Modern High German 0/7/77(Wurttemb.), Ar-auris> French 
Herault, Vi-aurus > French Le Viaur, Old Prussian Aure, Lithuanian Aur-yte; Old Norse 
aurigr^ wet ', aurr^ wet, water ', FIN Aura, Old English ear^ sea '; 

Old Prussian wurs {*Oras) "pond, pool', iurin f\Vk. Sg., iuriayP\. fem. "sea'. Old Latvian 
Juri- m., Lab/\anju'ra, Lithuanian yi7/'es,yt7/7c»s PI. fem. "sea, esp. the Baltic Sea ' (see above 
to Latin ur/ha; J- presumably suggestion after J. Schmidt PL 204); 

Lithuanian ya^/i/s" swampy, marshy ',ya^/-5,y5^/'as "marshy place, marshy ground, 
swamp bottom' from *eu9r-{see Berneker IF. 10, 162, Trautmann 335 m. Lithuanian). 

3. Verbum: Lithuanian verdu, v/'rt/' bubble, surge, cook ', versme' wellspring ', vyrius^ 
whirlpools ', atvyrs^ counterstream on the shore ', Latvian verdu, vFrC soak, bubble, boil, 
cook ', atvars " whirl ', 

Old Church Slavic vbrjg, vbretr stream, bubble, surge, boil, cook ', virb' whirlpool ', izvorb 
" wellspring (bubbling water) ', wherefore with from " cook ' developed meaning " heat ', 
Latvian wersme " glow ', Old Church Slavic varb " heat '. 

About possible affiliation of *uer/e/na^ alder ' see there. 

4. extension {*h2auers-) uer-s-' rain, dew ': Old Indie varsa-n. " rain, rainy season, year 
' {varsat/" it is raining '), gr. oupov ' urine '; span, ttpor\ " dew ', Ionian Attic oupsu) " 
urinates ' (kausativ *uorseid, F- proved by the augmentation Eoupnoa), oupia " a water bird 

Middle Irish {*gwrass) /^5ss 'rain' is older fross {uros-ta, in spite of Pedersen KG. I 44); 
Hittite wa-ar-sa-as^ra\v\\l)seems an Old Indie loanword. 

Maybe alb. {*varsa-) vesa^6eW : {*heverse) sspari ' dew'. 

{* h2aursen-) ufsen-^ discharging semen = virile ', Old Indie vrsan- 'virile', m. ' manikin, 
man, stallion '. 

thereof derived Avestan 1/3/^5/73- 'virile'. Old Indie vrsa-, vrsabha-'buW, i/Zs/?/- 'virile', m. 
"Aries, ram' (= Avestan varasni-6s.), vrsana-m. ' testicles '; 

Specht (Dekl. 156) places here (from Germanic *gwrai-njan-) without s^extension Old 
High German reineo^ stallion ', Old Saxon wrenioAs., Old English wraene^ horny, lustful '; 
Old High German wrenno^ stallion ' is back-borrowed from Middle Latin (under the 
influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-). 

uerse/i-:\-aWv\ {*gverres) verres, -/is'boar', Lithuanian i/eAS/is'calf, Latvian versis^ox, 
rother, cattle'. 

References: compare in general Persson root extension 47, 85 f., Johansson KZ. 30, 418, 
IF. 2, 60 ff., Persson Beitr. 604 f., 845 (also against connection of ^ers- with ers-). About 
Finnish vesi, stem i/e/e 'water' s. Mikkola Mel. van Ginneken 137. 

WP. I 252 f., 268 f., WH. I 81 f., Pokorny Urillyrier 93, 105, 159, 169, Specht Dekl. 18 f., 
Trautmann 20, 334, 337, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 519, 548, 838. 

Page(s): 78-81 

Root / lemma: ayes- {*h2ayhies-) 
Meaning: to shine; gold, dawn, aurora etc. 


Root / lemma: aues-\ to shine; gold, dawn, aurora etc. derived from Root/ lemma: aug-\ 

to glance, see. 


Old Indie usahi. Akk. usasam. Gen. usasah^ aurora ', Avestan usa, Akk. usarjhem. Gen. 
usa/jhd6s. {usas-tara-^ eastern '), next to which Old Indie Gen. Sg., Akk. PI. usah, 
Avestan Lok. Sg. usi-[5a, s. *dema- to build '] either from a root noun *us-, or as *us-s-\.o 
s-stem; Old Indie ucchat/ = Avestan usaiti {*us-sReti) " shines in (from the morning) ', Perf. 
Old Indie uvasa, Aor. avasran' they shone '; usar-, usr^ dawn, aurora, early morning, 
prime of the day, red sky ', usar-budh- " early awake ', usra- " early morning, reddish ', also 
figurative ' eow ', m. 'bull' (Frisk, nominal formation 3); 

ues-, u6s-\v\ Old Indie vasar-han- "striking in the morning, early morning', vasara-^ear\)/ 
morning', m. ' day ' (compare in addition also the related root under particular catchword 
///7-stem *ues-r-, ues-n- ' springtide, spring '); 

gr. hom. ncbc; *{ausds). Gen. nouq (nooq), Attic (with accent innovation) Ewq, Doric aux;, 
aFcbp, changing through ablaut Aeolic auux; " aurora ' (proto gr. au[a]u)(;), Boeotian aa and 
Aiairi (*aair|); 

ayxaupo(; " near the morning ', aupiov ' tomorrow ' (*auap-); hom. rjis OoTps " radiative 
morning '; ni-KOvoq " rooster, cock ' {*ausi- " singing in the morning early morning '); 

Latin aurorai. "aurora, the morning, dawn, daybreak ' (for *ausdsa); auster{*aus-t(e)ro- 
= Germanic *austra-) " souther, southerly wind ', australis^ southern '; 

presumably also aurum, sabin. a^sc»/77"gold' as "*reddish'; to Lithuanian auksas{k- 
unexplained). Old Lithuanian ausas. Old Prussian a^s/5 'gold'; 

Maybe Italian oro : Spanish oro : French or : Bresciano or : Breton aour : Calabrese oru : 
Catalan or : Corsican oru : alb. {*oru) a/7"gold' [similar to alb. ahu, ahi^ beech '] : 
Papiamentu oro : Reggiano or : Irish or : Lombardo Occidentale or : Sardinian 
Campidanesu oru : Sardinian Logudoresu oro : Scots Gaelic or : Valencian or : Venetian : 
oro : Galician ouro : [Hungarian arany: Basque t//re loanwords] : Ligurian ouru : Manx oar 
: Occitan aur : Portuguese ouro : Romagnolo aur : Romanian aur : Romansh aur : Welsh 
aur "gold'. 

perhaps Tocharian A {*gwas) M/5s"gold', but compare Armenian cs-/r/"gold', Finnish vas-ki 
" copper '; perhaps 1/es^K/^s (differently under eus-^ burn '); 

The origin of labialized Old laryngeals: 

common Armenian Celtic *hue- > gw- > g- ; Tocharian gw- > w-. 

{*gwawr) Middle Irish fair^ sunrise ', cymr. gwawr' aurora', bret. g\/\^ere /aouen ' morr\\r\g 
star ' ( *udsr/-, Pedersen KG. I 82); 

Germanic *austrd\r\ Old English eastre^ spring goddess ', eastronP\. " Easter ' = Old 
High German dsi{a)ra, ostarun, against it with Indo Germanic -i{e)ro-. Old High German 
ds/a/"' eastern' and Adv. ' the after east ', Modern High Gerrr\ar\ Osfer-re/ch, Old Norse 
austrn. " East ' and Adv. ' eastwards ', 

Old English compounds easterra^ more to the east ', in addition Ostrogothae, older 
Austrogoti as " the eastern Goths '; Old High German ostan^ from the east ', Old English 
eastet "East', Old Norse austan' from the east '; *ausds\r\ Old English earender 
morning star', Old High German MN Orendif, 

Lithuanian ausrat 'aurora', austa^ day is breaking', Latvian aust6s.; Lithuanian 
austrin/s (vejas) ' north-east wind ', Latvian austrai. ' daybreak', austrums rw. 'East'; in 
ablaut zem. apyusriaim. ' daybreak '; 

Old Church Slavic za ustra 'to "rrpwr (about utro, jutro 'morning' from *aus{t)ro- compare 
Trautmann 19, Mikkola Ursl. Gr. 179 and Berneker462 f. m. Lithuanian, wherefore 
Bruckner KZ. 46, 212, auspoln. uscic^ shine ' reconstructs Slavic *i/s/o 'lustre, shine'), 
ustrb ' relating to summer ' (see Pedersen IF. 5, 69). 

comparetoablaut J. SchmidtKZ. 25, 23f., HirtAbl. 134, 147, Reichelt KZ. 39,69. 

References: WP. I 26 f., WH. I 86, 87 f., Trautmann 19, Specht Dekl. 10, Wackernagel- 
Debrunner Old Indie Gr. Ill 21 3 and 281 f., Kretschmer Gl. 27, 231 ; Leumann IF. 58, 121 
ff., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 349, 514, 557. 

Page(s): 86-87 

Root / lemma: aue-1 1 {ue-d(h)-l) 

Meaning: to try, force 

Material: Solmsen Unters. 267 f. connects Old Indie vayati, -/e' gets tired, is exhausted, 

tires ' with gr. azQKoo, ' drudgery, contest ' (*aF£-9Ao(;), asGAov, dGAov ' fight, cut-throat 

price, battlefield ', whereby a- assumes either suggestion vowel is or a more full root form 

*aue- besides *ue-. With it at most compatibly is Zupitzas KZ. 37, 405 comparing tlie gr. 
words with Middle Irish feidm^ effort ', 

fediV persistent, persevering ', Old Irish ni fedligedar^ (he, she) does not stay ' (whereby 
formal measure relationship would be comparable as *me- " (apportion by measure), allot, 
(*cut) ' : *med-, *ue- 'blow' : Old Norse vedr. Modern High German Wetter), wherefore 
Pedersen KG. 1110, cymr. gweddiV remnant, leavings ' (out of it Middle Irish fuidell) 
places; here Tocharian B waimene^ difficult, hard '? 

However, the arrangement is quite unsafe in all its parts. For vayati^ exert itself ' as 
basic meaning in would put the question through the meaning ' dry up ' from vana^ dry ', 
upa-vayati^ be extinguished by drying up, dry up ', 

upavata-^ become dry '; and in hz^Koc, takes turns most of course - 0Ao-as suffixal, while 
the dental Irish words root-like dox d^ is, thus at best surely exists distant relationship. 

References: WP. I 223, Van Windekens Lexique 149. 
Page(s): 84 

Root / lemma: auig- 

Meaning: a kind of grass, oat 

Material: Latin avena^ oats or wild oats, made only as a cattle feed; hence oaten pipe, 

shepherd's pipe; in gen., any stalk, straw ' (presumably after arena, terrenusio occurred 

suffix exchange for * avTna iroxw *auig-sna); 

Lithuanian aviza, Latvian (PI. f.) auzas. Old Prussian wyse^ oat ', Old Church Slavic 

ovbsi3, russ. ovesb 'oat' (sfrom z probably probably because it occurs at the end of the 

word in conservative Nom. *ovbz), but aiyiAojitJ ' a wild grass kind, straw, stalk or likewise ' 

barely as *aFiYiAu)ijj here. 

After Specht Dekl. 298 would be assumed rather Indo Germanic *au/- besides *aues- 

{*ayesna> a vena). 

References: WP. I 24, WH. I 81, Trautmann 21. 

Page(s): 88 

Root / lemma: ay-5, aue- 

Meaning: to weave 

Material: Unextended in: Old Indie Stum, Stave {irom der set-basis vatave) ' to weave ', 

Perf. uvuh, participle uta-, vy-uta- {a\so das present vayat/" weaves ' can be after 

Wackernagel Old Indie Gr. I 94 an -e/io-present v-ayati, so that Put. vayisyati, vaya- 

'weaver' only in addition one would be new-created), otu-m. " woof of fabric ', vana- n. " 
the weaving '. 

To the existence of a heavy base is to be stuck against Wackernagel because of vatave 
" weave, twist ', vanamiy^. must understand Ota- as neologism to vayate aiter hOta-: 

d^-extension 1 . au-6'^-, 2. (a)u-eA^-, u-^^-: 

1 . Armenian z-aud^ strap ' {z-audem " connects, ties together '), y-a^o^'strap, limb, joint 
' {y-audem " join together '), aud^shoe'; 

Lithuanian audziau, audziu, aust/'to weave', ataudaTP\. " woof, udis^ a unique fabric, the 
weaving ', udas^ eel line ' (vowel as with augu^ increase, sprout ': ugys^ annual growth '); 

russ. uslo^ fabric ' {uzda^ bridle '?), see below eu-^ pull '. It goes back to the image of the 
weaving or spining and that of her assigned fate goddess: 

aud!"-^ luck, possession, wealth ': lllyrian PN Audarus, Audata{: QerxwavWc Audo-berht), 
paion. PN Audo-leon {Krahe IF. 58, 132), cymr. udd {*audos) " master, mister' (different 
Lewis-Pedersen 14), bret. ozac'h^ landlord ' {*udakkos). Loth RC. 41, 234; Old Saxon 
odan. Old English eaden. Old Norse audinn^ granted from the destiny, grants ', (under the 
influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-). Old Norse audna' destiny, luck ', audr^ 
wealth ', Old English ead^ possession, wealth, luck ', Old Saxon do'" possession, 
prosperity ', Old High German al-od^ full and free possession ' (Middle Latin allodium). 
Middle High German klein-of jewel ', Gothic audahafts^ makes happy ', audags^ 
blessed, fortunate ', Old High German otac^ happy, rich '. 

2. Old Norse vad\. ' fabric, piece, stuff, as comes ready of the loom, drag net ', P\.vadlr 
" gowns, clothes ', Old English wsed {*wedi-) f. " clothes, rope ', Old Saxon wad^ clothes ', 
Old High German wat. Gen.-/' clothes, armament '; 

Old Norse vadrxw. ' rope, string, fishing line ', Swedish Norwegian vadu. 'drag net' (Old 
Norse vgzti. ' spot for fishing at sea from *wada-std). Middle High German wate, wadei. 
'drag net, trawl net ', Middle High German splnne-weV spinning web '. 

References: WP. I 16 f., WH. I 88. 

See also: Maybe here ^eb^-'to weave', ^ed^-' bind, connect ' (wherefore as nasal form 
probably £/e/7dh-),see there; also perhaps uei-^ twist, spin ', (a)ueg-io weave etc' {uer-" 
twist, spin '?), ues-^ wrap '. 

Page(s): 75-76 

Root / lemma: au-6, aued- 

Meaning: to speak 

Material: Gr. horn, que Imperf. ' (he, she) called (out), shouted ', apa Tpox6(; n pon Hes. 

Old Indie vadati^ lets the voice resound, talks ' (Perf. udima, participle udita-), vadanam 
" the sounds, talking, mouth ', uditi-hi. "speech', vadayati^ allows to sound, plays (a music 
instrument), allows to speak ', vaditram^ musical instrument, music ', vada- ' sound letting, 
m. sound, call, sound, statement, battle of words '; 

in the lengthened grade and the meaning compares itself in next Old Church Slavic vada^ 
calumny ', vaditi^ accuse '; 

nasalized Old Indie vandate, -tr praises, praises, greets with respect ', vandanam^ 
praise, price, reverential greeting ', vandaru-^ appreciative, praising '; see still Uhlenbeck 
Old Indie Wb. under vallakV a kind of sounds ', vallabha-h^ minion, favourite '. 

Gr. yoSav [i.e. Fo5av] kAqIsiv Hes., DHai(F)o5o(; 'qui I'nai F65av, i. e. aoi5nv", yo56v 
[i.e. Fo56v] y6r|Ta Hes.; 

zero grade u5£U), uSw (brought out somewhere from the Alexandrines) " sings, glorifies ', 
u5r| cpHpn. ^5r| (Theognostos kqv. 19, 26) (upvo(; " ballad, song ' rather to the wedding call 
i)\\r]y: other interpretations verz. Walde LEWb.^ under sud, Boisacq s. v., again different 
Risch 50). 

Lithuanian vadinu, vadinti^ shout, call '. 

au-e-d-\x\ a(F)r|5(jbv " nightingale ' (apn^ova ar|56va Hes., Aeolic an5u)v and anSw, the 
zero grade au5- in au5n " sound, voice, language ' (Aeolic au5u) Sappho), au5au) " shouts, 
speaks ', au5r|£i(;, Doric au5a£i(; " speaking with human voice '. 

au-ei-d- in a(F)£i5aj (Attic g5aj) " sings ', a(F)oi5r| (Attic d)5r|) " song ', aoiSoq ' singer ', 
aoi5i|JO(; ' singer '. Differently Wackernagel KZ. 29, 151 f. 

Tocharian B wafk-, AB wafk-, B ya/fk- " command, order '. 

References: WP. I 251 f., Specht KZ. 59, 1 19 f., Van Windekens Lexique 155. 
Page(s): 76-77 

Root / lemma: au-7, aue-, auei- 

Meaning: to like; to help, *desire 

Material: Old Indie avati^ desires, favors above others, promotes, patronizes ' = Avestan 

avaiti^ provides, helps ' = Old Irish con-oi^ protects '; Messapic aFivapi " I bid (s.o.) 

farewell? (to wish s.o. to be strong to be healthy) '; 

Old Indie avas-v\. " satisfaction, favour, assistance ' = Avestan avah- n. 'help' (in addition 

probably Old Indie avasa-v\. "nourishment'), compare gr. £v-rin<; "favorable' (*£v-aFri(;); Old 

Indie Oman- " favorable, helping ' = Avestan aoman-^ supporting, helping ', Old Indie 

oman-m. " favour, assistance, protection ', 

oma-h' comrade '; Old Indie av/far-m. " patron, sponsor, patronizer ' (from which 2- 

syllable root form as Fut. avisyati, Perf. 2. Sg. avitha, as well as participle Ota- and:) utf-h^ 

delivery, help'; 

Armenian aviun' violent desire, longing; esp. irrational whim, caprice, or immoderate 
passion, lust ' (Petersson Et. Misz. 8); 

gr. -aFovsq in 2. part of Greek family names ( 'laov£(;)? compare Kretschmer Gl. 18, 232 
f., different Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 487, 3; 521 ; diTac; (Theokrit) " friend, lover '; 

Latin aved, -eAg" (basis at/e[/]- as in preceding) " be eager, have a wild desire, long for, 
desire ', avidus " desiring, longing for; esp. greedy for money, avaricious ' (therefrom 
audeo, -ere^ to be daring; to dare, venture, bring oneself to '), avarus^ covetous, greedy '; 

Old Irish c;o/7d/" protects', cymr. etvy/Zys "favor, wish desire', corn, aweir desire', abr. a- 
/i7/"unaided, wantonly, voluntarily'. Middle Breton eoull, youlF favor, wish desire ', as a 
name component in gall. Av/-cantus {=abret Eucant), acymr. Euilaun , also in Old High 
German names as Awileib, Awo; compare Gothic awi-liut^\d{i\c„ suxapiaria'; mcymr. ri-m- 
aw' he grants to me ', cymr. ad-aw {\N\t\r\ negat. at-) " leave ', abret. di-eteguetic 
"abandoned, forsaken, deserted, destitute' {*di-at-aw-etid). 

Falk-Torp 1407 adds also an: Old High German odi. Old Saxon othi. Old English Adj. 
Tet^e, Adv. eat^e^ easy, comfortable ', Old High German odmuoti. Old Saxon othmodi 
"modest'. Old English eaA'/77do'" modest'. Old Norse audmJOkr^ to move easily, willing, 
modest ', 

audkendr^ to recognize easily '; basic meaning is " willing ', from which " to make easy '; 
formal Germanic /oparticiple-formation to an//- (example Germanic aut^ia-^ deserted; flat; 
waste; empty; abandoned; blasted; desolate; bleak; grey; gray; barren; stuffy; dull; 
tedious '?). Rather uncertainly. 

If also Old Lithuanian austis' refresh oneself, atausimas^ refreshment ', Latvian ataust 
" recover, refresh ', atauseV invigorate, refresh ' are used, the zero grade lies to them *aus 
- of in Old Indie avas-, gr. £v-rin<; present as a basis es-stem . Or = Lithuanian aust/" get 
cold ', ausyti^ cool '? 

Tocharian B au-lare, A olar^ comrade '; as dubious B omaute^ longing ', w-ar(fny 
crave, long for', A w-aste " protection ' with angebl. zero grade the root rather here wa- " 
give ', A 1.Sg. M/5a(Pedersen Tochar. 186). 

References: WP. I 19, WH. I 81, 850, Van Windekens Lexique 9, 79, 153, 157. 
Page(s): 77-78 

Root / lemma: auo-s {*ohuhha§) 

Meaning: grandfather 


The original root was Hittite hu-uh-ha-as {huhhas) 'grandfather' branched into Root/ 

lemma: auo-s. grandfather in centum languages and Root/ lemma: sus-. parent : alb. 

{* huhhas) gjysh "grandfather' in satem languages; old laryngeal centum h- > a-, e- : satem 



Armenian /751/" grandfather' could go back also to *pap-, would be auosov\\)/ north - west 
Indo Germanic On account of here Hittite {*houhhas) hu-uh-ha-as {huhhas) 'grandfather'? 
Lycian *xuga' grandfather on the maternal side ' appears to speak rather of Asia Minor 

Note: common Hittite hou- > hu- (vowel -o- was absent in Hittite). 

Armenian hav. Gen. /75k^' grandfather', Latin avus^ grandfather; poet., in gen., an 

ancestor '; fem. Latin ai//a 'grandmother' (see finally Leumann-Stolz^ 204), dubious gr. ala 

as ' primordial mother earth ' (compare Brugmann IF. 29, 206 ff., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 473; 

Latin also -hu- > -v-. 

different Jacobsohn Phil. 67, 484 f., Kretschmer Glotta 5. 307); avTtus^ of a grandfather, 

ancestral ' is probably shaped after mantus, older /-stem in Lithuanian avynas' brother of 

the mother'; 

differently Jacobsohn Phil. 67, 484 f., innkeepers Glotta 5. 307); avftus' large-scale 

fatherly, angestammt ' is formed probably after mantus, old /-stem in Lithuanian avynas ' 

brother of the mother '; 

„/c>-derivative Old Prussian ams'unc\e\ Old Church Slavic *ujb ds. {ujka'aunt'), Old Irish 
{/i)aue' a grandson, a nephew ', Middle Irish d{a), ua ds.; en-stem: Gothic awo 
"grandmother', Old Norse ^/^'grandfather', a/' great-grandfather'. Old English earn, Old 
Frisian em, Old High German oheim. 

Modern High German Oheim, O/7/77 (after Osthoff PBrB. 13, 447 *awun-haimaz^ the one 
who lived in grandfather's home '), after R. Much Germanic 205 from *auhaim< Indo 
Germanic *auos Roimos^ dear grandfather', compare cymr. tad cu{*tatos koimos] 

Latin avunculus^ brother of the mother' (probably caressing diminutive an *avd, -on/'s); 
cymr. ewythr, acorn, euitor, bret. eo/7//'"uncle' {*auen-tro-). 

The stem called originally the grandparents on the maternal side, become through the 
words for "uncle or aunt on the maternal side ' probably, s. Hermann GGN. 1918, 214 f. 


Latin avus ; avos > Italian avolo, Galician avo, Catalan avi, Portuguese avo ; vovo, 
Spanish abuelo, French aieul, Albanian (*guelus) gjysh, Asturian gijelu, Calo tesquelo, 
Judeo-Spanish aguelo, Leonese guelu ; giJelu, Sardinian (Limba Sarda Unificada) (*yayu) 
giaggiu, Sardinian Campidanesu abu ; avu ; ayayu, Sardinian Logudoresu avu ; abu ; 
yayu, Valencian yayo "grandfather' 

Clear influence of a substrate Anatolian Hittite {*houhhas) hu-uh-ha-as {huhhas) 
"grandfather'? Lycian *xuga' grandfather on the maternal side '. 

A early borrowing from Estonian (*avana-isa) vana-isa > Finnish iso-isa, Hungarian 
(*vana-gy-papa) nagy-apa ; nagy-papa "grandfather'. 

References: WP. I 20 f., WH. 88 f., 851, Pedersen Lycian under Hittite 25 f., Risch Mus. 
Helv. 1, 118ff. 
Page(s): 89 

Root / lemma: abel-, abol-, abj- 

Meaning: apple 


Root/ lemma: abel-, abol-, abJ-\ apple' derived from Root/ lemma: om-{*hamel)\ "raw, 

bitter, *sweet'. 


Maybe Old Indie: abala- m. "the plant Tapia Crataeva' {"Crataegus roxburghii' (H. Ebel KZ 
VI, 1957:216)} [It is a proof of the European origin of the cognate]. 
Latin Abella {Qsq,2x\ town, city in Campanien) /775///fe/'a "apple-bearing', after Verg. Aen. 7, 
740, might have received her name after of the apple breeding and reject on the basic 
form *ablona. The apple is not named possibly only after the town. 

In the Celtic the names are to be distinguished for "apple' ( *ablu) and " apple tree ' 
{*abaln-). Gall, avallo^ fruit ', Aballo {n-sievn) PN, French Avallon, abrit. PN Aballava, gallo- 
rom. *aballinca^ Alpine mistletoe ' (Wartburg); 

Maybe lllyrian PN Aulona 

Old Irish ubull{*ablu) n. "apple', ncymr. afal, PI. afalau, corn. bret. avalm. "apple', but 
Middle Irish aball {*abalna) f. "apple tree', acymr. aball, mcymr. avallP\. e^y/// (analogical) 
f., acymr. aballen, ncymr. afa//en ' app\e tree' (with singulative ending). 

The same ablaut forms in the Germanic: 

Crimean Gothic ape/{Goth\c *ap/s7), Old High German apfu/, afful. Middle High German 
apfel. Old English seppel {qx\(^\. apple). Old Norse eplix\. {apa/-grar ' app\e-graY') "apple'. 
Germanic probably *ap(a)la-, *aplu-. Further Old Norse apaldr^ app\e tree'. Old English 
apuldor, aeppuldre. Old High German apbo/fra {compare Modern High German Affoltern 
PN), Middle High German apfa/ter' app\e tree' {*apaldra-). 

The Baltic shows clear tracks in Indo Germanic completely isolated A declension *abdl, 
G. Sg. *abeles. 

lengthened grade of the suffix appears mostly in the word for "apple': East Lithuanian 
obuolys, Latvian abuo//s {-//o-stem), West Lithuanian obuolas, Latvian abuols {o-siem) 
from Indo Germanic *abdl-\ 

Normal grade mostly in the word for "apple tree'; Lithuanian obe//s{iem. /-stem), Latvian 
abe/s{/-ste{r\), abe/e (e-stem) irom Indo Germanic *abe/-, but Old Prussian woblei. {*ab/-) 
"apple', wobalne{*abolu-) f. "apple tree'. 

Old Bulgarian abl-bkojabl-bko, po\x\. jabiko, s\ov.jabolko, mss. jabloko^app\e' {*abl-bko 
from *ablu-) etc; Old Bulgarian (j)ablanb, s\o\eu. jablan. Old Czech jablan, jablon, russ. 
Jablonb "apple tree', from Indo Germanic *ai6»o//7- (influences the sound form of *ablo 

Although a uniform basic form is not attachable, it becomes both Latin Celtic 
Germanic Balto Slavic forms only around ancient relationship and barely around borrowing 
act. With respect to Latin abies' fir' etc. very uncertain. 


The oldest IE cognate is Luvian: *samlu(wa)- "apple-(tree)'; Attestations: [HittErgSg] sa- 
ma-lu-wa-an-za: 145 iii 18. GiSHASHUR-an-za: XLIV 4+ Vo 26. GiSHASHUR-lu-wa-an-za: 
XLIV4+V0 28. 

Commentary: Above analysis most likely, but textual tradition is corrupt. Luvian nt. nom.- 
acc. sg. samluwan=za a\so possible. Cf. Starke, KZ 95.153f, and Soysal, Or 58.174ff. 
From the common IE shift m > mb > b derived *samlu(wa)- > Root / lemma: abe/-, abol-, 
abJ-\ "apple' in Germanic languages while in Romance languages took place the coomon 
lllyrian alb. sa > zero, Luvian *samlu(wa)- 'apple-(tree)' > Latin malum -/n. 'an apple, or 
other similar fruit'; alb. Geg mo//e ' app\e' . 

Also Proto-Slavic form: jemela; jemelo; jemelt; jbmela; jbmelo {2} [Page in Trubacev: VI 
26-27]: Russ. c»/77e/a "mistletoe' [fa]. Old Russ. //77e/a "mistletoe' [fa], Czech ome/a {6'\a\.) 
"mistletoe' [fa]; ome/o {6\a\.) "mistletoe' [n o]\Jmelf, me/i{6\a\.) "mistletoe' [f ia], Slovak 
jeme/o{6\a\.), hemelo {6\a\.) "mistletoe' [n o]; /me/o, Jme/o {6\a\.) "mistletoe' [n o], Poln. 
jemioia, jamioia^\x\\s\\e\.oe' [fa]; imioia {6\a\.) "mistletoe' [fa]. Upper Serbian yie/TT/e/ 
'mistletoe' [m o]. Lower Serbian ye/rT/b/, /7e/77yb/ "mistletoe' [m o], Serbo-Croatian omela 
(dial.) "mistletoe' [fa]; imela, /77e/a "mistletoe' [fa], Slovene ye/77^/a (dial.), om^/a {d'\a\.) 
'mistletoe' [fa]; /m^/a, /r7^/a "mistletoe' [fa], Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: emel-; Lith. 
amalas, e'/775/a5 "mistletoe' [m o] 3^, Latv. amuols, ^muo/s {B\N); amuls, amals, amuls 
'mistletoe, clover' [m o] {1}, Old Pruss. eme/no{E\/) 'mistletoe'. 
Bibliography: Anikin 1998: 334-336, Andersen 1996: 133-135 

Notes: {1} The forms with a- may show the influence oi abud/s'app\e, clover'. {2} This 
plant name is probably a borrowing from the lllyrian Venetian substratum language. The 
Slavic forms with *jbm- must be due to popular etymology (the mistletoe's sap is used to 
produce bird-lime), cf. OCS /mat/^to take'. An etymological connection with PIE *bim-'to 
take' is doubtful, as is the connection with *H3eHm- 'raw' . 

maybe gr. Compounds: apapn^''^ P'ant growing in the same time as the apple-tree, 
'medlar', = snipn^i'^- 

Probably Tocharian B: mala* 'a kind of intoxicating drink'; Paradigm: [-, -, mala//] 
Examples: se safmane] mot mala trikelyesa sakse yokam paytr whatever monk drinks 
alcohol or intoxicating beverage through befuddlement or brandy, payt/ [mala = BHS 
maireya] (H-149.X.3b1/2 [Couvreur, 1954b: 48]), tumem parwettsai malasa yokalle^theu it 
[is] to be drunk with an aged drink' (W-33a5). 

Derivatives: malatstse* "drunken": arahcacu epreta Mara[nts]= adanc malatsai ... 

spyarkatai-me "O courageous and brave one, thou hast destroyed Mara's drunken bite' 


References: WP. I 50, WH. I 3, E. Fraenkel KZ. 63, 172 ff., Trautmann 2. 

Page(s): 1 -2 

Root / lemma: agher-, aghen-, aghes- (or oghereic) {*daghen) 

l\1eaning: day 

Grammatical information: Heteroklit. Neutrum. 

Material: Old Indie ahar, ahah. Gen. ahn-as, Avestan Gen. PI. asn-qm'6ay'. In Germanic 

is found aniaut. d- by influence from proto Germanic *dajwaz {\ndo Germanic '^^dg"'ho-, s. 

t|he^"j^-' burn ') " warm season ' (: Lithuanian dagas' summer heat '): the ostem Gothic 


Old Icelandic dagr, Old High German tacm. "day' is from neutr. es-stem reshaped (Gothic 

PN Aayio-Qzoq = *Dagis-t^ius, Old High German Dagi-berteic), also in ablaut. Old English 

dseg {* do^i^, PI. dogoru. "day' (Gothic f/dur-dogs lourVn day '), Old Icelandic d0grr\. "day 

or night ' besides there is />stem Old Danish d0gnn. "day and night'. 


From Root/ lemma: d'^eg'^h-: "to burn, *day' derived Root/ lemma: agher-, aghen-, aghes- 

(or ogheretc): "day' the same as Root/ lemma: a/cm: "tear' derived from Root/ lemma: 

daRru-: "tears'. The phonetic shift da- > a-, zero'xs a common Baltic. Compare Root/ 

lemma: del-5\ "long': Baltic with unexplained o'-loss (see below): Lithuanian ilgas, f. ilga, 

Latvian ilgs. Old Prussian //gaand ilgiMy. "long' : Hittite Nom. PI. da-lu-ga-e-es 

{dalugaes) "long', da-lu-ga-as-ti {dalugasti) n. "length'. This is a sound proof of Aryan 

migration from the Baltic region to North India. 

References: WP. I 849 f., WH. I 467, Feist 113 f., Sievers-Brunner 121, 243, Wackernagel- 

Debrunnerlll 310 f. 

Page(s): 7 

Root / lemma: ag- 

Meaning: goat 


Root/ lemma: digh-\ "goaf derived from a zero grade of Root/ lemma: dei§h-\ "to prick; 

tick'. From the older root Root/ lemma: deigh-: "to prick; tick' derived Root/ lemma: aig-\ 

"goaf and Root/ lemma: ag-\ "goaf [common Baltic - lllyrian - alb. de-, da- > zero]. Hence 

the gr. cognate derived from proto lllyrian 

Material: Old Indie aya-/? "he-goaf, aja^ she-goat ', Middle Persian aza/r"goat', npers. azg 

alb. o'/7rgoat' (G. Meyer BB. 8, 186, Pedersen KZ. 36, 320, 335; probably from *adhi, as 
s/7" eye' from asii)\ 


Maybe a zero grade in alb. {*aghi) dhV goat ' [the common alb. shift -gh- > -d-], older alb. 
Geg {*aghi) edha'goats, sheep'. 

Lithuanian ozys{* agios) "he-goaf, c»z/ra"goaf. Old Prussian M/c»see"goaf, wosux^he- 

Old Indie ajfna-m "fur, fleece'; 

Lithuanian ozinis^ belonging to he-goat ', ozfena^ billy goafs meat '; 

Church Slavic {j)azno {* azbnd) " skin, leather '. 

References: WP. I 38, Trautmann 22. compare also aig-. 
Page(s): 6-7 

Root / lemma: aier-, aien- 

Meaning: day, morning 

Grammatical information: n. 


Root/ lemma: aier-, aien-\ "day, morning' derived from a reduced Root/ lemma: agher-, 

aghen-, aghes- (oder oghereic): day'. 

Material: Avestan ayara. Gen. ay^nu. "day'. 

Gr. Lok. *aO)£pi- in apiarov (from * ajeri-d-tom, to ed- "eaf ) " breakfast ' (uncontracted 
depiGTOv still produceable Hom. Q 124, tt2)\ lengthened grades *C(0)£pi in the derivative 
n£piO(; " early morning ', contracts in npi "in the morning '. Different Risch 105. 

Gothic air. Old Icelandic ar. Adv. " early ' (likewise Lok. *ajeri), in addition Kompar. 
Gothic airiza^ earlier'. Adv. airis= Old English ^r. Old High German er. Modern High 
German eher, ehe, Superl. Old English aerest. Old High German erist. Modern High 
German erst. 

References: WP. I 3, Feist 24b. 

Maybe to ai-4. 
Page(s): 12 

Root / lemma: a(i)gh- : Igh- 

Meaning: to need 

Material: Avestan az/'-sm. ' desire ', np. azds., Avestan aza-sm. ' striving, eagerness, 

zeal '; changing through ablaut Avestan izyatT strives, striving for ' and 7z5' striving, zeal, 

success, prosperousness ' Old Indie /T?^ "desire', Ihate^ strives whereupon'; 

gr. axnv 'poor' = nxnv£<; Ksvoi, nrooxoi Hes. (by support of words, with a- privative out of 
it asxnvsc; n£vr|T£q Hes., and axsvia " lack, poverty '), KTsavnxn^ nsvnc; Hes., changing 
through ablaut ixavaw 'longs for ', Ixap " desire '; 

Tocharian A akal, B akalk^ wish, longing '. Different Pedersen Tocharian 42. 

References: WP. I 40, Van Windekens BSL. 41, 55; unwahrscheinlich Bartholomae IF. 5, 


Page(s): 14-15 

Root / lemma: aiR- : TR- 
Meaning: spear, pike 


Both Root/ lemma: aR-, oR-\ 'sharp; stone' and Root/ lemma: aiR-. 7R-\ 'spear, pike' are 
reduced roots of an older root */7e^"'-e/created through metathesis from Root/ lemmna 
**helg"a. This older root was solidified by Church Slavic: {*heg"'-el) /g/5 'needle' [f a] 
Slavic languages inherited the common da- > zeroirom the older Baltic-Germanic 
languages. The phonetic shift da- > zero'xs a common Baltic. Compare Root/ lemma: del- 
5: 'long': Baltic with unexplained o'-loss (see below): Lithuanian 'ilgas, f. ilga, Latvian llgs. 
Old Prussian //gaand ilgi'My. 'long' : Hittite Nom. PI. da-lu-ga-e-es {dalugaes) 'long', da- 
lu-ga-as-ti {dalugasti) n. 'length'. 

Hence from Root/ lemma: (i'^elg-: 'to stick; needle' derived the alledged Baltic Root/ 
lemmna *77e/^"'a from which Church Slavic: {*heg'^-el) /g/a 'needle' [fa], then Both Root/ 
lemma: aR-, oR-\ sharp; stone' and Root/ lemma: aiR-. 7R-\ spear, pike'. 
Material: Gr. akAoi ai yajviai tou p£Aou(; Hes., gr. iKisa okovtiov Hes., Cypriot iK|jap£vo(; or 
iXMopsvoc; (in the latter pitfall from *iKO|jap£V0(;) ' wounds ', graixMH 'spear, spit ' ( *aik- 
sma). Old Prussian aysmis^ spit, broach ', Lithuanian iesmas, jiesmas^ spit, broach ', 

(basic form *a//(mosor Gr. exact congruent *aiR-smos); from moreover Old Prussian 

ayculo. Church Slavic iglaeic 'needle', with ^instead of z (compare S.18'')? 

Maybe a borrowing in alb. /75/e "needle, fishbone, awn' from Ukrainian: /7d//ra "needle' [f 

a]; ihla{(A\3\.) "needle' [fa] 

Proto-Slavic form: jbgtia 

Accent paradigm: c 

Page in Trubacev: VIM 213-214 

Cliurcli Slavic: /g/a "needle' [f a] 

Russian: igla "needle' [f a] 

Ulcrainian: /7d//ra "needle' [f a]; //7/^(dial.) "needle' [f a] 

Czecli:ye/7/a "needle' [fa]; //7/a(dial.) "needle' [fa] 

Slovalc //7/a "needle' [fa] 

Polisli: /g/a "needle, pin' [f a];ye^/a(dial.) "needle, pin' [fa] 

Slovincian:y7e^/a "needle' [f a] 

Lower Serbian: gia "needle' [f a] 

Polabian: y^^/^ "needle' [f a] 

Serbo-Croatian: /g'/a "needle' [fa], /^A/ [Aces]; y/^/a (dial.) "needle' [f a];y^^/a(dial.) "needle' 

[fa]; Cak. /g/a(Vrgada) "needle' [fa], 7glu{/Kccs\, Cak. /g/a(Novi) "needle' [fa]; Cak. 7gla 

(Vrgada) "needle' [fa], /p'/c»[Accs] 

Slovene: /^/a "needle, kingpin' [f a];ya^/a(dial.) "needle, kingpin' [fa] 

Old Prussian: ayc^/o "needle' [fa] 

also alb. Geg gjilpaneu. f. "needle' is a compound of (Nominative) *gjil- "needle' + 

(Genitive) peni "thread'; alb. common zero grade *ilga > *gil- "needle' corresponds to zero 

grade in Serbo-Croatian: /g/a "needle' [fa]. 

Latin /cd (analogical Tcid), -ere^ hit, wound, strike, smite; esp., to strike a bargain ', ictus^ 

slash, blow, stroke; in music, beat ', probably also Avestan isars' instant, (very short 

space of time) ' =gr. iKiap " near ' (as " adjoining, adjacent ') and lySn, TySic; " mortar ' (also 

1^, iKeq " worms damaging the vine ', from which \uzc, ds. could be reshuffled after the 

related to meaning KvTn£(;, gkvTttsc;, GpTnsc;; different Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 299. 

Here possibly Old Norse eiginu. " a sprout that has just emerged from a seed ' ("point, 

cusp'), Swedish Dialectal J/ie/m.ds. (Fick4 III 2) and Low German Tne^ awn, ear of corn' 

(Bezzenberger Federal Railway. 27, 166). 

References: WP. I 7, WH. I 670, Trautmann 3, 4. 

Page(s): 1 5 

Root / lemma: ai-4 
Meaning: to burn 

Material: from Old English afor^ sharp, violent ', Old High German eibar, eivar^ harsh, 
bitter, pungent, rough, shaggy, bristly; shivering with cold. Transf., wild, savage; 
unpolished, uncouth; frightful, horrible ' derived from *ab^ro-v\o{ is to be connected 

Maybe but here gr. iaivu) "warms up ' from *HJ)-anJd\ see below eis-V move, shake 
violently '. 

See also: S. under ai-^^-, aier-, ajos-, aisk-, ai-tro- 
Page(s): 1 1 

Root / lemma: al-3 

Meaning: to wander, roam 

Material: Gr. aAri "the vagrancy, the wandering about ', aAaopai (horn. Pf. aAaAriMCii), 

aAaivw " wanders about ', aAriTr|<; " beggar ', aAr|T£uu) " wander, begging around ', aAioc; " in 

vain ' (Spiritus asper admittedly, still unexplained, s. Boisacq 44, also against the 

assumption of ani. F-); 

from a basis alu-, a/eu-gr. aAuw " to be deeply stirred, excited, from grief, to be distraught, 

beside oneself, from perplexity or despair, to be at a loss, perplexed, wander, roam about 

', aAuaaco ds. (Hom.; Put. aAu^si Hippokr.), aAuKr) " restiveness, worry, concern, fear, 

alarm ', qAugk; (from aAuw) " angst ', aAuc;, -uoq (Plut.) " idly hanging around, boredom '; 

common gr.-lllyrian -ks- > -ss-, with the concept " wander around, not to come near to, 

around a dangerous place or thing ', also aAsuopai, aAEopai " avoid ', aAuoKU) (*aAuK-aKU), 

compare Aor. pAu^a) " escape ', aAuoKa^u) " avoid, flee ', aAssivoj ds., aAsojAri " defense ' 

(*aA£Fu)Ari formation as (p£i5u)Ari). 

Hittite: halluwai- c. ' squabble, quarrel ', Luvian halwat- 'protest?'. 

*) aAa^tbv " fibber, boaster, bragger ' (actually dragging around juggler, mountebank), 
derives after Bonfante (BSL. 37, 77) from thrak. VN 'AAa^6v£(;. 

**) aAuu), aAuiw from *aAu3,i(jo compare Schuize Ounder ep. 310 f., Lagercrantz Z. gr. 
Lautg. 89 with Old Indie rosati, rusyati^ be cross with, be angry ', but from Uhlenbeck Old 
Indie Wb. 256 is placed more right to Lithuanian rustas " unfriendly, unkind '. 

Mit a-:r\KaoKijd " wanders around ', nAaivw "be demented ', Med. " wander around ', 
r|A£|jaTOc; (Doric aAspaTOc; Theokr.) ' foolish, futile, vain ', nAi9iO(; "trifling, in vain, brainless', 
r\kzdq " confuses, beguiles; bewildering ', (besides Aeolic equivalent akkoq an *aAioc; in:) 
horn. aAAa cppovsajv '(pptvaq r]kz6q' " dazed, unconscious ' (from Doric *akzdq derives 
Latin a/ea' a game of dice, game of hazard; hence chance, risk, uncertainty, blind luck '). 

Latin ambu/o^to walk, go for a walk, travel, march' (Umbrian amboltu^a walk, a stroll'); 
(Latin alucinor\o wander in mind, dream, talk idly' is probably borrowed from aAuw under 
formal support in vaticinor). 

In addition Latvian aluot, aluoties' wander around, get lost ', with a Latvian ala^ half- 
mad person ', al'uoties^ behave foolish, gestures clownish '. 

Tocharian AB al- " distinguish, remove '. 

References: WP. I 87 f., WH. I 33, 38, EM. 43 (places ambuloio gr. sAauvw, stem el-). 
Page(s): 27-28 

Root / lemma: alu-, alo- {*halu-) 

Meaning: a bitter plant 

Material: Old Indie alu-h, alukam-^ bulb, onion, round esculent radix '; Latin alum, alium^ 

garlic ', Oscan *a//(9from *a'//a probably as foundation of gr. aAAac; " sausage (*stuffed 

tubular casing)'; Latin alum or alus^ Symphytum officinale L., comfrey, blackwort ' a plant 

appreciated for its roots (perhaps gall, word? s. Thesaurus). 

Maybe alb. /7e//77 "bitter; poison' 

Note: alb. is the only IE lang. that preserved the old laryngeal /?-. 

References: WP. I 90 f., WH. I 30, 33. 
See also: Probably to alu- 
Page(s): 33 

Root / lemma: amer- {amor, ami) 
Meaning: day 

Material: Gr. horn. n|jap, -aTO(;, Attic npspa (Asper probably after sanspa, Sommer Gr. 
Ltst. 123), otherwise afjspa "day' (with Lenis, hence not to Indo Germanic *sem-^ summer 


Lithuanian bei Boisacq s. v., wherefore Pick KZ. 43, 147); Armenian aur^day' (from *amdr 
about *amur, *aumr, Meillet Esquisse 55). To the stem formation s. still J. Schmidt PI. 195 

f., to Ionian [jsaapppin " midday ' Boisacq under psariMppia- Van Windekens (Lexique 80) 
places here Tocharian A omal, B ema//e' hot', from Indo Germanic *amel-. 
References: WP. I 53, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 305, 481, 518. 
Page(s): 35 

Root / lemma: ano- 

Meaning: ring 

Material: Armenian anur^ neckband, ring ', Latin anus^ circle, ring ', Old Irish ainne 

( *anTnJo-) m. " ring, anus '. (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-). 

Latin annulus > Bolognese anel : Bresciano anel : Furlan anel : Galician anel : Portuguese 

anel : Paduan aneo : Provengal aneu : Wallon anea : Reggiano : anel : Romagnolo anel : 

Romansh ane : Romanian : inel : Italian anello : Spanish anillo ; anilla : Catalan anell : 

French anneau : Aragones aniello : Asturian aniellu : Corsican anellu : Leonese aniellu : 

Lombardo Occidentale anell : Napulitano aniello : Calabrese 'neddu ; aniellu ; aneddu ; 

aniaddru : Pugliese aniadd : Sardinian Campidanesu aneddu : Sardinian Logudoresu 

aneddu : Sicilian aneddu : Viestano nidd' " circle, ring ' [common Calabrese, Pugliese, 

Sardinian, Sicilian, Viestano -/A > -dd-] > through metathesis Albanian {* aneddu) unaze^ 

circle, ring ' common alb. d- > z- similar to alb. gaz^ joy' < Latin gaudium " joy'. 

References: WP. I 61, WH. I 55, Pedersen Litt. 2, 80. 

Page(s): 47 

Root / lemma: apero- 

Meaning: shore 


Root / lemma: apero- : " shore ' derived from Root / lemma: apo- {p6, ap-u, pU) {*h2aph30- 

): " from, out, of ' < Root / lemma: ap-2\ " water, river ' < Root / lemma: ab- : " water, river ' 

< Root/ lemma: abd(n) {* h2abd^\ " ape, *water demon ' < Root/ lemma: ^^-{*h2£b'^-)'. " 

quick, abrupt ' < Root/ lemma: abh/-o-(*/7i'ab*^ro-): " strong, mighty ' < root /pbh-(ro-): < with 

/■formant {neb^e/a)\ < Root/ lemma: {en^^-2): n^^-, errt^-, /pb^-: " wet, damp; water; 

clouds '. 

Material: Gr. rin£ipo(;, Doric an£ipo(;f. " shore; mainland '; Old English ofer. Middle Low 

German over. Middle High German (md.) uover. Modern High German Ufer, but Armenian 

ap n^ shore ' requires Indo Germanic yO/? and hence, stays away. 

relationship to *5/7c» "since, from, ex'. Old Indie apara-^ back, later' as lengthened grade 
formation becomes adopted by Specht Dekl. 23. 

References: WP. I 48. 

Page(s): 53 

Root / lemma: ap-2{*hap-2) 

Meaning: water, river 


Root/ lemma: ap-2 {* hap-2)\ " water, river ' derived from Root/ lemma: ab-{*h2^'"-): " 

water, river ' < Root/ lemma: abofn) {* h2abd-): " ape, *water demon ' < Root/ lemma: ab^- 

(*/7i'ab*^-): " quicl<, abrupt ' < Root/ lemma: ^^ro-{*h2^^ro-): " strong, mighty ' < root /pb^- 

{ro-)\ < with Aformant {n^^el§)\ < Root/ lemma: {eneb'"-2)\ neb'"-, errt'"-, /pb^-: " wet, 

damp; water; clouds '. 


Hittite: hap{a)- ' river ', Pal. hapnas, Luvian hapinni- (Tischler 159-160) 

Tokharian: A, B ap 'water, river' (Adams 44) 

Old Indie ap- f. 'water', e.g. PI. Norn, apah, Akk. apah. Gen. apam, Avestan Nom. Sg. afs, 

Akk. Sg. apsm, Instr. Sg. apa(-ca). Old Indie apavant-^\Na{evj\ in older eontraetion with 

reduplieation-stem in -/; -^auslaut prefixes (Kretsehmer KZ. 31, 385, Johansson IF. 4, 137 

f.) pratTpa-^ directed against the stream ', nlpa-^ low lying, deep-recumbent ', anupa-^ 

situated, lying in water', dvTpa-^ island, sand bank in the river', a/7/a/77?5- 'island'; the 

same contraction with in -o ending 1 . part in gr. river names 'Iviono^ ' name of a stream on 

Delos', 'Aau)TT6(; ( : ivou), ogk;; Pick BB. 22, 61, 62); gr. 'Ania 'Peloponnes', MEoa-ania 

ds., lokr. Msaa-anioi, lllyrian Msaadnioi (different Krahe ZONF. 13, 20 f.) common gr.- 

Illyrian -ks- > -5S- and Apulioi Lower Italy, river names AniScbv (Arcadia), 'Ani5av6(; 

(Thessaly), thrak. {*h2apo^ "Anoq (Dacia), lllyrian {*h2apsos) "Aijjo^, Apsus, apul. PN Sal- 

apia ('saltwater '); here as vestiges Venetic-lllyrian immigration part of the West German 

apa- names, as Erft{*Arnapia), and all FIN with -up-, as Modern High German Uppia-Bach 

(Tirol), French S//70|Ce(Manche), brit. harbour Rutup/ae, sizil. KaKunapK; (compare 

Lithuanian Kakupis), compare the thrak. FIN "Ynioq, Ynavic;; 

Old Prussian ape 'river', ap^s 'spring, fountain, stream, brook', Lithuanian upe, Latvian 

^pe 'water' {u\s perhaps reduplication-stem from Indo Germanic o, a, Trautmann Bsl. Wb. 

1 1 ; or belongs up- rather to Old Church Slavic vapa 'sea'?). Here Ach- {*aps-) in cymr. 

FIN, gall. Axona? 

Besides Celtic-Latin ab-, see below ab-. 

Johansson IF. 4. 137 f. goes to explanation the Morm from through AniScbv, 
'Ani5av6(; as well as by Old Indie abda-h m. 'cloud' and with apah paradigmatic welded 
together Instr. Dat. PI. Old Indie adbhih, adbhyah, presumed stem *ap(9)d- {^Qr\\a'^s ' 
giving water ', with do- ' give ' belonging to the 2nd part) from: *abdd(n). Gen. *abdnes. 

from which *abnes, from obi. case arose from Latin amnis, was compensated during in 
Celtic *abdd{n) : *abnes to *5M (Middle Irish ab), *abona {\r\ence Middle Irish abann). 
(common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-). 

References: WP. I 46 f., WH. I 40, 846, Krahe Gl. 20, 188 ff., Pokorny Urillyrier 110 ff., 130 
f., Krahe WiJrzburg. Jahrb. 1, 86 ff. 
Page(s): 51-52 

Root / lemma: as-, therefrom azd-, azg(h)- 

Meaning: to burn 


In e- grade: 

Old High German essai.. Modern High German Esse {*as/dn), Proto Norse aRina, Old 
Icelandic arinn^ exaltation, elevation, hearth, fireplace ', (common Celtic -/7S-, -nt- > -nn-), 
Old High German en'n^ floorboard, ground, bottom ' {*azena)\ 

In a- grade: 

Hittite ha-as-SH (has/) Lok. " on the hearth ' {hasas). 
Tocharian AB as- present, as- Perf. and causative " dry up ', A asar^ to dry '; 
Hittite: hassa- c. ' hearth, stove, fireplace ', Luvian hassaniti'hearW}' (Tischler 196-197) 

Old Indie asa-h ' cinder, dust ' (about asita-h ' black ' s. *Qsi-^ dirt-color, dark color '); 
Latin ara^ altar; hence refuge, protection; 'arae', plur., name of certain rocks at sea ' (= 
Oscan aasa/'in the altar', Umbrian are^ altars ' etc), areo, -ere^io be dry', aricfus^dry, 
arid, dry, parched, thirsty' (therefrom ardeo^ to burn, glow, be on fire; of bright objects, to 
gleam; of feeling (esp. of love), to burn, smart; of political disorder, to be ablaze ', participle 
Pass, assus^ dried, roasted; n. pi. as subst. a sweating bath '), area^ a level or open 
space, site, courtyard, threshing floor; esp. a playground; hence, in gen., play ' (actually " 
burnt-out, dry place '); 

Perhaps here Middle Irish an^ igneous, radiant, noble ' {*as-no-). About gr. 5i4Jau), 
nsivau) s. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 1 , 724. 

Because r\n Hittite a-a-n{ari) " becomes hot ' does not belong to the stem, it must be 
distinguished Latin areo^io be dry, be parched' not from ara^a structure for sacrifice, 

Formant extensions: 

azd-\n gr. a^oo {*az-d-Jd) " parch, dry ', a^a f. " dehumidifier, dirt ', al,aKtoc, " dry, 
inflaming ', a55auov ^npov. AaKwvEq Hes. (-55 from -zcPj\ Czech apoln. ozd^ a device for 
drying malt or a room for drying malt ', Czech slov. ozditi' to dry malt '. 

azig- Armenian ac/lc//7'ash' (Meillet Esquisse 29), gr. aapoAo(; (*aay-poAo(;) "soot' fash - 
throw '). 

Maybe truncated alb. (*aaY-(3oAoi;) bloze^ soot' a Greek loanword. 

Germanic *askdn\v\ Old Icelandic aska. Old English asce, aesce. Old High German asca. 
Modern High German Asche. 

Maybe zero grade Latin cinis -erism. f. 'ashes' < Armenian aciun^ asVC; alb. (*(a)sA/) hi 

'ash' [common alb. ski- > iii-]. 


Root / lemma: ken-2, kens-, keni-, kenu-\ "to rub, scrape off; ashes' must have come from 

zero grade of an extended Root/ lemma: as-, therefrom azd-, azg(h)-\ "to burn' into ask- 

e/7with the suffix -en. This assumption is proved by alb. Geg {*askini) ijini'asW [common 

alb. ski- > iji-]. 

azgh-?\n Armenian 5zaz//77 "dries' (Meillet Esquisse 33, EM. 70), Gothic azgo^asW 
( *azgdn). About the difficult relation from Germanic *askdn : *az-gdns. Feist 72b; again 
different Specht Dekl. 201, 219. Also the conclusiveness Armenian examples are not quite 

References: WH. I 61, 65, 848, Feist 72, Trautmann 22, Pedersen Hittitisch 27, 164. 
Page(s): 68-69 

Root / lemma: at(e)r- 

Meaning: fire, *blow the fire 


Root/ lemma: at(e)r-\ "fire, *blow the fire' derived from a suffixed Root/ lemma: au(e)-10, 

aue(o)-, ue-\ "to blow' with common IE formant -ter. 


In a- grade: 

Hittite: hat- (11,1) ' wither, wilt, become shriveled, dry out' (Tischler 213) 

Avestan 5/5/'s(Gen. a&rd) m. "fire', wherefore Old Indie atharvan-^ fire priest ', loanword 

from Avestan a&aurvan-, a&aurun{6as z?from a&rd} ds.; 

Armenian airem' burns, lights ' (due to from *a//'from *atei); serb. vatra^i\re\ l<lr. vatra' 
fire, stove ', poln. vatra 'straw cinder ' are borrowed after Jol<l WZKM. 34, 37 ff. from 
Rumanian vatra^ stove ', these again from Alb. (Geg voire, voter with i/-suggestion before 
alb. o/-from *at-, viell. Iran, loanword). 

Perhaps as 'burnt' also Latin ater^ dead black, dark; poet, clothed in black. Transf., dark, 
gloomy, sad; malicious, poisonous ' = Umbrian atru, adro^ black, coal-black, gloomy, dark 
'; but Latin Atella= Oscan Ader{a\ {*Atrola, e.g. v. Planta I 551), Latin Atrius= Oscan 
Aadfriis{y. Planta II 768, Thurneysen 1A. 4, 38, Schuize Latin Eig. 269, 578) are suspectly 
Etruscan origin. 

Maybe lllyrian >1o'/7a 'deep, dark water, sea'. 

Possibly affiliation from Irish a/th {Gen. atho) f., cymr. odynt ' oven, stove ', s. Pick 11^ 9. 

References: WP. I 42, WH. I 75 f., 849 f. 
Page(s): 69 

Root / lemma: atos, atta {hatta) 
Meaning: father, mother 

In a- grade: 

Hittite at-ta-as {attas) 'father'. 
Old Indie 5//a 'mother, older sister ', atti-h ' older sister ', osset. ada, gr. aiTa ' old man, old 
fellow, father', dial. Akk. qtsiv, ottsiv 'grandfather', Latin aftam. 'father; term of 
endearment of the children towards the father ', Gothic a//a 'father' (Demin. Attila), Old 
Frisian aththaAs., Old High German a//c» 'father, forefather, ancestor' (//by running always 
besides unpostponed neologism), alb. {*h2at) at, PI. e/e/'' father'. 

In e- grade: 

Demin. Old High German Ezz//o 'father'. 

In o- grade: 

Old Church Slavic c»/6Cb 'father'; alb. {*h30t-sja) joshe^ (on the maternal side) 


Common /7->y- Slavic Albanian; h->J-, y-0\6 Indie Tocharian. 

In a- grade: 

A similar *ato-s\n Germanic *a/=>a/a, *dA'e/5 appears the basis from Old High German 
ada/' sex, gender', Modern High German Ade/, Old Saxon atha//, Old English sedeluH. 
PL ' noble parentage ', Old Icelandic adar (the rudimentary basis of an organ or other 
part, esp. in an embryo) aniage, sex ', Tocharian A ataF man '; here also Avestan a^wya- 
" name of the fathers Oraetaond ^ as ' from noble parentage '? 

The affiliation from gr. mokoc, ' in a juvenile manner, childish ', araAAw ' gathers, waits 
and is in habit ' and " jumps cheerfully like a child ', Redupl. ariTaAAu) " draws up (Redupl. 
under influence from TiGnvr) " nurse '?), is denied by Leumann Gl. 15, 154. 

In e- grade: 

Adj. Old High German edili. Old Saxon ethili. Old English aedele^ noble, aristocratic ' 

In o- grade: 

lengthened grade Old High German uodal. Old Saxon othil, here Gothic haimot^liu. " 
genotype ', compare with the same vocal length Old High German Uota (actually ' great- 
grandmother '), Old Norse 0(fa/" (fatherly) genotype ' (compare also Old High German 
fater-uodal. Old Saxon fader-odiV property inherited from a father, patrimony '); 

In e- grade: 

Old English edel. Old Frisian edila^ great-grandfather'; 

One on the most different linguistic areas to itself always newly pedagogic babble-word 
(e.g. elam. atia, magy. atyala\her\ tijrk. ata, Basque a/tads.). Similarly tata. 

References: WP. I 44, WH. I 77, 850, Feist 62, 233, Trautmann 16. 
Page(s): 71 

Root / lemma: a 

Meaning: interjection 

Note: often new-created 

Material: Old Indie 5 exclamation of the meditation; 

gr. a exclamation of the displeasure, pain, astonishment; a, 66 exclamation of the 
surprise and complaint; in addition a^siv ' groan '; 

Latin a, a/7 exclamation of pain, the displeasure; 

Lithuanian a, aa exclamation of tlie surprise, tlie reprimand or mockery, a exclamation 
of the astonished question (of loud new creations); 

Gothic oexclamation of the displeasure, the admiration; Old High German o 
exclamation of pain; Middle High German d exclamation of pain, the admiration, 
suspended thus to the vocative. 

References: WP. I 1, WH. I 1, Loewe KZ. 54, 143. 
Page(s): 1 

Root / lemma: baba-, ( *bal-bal^ 

Meaning: barbaric speech 

Note: also bal-bal-, bar-bar-\N'\\h multiple dissimilations, onomatopoeic words 

Material: Old Indie bababa-karotiirom the crackle of the fire; gr. papal, nana! " upon my 

soul, damn it all! ' (out of it Latin babae, papae ds., as babaecalus perhaps " fop, dandy ' 

from *papaiKaAoc;), papa^w " chats, talks indistinctly ' (different is the sound conceivability 

from pappa^u) ' chirps '); 

Latin i6'aM(gloss.) 'he/ she shall make happy, gladden, bless', bab/ger {g\oss.) "stupid"; 

Italian babbo lather' (cymr. baban'k\6, child' is engl. loanword); 

Maybe alb. babalather' : bebe'chWd' 

alb. bebe^ the newborn kid, child'; engl. baby'k\6, child', Swedish Dialectal babbe'k\6, 

child, small boy ' (see also unter ba^mb- ' swell '), Middle High German babe, bobe^ 

missis; old woman, mother' (about buobe^ boy ' see below b^'/a/iar"brother'); Lithuanian 

boba. Old Church Slavic baba^ old woman '; serb. -Church Slavic b^bl'u, biDbatT stammer 

', serb. bobocem, bobotatT clatter with the teeth ' etc; Latvian bibinaf babble, murmur'. 

Old Prussian bebbinC mock '. 

balbal-{babal-, bambal-, from which bam-b-, bal-b- ): 

Old Indie ba/ba/a-karot/' stammers'; Bulgarian b/abo/'h, bb/bo/'h' chats ', Lithuanian 
balbasyti^ babble ', serbokr. blabositT stammer ', russ. bolobolitb " chat, drivel ', Czech 
beblati^ stammer'; Latin babulus' chatterbox, a babbler, fool '; Modern High German 
babbein, pappein, engl. babble, Norwegian bable, Swedish babbia. Old Icelandic babba 

Latin balbus^ stammering, babbling ', balbutio^ to stammer, stutter; hence in gen. to 
speak obscurely ', Old Indie balbutha-h name (actually " stammerer '); 

Mayne alb. {*balbus) be/bezoj ^babb\e' 

Czech bib' gannet, gawk ', biblati, b/eptat/' stammer, stutter'; serb. blebetati, Lithuanian 
b/ebent/ 'babb\e'; gr. pappaAu^w (out of it Latin bamba/o), pappaKu^w " my teeth are 
chattering', pappaivu) " stammers '. 

Mit -/•-.Old Indie barbara-h' stammering ', PI. name of non-Aryan people (provided that 
here ron Indo Germanic rand Old Indie /in ba/ba/a goes back to Indo Germanic /), gr. 
pappapO(; ' not Greek, speaking an unintelligible / incomprehensible language ' (from 
which Latin barbarus) "pappapocpwvoc; ' from incomprehensible language ' (barely after 
Weidner Gl. 4, 303 f. from babylon. barbaru' stranger, foreign, alien '), serb. brboljiti, 
brbljati ^babb\e' (see also under b'^^er-' to drone, buzz, hum '), Latin baburrus' foolish, silly 
', gr. papupTa(; 6 napapwpoq Hes. (about Latin burrae\x\\\es, nonsense' s. WH. I 124). 

Here perhaps also Old Indie bala-h' young, childish, simple ', possibly also Slavic 
relationship from russ. balakatb " twaddle ', balamutb " babbler, stunner, head turner '. - 
Unredupl. presumably also gr. pa^u) ' talks, patters ', pa^K; 'speech', paoKsiv Asysiv, 
KaKoAoyeTv Hes.; 

but gr. paoKavo^ ' invoking, imploring, exorcising; bewitching, casting a spell; spreading 
malicious gossip, speaking badly of; slanderous; envious, jealous ', paoKaivu) ' bewitches, 
envies ' has derived as magic word through borrowing from nordl. language, perhaps 
Thrak. or lllyrian, from to b^a- " speak ' belonging to present *b^a-skd' speaks, discusses ' 
(cpaoKU); this also in Hesychs paoKU)?) (Kretschmer Einl. 248 f.); 

Latin fascinum' giving it the evil eye, spell casting, invocation (exorcism (?)); the male 
member; initially (at first) as a preventative against being bewitched ', fascinare " enchant, 
bewitch, envy ' are borrowed from gr. and are adapted only in f- folk etymology in fan etc. 

After Specht Dekl. 133 here Latin Oscan bl-ae-sus' lisping, babbling '; different WH. I 

Maybe alb. (^phlas) /7as 'speak' not from Latin fabula'a narration, narrative'. 

References: WP. II 105 f., WH. I 90, 94, Trautmann 24 f. 
Page(s): 91-92 

Root / lemma: badjos 

Meaning: gold, brown 

Note: (only Latin and Irish; maybe from one, at most not Indo Germanic, language of 

ancient Europe?). 

Material: Latin badius^ brown, chestnutcolored, bay '; Old Irish buide^ o^o\^, yellow' 
(compare to Lautl. Old Irish /77a^ "field', Gen. muige; gall. Bodiocasses because of o rather 
for boduo-, about which under *b''^aut- " hit '). Gr. pa5iO(;, pa5£0(; derives from Latin 
References: WP. II 105, WH. I 92. 
Page(s): 92 

Root / lemma: ba/'ta or pa/M? 

Meaning: goatskin 

Material: the relation from gr. pairn " tent or skirt from (nanny goats) fur ' to Gothic pa/da i. 

" body skirt, petticoat ', Old Saxon peda'skirt', Old English pad' mantle ', Old High 

German pfe/t' shirt, shirtlike vestment, shirtlike piece of apparel ' is decided there, that 

Germanic word is borrowed from gr. words; 

from Germanic again Finnish pa/taan6 perhaps alb. petke, petek^ clothes '; gr. pairn is 
probably thrak. loanword or goes back to alb. forms in lllyrian * paital 
References: WP. II 104, Feist 381 f., Bonfante BSL. 36, 141 f. 
Page(s): 92-93 

Root / lemma: bak- 
Meaning: stick, to hit 

Material: Latin baculum " a staff, walking stick ' from * bac-(c)lom, older *bak-tlom\ vestiges 
of -cc-in Demin. bacillum, for which repeatedly delivers baccillum, compare also imbecillus 
"(without support) weak, frail ' from -baccillos. Pisani (REtlE. 3, 53) places baculum as 
*bat-lo-m\.o battud, that he considers as Oscan- Umbrian loanword (from *bakt-). 
Maybe Latin baca{bacca) -aei. "a berry, fruit; a pearl', bacalis, it'aca/e "berry-bearing 
(designation of the female laurel), MFr. {*bacale) Bacoule, n.f. Be/ette 'weaseV : alb. buk/e 
"weasel', bukur, bukurosh' good, pleasing, beautiful, slender (like a weasel)' : Rumanian 
bucuros'g\a6' : Gr. paKAa " club ' : Sardinian Campidanesu buccameli; bucchimeli 
"weasel, slender animal'. 
Similar to Slavic Polish formation /as "forest, rod' : /as/ra "slender, pretty girl'. 

Note: In many lang. the name of weasel and good come from the same root. 

Gr. pQKTpov, paKTPipia, pOKiripiov " a staff, walking stick ', paKiai iaxupoi Hes. (Contrast 
from imbecillus), probably also paKOv nsaov Hes. 

Gr. pQKAa TU|jnava (i.e. " club ') Hes., otherwise " club, shillelagh, stick ', is probably 
borrowed from Latin 

Middle English pegge, engl. peg^ pin, peg ', Modern High German pege/'po\e'; but 
Middle Low German pegeF mark in a vessel for liquids (from a ring or small existing 
plugs) ', Old English pgegelvn. " wine pot ', engl. paiV bucket ' from Middle Latin pagella^ 
col, column, yardstick '. 

Lithuanian baksteletT bump, puff', Latvian baksttV poke ' (or to onomatopoeic word 

Against it Old Irish bacc {n\r. bac) " stick, a crook ', cymr. bach^ corner, hook ', bret. 
bac'h " heel, stick ' (from " clutch, crutch of the stick '), are in the Island-Celtic or already in 
the occurred through Latin back-formations from baculum. 

References: WP. II 104 f., WH. I 92. 
Page(s): 93 

Root / lemma: bal-bal- 
See also: see below baba- 
Page(s): 93 

Root / lemma: bal-, balbal- 

Meaning: to shake, dance 


It seems Root/ lemma: bal- balbal-: "to shake, dance' derived from Root/ lemma: baba-, 

( *bal-bal^\ 'barbaric speech' through an Old Indie intermediary (see above). 

Material: Old Indie balbalTti^ whirls ', balva-^ crooked '; gr. (in Sicily) paAAi^w " dances ', 

out of it borrows Latin ballare " dance '. 

Maybe alb. {*bal-) valle^ dance' [common alb. b > i/shift] 

References: WP. II 109, WH. 1, 95, Wackernagel Old Indic-Gr. I 181. 

Page(s): 93 

Root / lemma: band- {*bhend-) 

Meaning: drop 


Considering Phrygian P£5u "water' : nasalized lllyrian B/ndus 'waier god' Root /lemma: 

band- {* bhend-): "drop' derived from a zero grade of Root/ lemma: au(e)-9, aued-, auer- 

{*akuent-)\ "to flow, to wet; water, etc' 

Material: Old Indie bindu-h "drop' (probably for *bandu-h under influence of fndu-h "drop'), 

related to corn, banne, banna, bret. banne'drop' (from which is borrowed Middle Irish 

banna, bainne^ drop, milk '), really Irish buinne' to gush forth, spring up, flood ' (common 

Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-)\ lllyrian FIG Bindus ( *Bendus), apul. fons Bandusiael 


Old Indie {*bhind-) b/ndu-b'drop' : lllyrian FIG B/ndus prove that lllyrian- Phrygian were the 

intermediaries of satem and centum languages. 

In Greek, between consonants and initially bi> e, h2> a, and h3> o. In Indo-lranian 

languages such as Sanskrit, each laryngeal becomes i. 

References: WP. 11110, Petersson Heterokl. 204 f., A. Mayer Gl. 29, 69 ff. 

Page(s): 95 

Root / lemma: bar-bar- 
See also: see below ba-ba- 
Page(s): 95 

Root / lemma: bata- 
Meaning: murmur, babble 

Material: Old Indie it's/a interjection of the astonishment ' oh, blow ', bata-h' weakling? '; 
abret. bat, nbret. bad^ numbing, dizziness ', bada, badaoui^ talk thoughtlessly ', bader, 
badaouer' mouth monkey', acorn, badus^ moonstruck ', gr. paiTapi^u) ' stammers ', 
paTToAoysu) ' chats pointless stuff ' (compare Blaft-Debrunner'' p. 40 appendices). 
References: W P. II 105. 
Page(s): 95 

Root / lemma: bau 

Meaning: sound of barking 

Material: Gr. pau pau ' dog barking ', pau^u) " barks, blasphemes ', BauPcb ' bugbear, 

Hecate ', Latin baubor, -arV to bark gently or moderately '; a little bit differently uses 

Lithuanian baubti^ bawl, bellow ' from ox, baubiso^XWo God as " bawler ', serb. bau bau ^ 

fright word ', baukati^ get a fright ' etc 

Maybe alb. {*baubi) bubi^ dog'. 

Gr. paupaco "sleep' is, like paupcbv " penis', folklike code word. 

References: WP. II 104, WH. I 99, W. Oehl IF. 56, 119. 
Page(s): 95 

Root / lemma: baf^b-, b^a^bh-, pse^p- 
Meaning: to swell 

Note: (as ba>^mb- s.d.) 

Material: Old Indie pippala-h^ berry, paradise fig tree ', pippalaka-h^ breast nipple '. piplu- 
h " pimple, mole, mark on the body ("witch's tits" - any kind of mark on the body that a 
witch could use to suckle a demon) ' (probably actually " blister, vesicle '); Latin papula^ a 
pimple, vesicle ', papilla 6s. " nipple, teat, breast '; Lithuanian papas^ nipple, teat, breast, 
tit ', popa^ ulcer ', pupuolo^ thick bud ' (^can be Redukt.-stem to a, or assimilated in 
following uo, but also the root derived form pup- ). 

Unchanged or neologism Swedish-Norwegian Dialectal pappe^ women's breast ', 
Middle English pappe, engl. pap^ nipple, teat, breast '; besides u- forms see below p(h)u-^ 
inflate, swell '. 

Also besides under baba- co'r(\b\v\e6 babble and child words, like engl. baby, stand 
Middle High German buobenP\. " feminine breasts ', West Flemish babbe^i^ro\NVc\, 
swelling, lump ' (Indo Germanic b^^ or in the onomatopoeic word unpostponed b) which will 
belong from the image of the inflated cheeks in our circle. 

References: WP. II 107. 
Page(s): 91 

Root / lemma: ba>^mb- 

Meaning: a kind of noise 

Material: Gr p6iJpO(; m. (out of it Latin bombus) ' a boom, deep hollow noise ', p6|jpu^, - 

UK0(; " fleas ', poiJpuKia ' humming insects ', poppuAr) ' narrow-necked vessel ' (as " 

gurgling '), poppuAi6(; or -uAioc; " bumblebee ' (and " narrow necked vessel '); about 

papipaivoj " clatters with the teeth; stammer, lisp ' see below baba-. 

Maybe Italian bombo : Spanish abejorro; bombo : French bourdon : Aragones bombolon : 
Asturian babaron: Catalan borinot: Galician abellon: Latin Bombus terrestris : Valencian 
borinoV bumble bee; bumblebee ' : Lithuanian bimbalas, bimbllas A\ban'\an : bumballa 
gadfly, horsefly '. 

alb. bumbulit " it thunders '; 

Germanic with by neologism prevented sound movement Old Icelandic bumba^ drum ', 
Danish old bomme, bambe^ drum ', holl. bommen\o drone ' (compareauch Modern High 
German bum bum, a little bit similarly Modern High German bammein, bimmeln^ ring, 
sound '); 

Lithuanian bambetr lium ', in ablaut bimpti6s., bimbalas, birhbilas^ gadfly, horsefly '; 
russ.-Church Slavic buben-b, bubon-b^ drum ', russ. bubn/tb' chat, babble', poln. bgben' 
drum '. 

References: WP. II 107, Trautmann 26, WH. 1111. 
Page(s): 93-94 

Root / lemma: bde/- 

Meaning: to suck 

Material: Gr. p5aAAco ' sucks ', p5£AAa " leech '; Modern High German zu//en' suck in a 

sucking sac ', zu/p " piece of cloth used for soaking up liquid ', Dutch tu//en ' drink, booze, 

sup ', Modern High German tulken^ suck, drink with large gulps, quaff? Kretschmer KZ. 


very uncertain because of more similar Germanic words like Norwegian tuna^ drink a lot ' 

(see Falk-Torp under tylde). If the connection applies, was Indo Germanic initial sound bd-, 

or it is gr. p - perhaps in child language? - from ni-= sni shortened prefix {be- "suck'?). 

References: WP. II 119. 

Page(s): 95 

Root / lemma: bed- 

Meaning: to swell? 

Material: Old Indie badva-m^ troop, heap; a certain high number '; Old Church Slavic (etc) 

bedro^ thigh '; Armenian port{*bodro) " navel, belly, center'. 

Wrong etymology, probably it derived from Root/ lemma: b^eA'^-l: "to pierce, dig see 


Maybe here Swedish Dialectal patte^ woman's breast, nipple ', isl. patti^ small child ', 
engl. pat^ small lump (from butter) '; the forms standing besides with Germanic b-. Old 
Danish a/'Si6'5//e "buttock', 

Swedish Dialectal batt^ of small heaps ' then showed the same auslaut fluctuation as 
b(h)eu-, b(h)u-' inflate, swell ', wherewith root b{h)ed- (: b(h)u-d-, -/-) had the origin from 
the image of the inflated cheeks together. 

Latin bassus' stout, fertile, fat ', roman " low, menial ', stays away. 

References: WP. II 109, WH. I 98, 477, 851, Kretschmer Gl. 22, 258 f. 
Page(s): 96 

Root / lemma: bel-1 

Meaning: to cut off 

Material: Perhaps Armenian pelem^ excavates, digs ', at most also Middle Irish belach^ 

cleft, gap, pass, way ' and Celtic *bolko-, -5 in cymr. bwlchm. ' fissure ', bret. boulc'h6s.. 

Middle Irish bolgi. (das ^ after to/g6s.)7 

References: WP. II 110; about not existierendes Old Indie i6'5/'5"0ffnung' s. Wackernagel 
under Debrunner KZ. 67, 171 f. 
Page(s): 96 

Root / lemma: be/-2 

Meaning: strong 

Material: Old Indie bala-m n. " force, strength, power ', balTyan " stronger ', balistha-h " the 

strongest '; gr. PeAtIcjov, peAiEpoq " better ', p£ATiaTO(;, pEAiaToq " best ' (this -t- by 

reorganization from *p£Ai(ji)v, *p£AiaTO(; after (p£pT£po(; etc); 

Latin debilis^ feeble, weak '; Old Church Slavic (*bol-Ci)is-ios) boljbjb "greater', bo/Je Adv. " 

more, rather, to a greater extent, plus ' and ' very, more '. Uncertain Dutch-ndd. -Frisian pa/ 

" motionless, steadfast '. 

With lengthened grade Old Indie bala-h^ young, childish ', m. ' boy, kid, child', f. " girl '. 

Maybe in /-grade alb. {*bala) bila' girl ', it'/r'son, boy' : Old Indie bala-h, where 1/ rare 

References: WP. II 1 10 f., WH. I 326 f. 
Page(s): 96 

Root / lemma: bend-, bijd-no- 

Meaning: spike, needle, penis, nail, horn etc. 

Note: perhaps in following Celtic and Germanic words: 

Material: Middle Irish benn^ horn, summit ' {*bnd-no- or *bend-no-?), bennach^ pointed ', 

cymr. bannm. ' hill, summit, horn {*bnd-no-)\ Middle Breton ban^ eminence, overhang, 

haughtiness, pride ', gall. *ande-banno-> French auvenV (*protection roof) canopy, shield, 

shelter' (actually ' big horn '), Jud Rom. 49, 389 f., gall. dial, lacus Benacus, if for 

Bennacus, " the horned ' (Sirmione), from * benno- {\v\6o Germanic *bend-no- or *bnd-no-)\ 

(common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), West- Flemish p/nf^ cusp, point ', Middle Low German 

yO//7/" penis'. Middle High German (Middle Low German) p/nz^ awl ', Old English p/nte/ 

"penis' (engl. pintle a\so still ' peg '), Norwegian p/n to/ 'pen\s', wherefore probably with 

ablaut Modern High German-Bavarian pfouzer, pfunzer' sliarpened cudgel, club '; with 

Celtic forms to suitable /7-suffix {*penn- from *bencl-n-) Old Low German pin " wooden pin, 

peg, small stake ', Middle Low German pin, pinne^ pin, point, nail, peg ', Middle High 

German pfinnet " nail ', Old English pinn^ peg, staff, stick'. Late Old Icelandic /0/>7/7/m. 

ds., ablaut. *pann- in East Frisian penne= pinne, ndd. pennen^ latch a door (with a bolt) ', 

Old English on-pennian' open (*the pen)', engl. pen^ enclose so as to prevent from 

escaping; shut in, confine (shut in a pen) ', Old English pennm. " pen, fold '. 

Maybe alb. pende 'pa\r of oxen tied together' [common alb. n > /70' shift] homonym to alb. 

yoeA7o'e"feather' : Latin yoe/7A7a "feather'. 

References: Johansson KZ. 36, 347 f. (also against borrowing of Pinne kom Latin pinna, in 

which Kluge''"' sticks). 

WP. II 109 f. 

Page(s): 96-97 

Root / lemma: b(e)u-1, bYe>-(*bheHu- > b^Hu-IH-t) 

Meaning: expr. sound of hitting 

Material: Npers. bOm'owV; Armenian bu, buec'owV (without consonant shift in 

onomatopoeic word), gr. ^(jaq m., pu^a f. 'eagle owl ', pu^siv " cry like an 'eagle owl ', Latin 

bubo^ eagle owl ', Bulgarian buii^ eagle owl ', russ. buchatb " shout vaguely and 

persistently long '; 

Maybe alb. {*bupH) burowV : Rumanian bufnita; buiia'owV 

Lithuanian baubiys^ great bittern ', baubti^ roar, bellow ', bubenu^ drones vaguely '; Latin 

butio^ great bittern ', buteo^ a falcon's kind '; gr. pon " call, cry, shout ', poaw ' shouts, 

cries ' (out of it Latin boare^ shout, cry '), pojOTpeu) ' call, cry for help ' (*poFaaTp£U)), 

seem to be shaped from such bu- as rhyme words to yon, yoaoj (see root gou-). 

With ending in a guttural sound: Old Indie bul<-l<ara-li^ roar of the lion ', bul<l<ati^ barks ' 
(Avestan bucahin-' he who is prone to howling and snarling / hissing ', buxti- ' howl, 
hissing '?), gr. puKTr|<; " howling '. 

Maybe Hungarian bagoiy^o\N\ (*horned bird?)' 

Perhaps Middle Irish bochna^sea' ('*roaring breaker'; basic form *boul<ania)\ Lithuanian 
bul<cius^ stammerers ', Latvian bul<slseV resound vaguely '; Slavic bul<- (from zero grade 
of *boul<-) in russ. -Church Slavic bucafi^6rone, roar', serb. bucem, bul<ati^ roar', bucTm, 
bucati^ roar (from the sea) '; 

Maybe alb. {*bucati) bugas' roar (from the sea) ' 

*buk-\r\ russ. etc byk^buW (*roarof the bull)'; about angebl. *buk-\v\ Old Church Slavic 
biicela, bbce/a'bee' (compare russ. bycatb " hum, from bees ') see below b^ei- and WH. I 
555; nasalized poln. b^kac^ talk in a low voice, murmur ', bqk^ great bittern ', old 'cry like 
a great bittern (bird that booms/ roars like an ox during mating '; in the application to vague 
blow push russ. bukatb, buchatb ( *bouk-s-) " bump, hit that resounds ', buch " fall! ', serb. 
buhnuti^ break out', busiti^ hit, throw, fall, fall with noise ', Lithuanian bukuoti, Latvian 
bauks^ description of sound produced by a strong blow ', presumably also it'^/ra "punch' 
(also Lithuanian bukus^ dull' here as " become dull through hitting '?); Middle High 
German buc^ blow, push ' (without sound movement by continual running beside 
neologism), puchen, buchen. Modern High German pochen, Dutch beuken ' hit, bump ', 
Swedish boka, bauka, buka ds. (however, also " dig, spade, thrash about ', as Old 
Icelandic bauka, this versch. word? see also WH. I under fau)^, engl. to poke ^ bump, sting 
', Norwegian pok, pauk^ crude cudgel, club ', perhaps Middle Irish bua/a/m^h\{' {*bougl ..., 
or to bh^^-o'-'hit'). 

Maybe from the extended Root / lemma: b(e)u-1, b^feju-: 'expr. sound of hitting' derived 

Root/ lemma: b^eg-, b^eng-: "to break' in: alb. {*beuka) buka 'bread' : Phrygian peKoq 

'bread', actually "crumb'. 

References: WP. II 112f., WH. 1111, 119, 124,470. 

Page(s): 97-98 

Root/ lemma: b(eJu-2, b^feJu-{*b^eHu- > b^Hu-IH-t) 
Meaning: to swell, puff 

Note: Explosive sound of the inflated cheek, like pu-, phusee d .; running beside primeval 
creation crosses the sound-lawful development, so that e.g. Germanic forms with /7^-from 
Indo Germanic bu-, but from unpostponed Indo Germanic or new p^- are explainable. 
From the concept of the inflated cheek the meaning " swell, plump bloated (then convex) 
of the most different kind ', also " make bulge, stuff, darn ' and " blow, cough '. Originally 
differently the onomatopoetic words b(e)u-1iox vague onomatopoetic sounds and bu-' lip, 
kiss '. 

Material: Gr. pO ettI tou [JsyaAou sAsysTO Kai Icbcppajv pupa, avri tou \xzaia Kai nAripn Koi 
IJsyaAa EM; presumably here also pouvoq " hill ' (dialect), pouviac; " a turnip kind ', pouvi^u) 
" piles up ', pouviov " any plant of the Umbelliferae family '; redupl. poupcbv " the groin, 
glands near the genitals, part, in morbidly swollen state '; nisi, pua' blow, breathe '. 

Reduplicates as pupa, poupcbv also Lithuanian bubsu, bubsetr throw up bubbles ' (from 
water or fermenting dough), Middle Low German bubbeln^ throw up bubbles, surge ', 
Swedish bobba^ bombast, grandiloquence, fin, insect ', bubba^ louse ' and " Trollius 
europaeus ' (with Indo Germanic b^ or with consonant shift prevented by new creation of 
tS), Old Norse byfa(^\i'^(jQ)^idn^ " big, lumpy foot', Norwegian dial, buve, buva^ thicker, 
uncouth, clumsy person, scarecrow, also a word for male member '. 

With certain b'^-: Old Indie bhu-ri-h^ rich, a lot, immense ', compounds bhuyas-, 
bhavTyas-, Superl. bhuyistha-h, Avestan buiri-^ plentiful, full, complete ', compounds-Adv. 
baiyo^ (more, timewise =) longer, on longer than ', Superl. boistem' most, greatest 
number of things, very much, most possible '; Armenian bavel, boveF suffice '; Lithuanian 
burys^ heap (houses), amount (sheep, birds, also rain)', Latvian bura^ heap (people)'; 

without Asuffix: Old Church Slavic bujb {*b^ouio-) " wild, cruel, brainless ', russ. bujnyj^ 
growing vehemently, wildly, excessively '; from here ndd. bo, boje, Dutch bui^ gust, gust of 
wind, shower '?; 

Maybe alb. buje^iuss' a Slavic loanword. 

gr. cpoa s^avGnpara £v tco acbpari Hes.; with lengthened grade *bhd^-gr.-lonian (p(ji)'i'5£(;, 
Attic (p(I)5£(; ' blisters '; gr. cpaToiy^, cpauaTiy^ " blister, bubble ' (with Abl. ai/ besides ou). 

Also the root b^ei/- " become, originate ' is probably developed from " swell ', compare 
the meaning of Old Indie prabhuta-h' rich, numerous ' (: bhavati) with that of bhuri-h. 

extensions with /are perhaps: Old Indie buri-h, /?i///-/7(unbel.) " buttock, vulva ' = 
Lithuanian bulls {a\so bule, bul&) ' buttocks ', gr. puAAa pEpuapEva Hes., Middle Low 
German poir head, point, treetop ' ( *bulno-). Middle Low German pull, yoo//" (bloated) shell, 
pod ', engl. pulse^ legume '; changing through ablaut Middle Low German puyr bag ', 
/O^y/a "swelling, lump, growth'; with b^-: Gothic ufbauljan, only in participle ufbaulldaF 
(*inflated), conceited, haughty ', Old High German paulai. ' a pimple, bubble ', Old English 
byle. Old High German pulla. Middle High German it*/^/© 'swelling, blister'. Old Norse beyla 
" hump, outgrowth ', Old Swedish bolin, bulin^ swollen '; Old Irish it'o/ac/? 'swelling, blister' 
{*b^ulak-, at most b^ol- to b^eA 'to swell'); Armenian boil. Gen. PI. bullc^ crowd, amount, 
herd ', serb. buljitr open the eyes wide in a stare, to goggle '. 

Dental extensions: gr. purava k6v5uAoi, 6i 5£ ppurava Hes. (but purivri Aayuvoq n aM''^- 
TapavTivoT Hes., origin Germanic-rom. kinship of Modern High German Butte, Latin buttis^ 

barrel, cask, keg, cask', corresponds gr. nurivn " demijohn, wickerbottle, carboy ', see pu-^ 
inflate, bloat '); here probably poln. buta^ pride ', bucic si§^ brag, boast '. 

Old Indie budbuda-h^ blister, bubble ', gr. pu^ov ttukvov, guvstov, yaupov 5s Kai pisya 
Hes. ( *budJo-, perhaps ' distended, bloats '? Yet see below pu^nv S. 101); Norwegian pute 
" pillow, cushion ', puta^ bulky woman ', Swedish puta^ be inflated ', /0^/5 'pillow, cushion' 
(dial. " female pudenda '; with the same application perhaps gr. puTTO(; YuvaiK6(; ai5oTov 
Hes.), engl. to pouV push the lips forward, usu. as an expression of displeasure, 
sullenness, or flirtatiousness; show displeasure, sulk ' ("*to swell'), pouf a young domestic 
fowl, a chicken, a young turkey, pheasant, pigeon, guinea-fowl ', Old English sele-pute (is. 
{capita, actually ' big-head '), Dutch puit^ frog '; 

with Germanic -d- (-A«-): ndd. puddig^ swollen ', Old English p^o'^c "swelling, lump, 
growth, wart ', Middle English ndd. podde ' toad ' with not yet cleared meaning 
development Old English pudd^ water ditch ', Middle English podel,ev\Q\. puddle. Modern 
High German Dialectal PfudeF a small pool of muddy water, esp. one formed on a road or 
path after rain ', as also (with Germanic t) Norwegian Dialectal p0yta, westf. pdt{*pauta) " 
slop, puddle, pool '; as a convex curvature in addition perhaps Old English pott. Old Frisian 
Middle Low German pot^ pot, pan ' (different Kluge''"' under Pott); 

compare Armenian poytn. Gen. putan^ pot, soup pot, jug ' from *beud-n-ox *boud-n-. 

With Germanic b-\ Old High German butil. Middle High German b/ute/'sac, bag, pocket'; 
isl. budda^sac, bag, purse'. Old English budda^ dung beetle ', Middle English budde^ bud 
' and ' beetle, chafer', budden^ redound ' ('*to swell'), engl. bud^bu(i', /Oit'^o'Vedound', 
Middle Low German buddich^ thickly inflated ', nndd. budde^ louse, cock chafer grub; 
fright picture '; Middle Low German buddelen, bod(d)elen^ throw bubbles, foam ', 
Norwegian Dialectal boda^ roar, bubble, from the water '; Old Norse bodi^ breaker, surge, 
breakers, surf'; Middle High German butte. Modern High German Hagebutte, 

besides with Germanic -tt- Middle Low German botte, Dutch i6>c»/"bud'. Middle High 
German butze^ lump, mucus; goblin, fright figure ', Modern High German Butze(n), Butz^ 
fright figure; lumps, mucus, crowd; cores ', etc, ndd. butt^ clumsy, dull, coarse ', Middle 
High German butzen^io swell'; 

besides with -P after long vowel or diphthong Middle High German buzen " swell, jut out, 
bulge (from the belly, the eyes) ', Old High German bozo^ a bundle of flax ', Middle High 
German boze^ ds.; ridiculous person, knave, boy '; 

perhaps Lithuanian budele^ a l<ind of mushroom ', Slavic *bbc/b/a'\r\ Czech bed/a' a 
saprophytic fungus of the order Agaricales having an umbrella-lil<e cap with gills on the 
underside ', bec//yP\. ' oral fungi, funguettes in oral or nasal cavity '; from Armenian here 
besides poytn (see above) also ptuf, Gen. ptioy^ fruit ' and ptuk. Gen. ptkan ' green 
branch, young shoot ' and " breast, nipple, teat '. 

Old Irish bu/den^troop, multitude, crowd', cymr. byddin, abret. bod/n ds. has root-like u 
and belongs likewise here. 

Labial extension: Old English pyffan'b\o\N out, puff out', engl. puff^ puff, blow, be 
inflated ', Norwegian puffa, ndd. puffen. 

guttural extensions: 

Latin bucca^ the cheek, esp. when puffed out. Transf., a declaimer, bawler; a parasite; 
a mouthful '; Middle High German pfuchen. Modern High German (p)fauchen {q,2x\ contain 
unpostponed Indo Germanic p, compare Lithuanian puksti^ pant, gasp, wheeze '); 
Swedish puk^ swelling, lump, growth, tubers ', Old Norse pokivn. "sac, bag, sack, bag', 
engl. poke 6s., Modern High German dial. Pfoch'sac, bag'. Old English pohha, pocca 
"sack, bag, sac, bag', engl. poc/re'/" pocket', mndd. nndd. pogge, puggelrog, toad; 
swelling, lump, growth in the abdomen with cows and mares ', Old English pocc^bWster', 
Modern High German (actually ndd.) Pocke, dial. P/c»c/7e "blister'; Old Norse pukiTn. " devil 
', Old English puca, pucel, engl. puck^ fairy demon, ghost ' (from Germanic derived Irish 
puca^ ghost ', perhaps also Latvian pJ/r'/s "dragon'); zero grade ndd. pok^ subnormal 
person in growth ', Norwegian Dialectal pauk^ small, weak person, knave, boy ' (about 
Gothic p^^^5 "sac, bag, purse'. Old Norse pungr. Old English pung ds. and scaz-(p)fung 
"purse' s. though Feist 385). 

With Germanic b: Middle English nengl. big{*bugja-) "thick, big, large, conceited '; 
Norwegian Dialectal bugge^ mighty man ', Middle English bugge {ev\ig\. bug) " a lump of 
(semi-)dried nasal mucus, booger; chafer, bedbug; bugbear, spectre, bogeyman ', Modern 
High German Dialectal bogg(e) " booger, the core in fruit or the carpels of an apple or a 
pear, bugbear, spectre, bogeyman '. 

Here presumably Germanic *buh- (Indo Germanic *\i'^uk-) in Old High German buhiF 
foreland, hill ', Old Icelandic b6la\. "swelling, blister, shield boss ' {*buhldn-) and *buk- 
(Indo Germanic *b'^ug-) in Swiss Bucki^ keg ', engl. buck^ bucket, pale ' and Old Icelandic 
bukr^ belly, body '; Old English it'Jc "belly, crock, pitcher'. Old High German buh. Modern 
High German Bauch, in addition Latvian bugarains^ tubercular ', buga^ hornless cow ', 

it'^o'z/5 'swelling, blister, unripe Fruit'; but Lithuanian bauzas 'hom\ess\ buzys " 
scarecrow, bogie, spectre ', it'Jzys 'bedbug, louse', buoze' club, mace, joint, pinhead ' {uo 
probably from ou, compare above S. 99 cpaji'Ssc;) can contain Baltic z as single-linguistic 
forms and are based on the unextended root. 


Gr. pOv£U) > fpOveaco, to u: s. SchwyzerGr. Gr. I 692), puu) (*puau)), pspuopsvoq, 
^umoq " to cram, fill, chock, stuff, ram up ', puarpa, pua|ja ' bung, clot, thrombus ', pu^nv 
(pua-5r|v) ' crushed, thrusted, thronged, full '; alb. mbush' fill '; Middle Irish buas^ sac, 
bag, pocket, belly' {*b^ousto-, compare Old Icelandic beyst/" ham '), 


alb. mbush " fill ' [common alb. shift b- > mb-]. 

Old Norse puss ^ pocket, sac, bag', isl. pose, Old English pusa, posa. Old High German 
pfoso'sac, bag'; with the more originary meaning ' blow, inflate, bloat, to swell'. Old 
Swedish pysa^ pant, sniff, snort ', Middle High German pfusen^ pdx\\., sniff, snort, sneeze ', 
sich pfusen' self inflating, inflated ', Modern High German Dialectal yO/^i/se/7, Old English 
pos^ catarrh, waterfall ', engl. pose^ a cold in the head, catarrh ', mndd. pusten^pant, 
sniff, snort', puster' bellows ', Modern High German p^s/e/? (actually ndd.) Dialectal 
pfausten. Old Norse pustr^ slap in the face, box on the ear ' (as French souffletio 
soufflei); Norwegian pJs "swelling, lump, growth', peysa, pusna^ to bloat, bulge, swell ', 
Swiss yO/Js/ig "swollen'. Modern High German Pfausback, with ndd. aniaut Pausback 
(besides Bausback\N\Vc\ Germanic b-, see below); Norwegian Dialectal pusling^ toddler, 
fairy demon, ghost, goblin ', Swiss P/bs/ "toddler, clumsy, stupid person ' ("short and 
thick'); Norwegian pus, p0ysa^ mud puddle ', Old Norse pyss6s. (in place names). 

Mit Germanic b{= Indo Germanic b^, partly perhaps unpostponed or the new b): Old 
English bosom {Gerrc\an\c *bus-mo{nJ-), Old High German buosam. Middle High German 
buosem, buosen. Modern High German Busen, Middle High German bus^ vanity, 
arrogance, pomposity, flatulence, bloatedness, inflatedness, bumptiousness, 
conceitedness, vaingloriousness, swelling fullness ', busen^ indulge oneself. Modern 
High German bausen^ to booze, bouse, quaff, tipple, carouse, swell', Baus^ abundance, 
tumor, inflation ', Bausback, Bausch^ swelling, turgescent, bulgy cushion, stuffed breast ', 
Middle High German /?Jsc/7" bulge; bead; lip; torus; wreath; roll; bulb, wad, plumper ', 
Old Norse busilkinna' woman ( with chubby cheeks), (under the influence of common 
Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), a chubby-cheeked woman ', Norwegian baus^ proud, rollicking. 

wanton, violent, quick-tempered ', Old High German bosr stonyhearted, bad ', Modern 
High German bose. Middle English bosten, nengl. to boast ^ brag, boast ' ('*blow up '), 
Modern High German beysinn^ thick, wide and large (from clothes)', bust/nn ds., (under 
the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), Old Icelandic beyst/^ham', Modern High 
German Dialectal ^5^5/ ' bulge; bead; lip; torus; wreath; roll; bu\b ', bauste(r)n^\.o 
swell'. Old High German biost. Modern High German Biest-milch (actually ' fat milk '), Old 
English boost, bysting, engl. beastngs, b/est/ngs ds., Norwegian Dialectal budda {* buzdon- 
) ds. (insecure is, whether Swedish Dialectal buska^ fresh, fermenting beer ' and 
associated with it as *beuza- is to be added Old High German bior. Old English beor^ 
beer ' as ' frothing at the mouth, foaming, bubble-throwing, blistering '; about other 
interpretations of beer see Kluge''"' and Weigand-Hirt). 

Russ. buchnutb 'to bloat, bulge, swell, gush, well up', sloven, buhnem, buhniti\o bloat, 
bulge, swell, sich inflate, bloat', buhor^ vesicle, blister', kasch. bucha^ pride, hauteur' 
( *bausa). 

There is used probably the following group which meaning " blasting forth, sallying forth ' 
from 'swell' can be developed: Old Icelandic bysia " stream out with big power '; 
Norwegian Dialectal b0ysa " storm forth '; Swedish busa " dismay, hurtle out '; East Frisian 
busen^ be violent, roar, make a noise, attack ' (and ' live the high life, high on the hog / or 
high off the hog, have a luxurious lifestyle ', compare above Middle High German busen 
"indulge oneself), busterig^ stormy ', Old Church Slavic bystrb ' board up; strand; take 
away; bring; mishit; wallop; thrash ', russ. bystryj^ fast, sharp sighted, rapid from the 
current ' i^b'^us-ro^. 

References: WP. II 114 f., Trautmann 28, 39. 
Page(s): 98-102 

Root / lemma: be, ba 
Meaning: sheep's bleating 

Material: Gr. pn, Latin bebo, -are^ bleat, shout, from a young deer', balareaud Vulgar 
Latin belare^ bleat ', Modern High German bah, Slavic (e.g. kir.) bekatT bleat ', Latvian 
b^, b^ku, biku\'(\\Bx\. ' bleating, grousing, blatant ', Old Icelandic bekri' Aries, ram ', Swiss 
backeln^ {*irom the alpine chamois)'; similarly Old Irish beiccithir^ bellow, roar', cymr. 
be/cb/o^be\\o\N', perhaps also Old Indie bekura\o\ce, sound, tone', all single-linguistic 
neologisms. Similarly Old Irish be/cc/tb/r' roars', cymr. be/cb/o ^rr\ug\re', perhaps Old Indie 
bekura' voice, tone ', all single-linguistic new formations. 
References: WP. II 121, WH. I 95, 99. 

Page(s): 96 

Root / lemma: b^ab^a 

Meaning: bean 

Note: compare to Sachlichen Hoops Waldb. 350, 400 f., 464 f., Hehn KItpfl.s 221, 570, 

SchraderRL.2 159f. 

Material: Latin faba {FaWscan haba) " the broad bean ' (in addition the PN Fabius, Fabidius 

etc and the island Fabaria), 

Note: common Latin ph- > f- shift 

russ. etc bobiD, Old Prussian babo^s. Probably reduplicated babble-word and as 'inflated, 

bulged pod, tumescence ' related to gr. cpoKoq m. 'lentil': alb. bathe\. 'broad bean' 


Note: common alb. shift -kh > -th also -gh > -dh 

Also Old Icelandic baun. Old English bean. Old High German i6>o/7a'bean' {Baunonia 

Frisian island by Plinius) have originated probably through dissimilation from *ba^na\.o 



The assumption of a duplicated Root/ lemma: bhabf^a (b^a-bha) seems to be wrong. 

Common Latin /r"'>yO corresponds to common gr. ^"'>/?: gr. cpoTpoc; 'clean, gleaming', 

cpoipau), cpoipa^u) 'clean', acpoipavroq ' smudges ' (*bhc>/g"'-c»-), acpiKToq, acpiKTp6(; fb^/g"'-) 

'impure, unclean'. That means gr. (paK6(; m. 'lentil' and alb. bathed, 'broad bean' derived 

from an intermediary root (*bha^"'a) and that one from Root/ lemma: b^e/j^"'-: 'to shine'. 

Obviously Germanic forms *baPna 6er\ye6 from lllyrian *bathna {a\b. bathei. ' broad bean 

'); common alb. nasalization t > nt > n. 

References: WP. II 131, WH. I 436. 

Page(s): 1 06 

Root / lemma: b^ag-1 
Meaning: to divide 

Material: Old Indie bhajati^ allocates, apportions, divides ' = Avestan bag- {bazat) ' be 
determined as an interest ', Old Indie bhaga-h^ property, luck ', Avestan baga-, baya- n. ' 
favorable interest, attractive lot '; Old Indie bhaga-h^ allocator, master, mister, epithet of 
Savitar and another Aditya ' = Avestan baya-' master, mister, god ', npers. bay' god ' : 
Old Church Slavic bogt 'god' (formal also = gr. -cpayoc;);. 
Maybe suffixed alb. {*baY-) baget/'sheep (animal god)' 

Proto Indian (Mitanni) PN Bagarriti (=*b'"aga-rTti-^ blessing stream '), GN Bagbartu{= 
*b'"aga-b^rt- " blessing donator '), klein Old Saxon VN BaYa5a(F)ov£c; (= *b'"aga-da-uon-' 
making a donation '), Kretschmer KZ. 55, 95, Gl. 18, 232; 

Old Indie bhakta-m "repast, meal' = Avestan it'SA'/a- participle "as alloted lot '. n. " assigned 
lot, fate determination, esp. bad luck '; Old Indie bhaksati^ enjoys, consumes ' = Avestan 
baxsaiti^ has or gives lot ', Desid. Old Indie bhiksate " requests '; 

Phrygian BayaToq Zziio, Opuyioq Hes. (perhaps of Iranian origin); or from to gr. cpnyoc; " 
oak '? S. under b'^ago-s, 

gr. cpaysTv "eat', aro-cpayot; " eating grain ', etc; because of gr. cpayovsg aiay6v£(;, yvaGoi 
Hes. perhaps here (Much Zfdt Wtf. 2, 283) Old Saxon {kinni-) bako, Modern High German 

Slavic *bogh^\o\! in Old Church Slavic ubogh, nebogh^ poor', bogath^ucb'. Old Church 
Slavic bogi) "god' (proto extension or Iran, loanword); GN Dazdi-bogi) " bestowing wealth '; 

Tocharian A pak, B pake "deal, portion', A pagim "treasure, tribute'. 

References: WP. 11127 f., W. Schuize KZ. 60, 138 = Kl. Schr. 469. 
Page(s): 1 07 

Root / lemma: b^ag-2 
Meaning: sharp 

Material: Cretan cpaypoq " whetstone ', OKovn, cpo^oc; " pointy heads, pointedheads, 
pointheads ' (from *cpa^6(; after Kot,oc, " crooked *(with a pointed angle'?) would compare 
from Liden Arm. -stem 57 ff. with Armenian bark {cou\6 be = cpaypoc;) " bitter, sharp from 
taste; violent, angry ' compared, yet bark cou\6 belong also to Indo Germanic *b'^org"o-s . 
References: WP. II 128. 
Page(s): 1 07 

Root/ lemma: b^ai&^a {*b'^a'c^^eb2 > bhardheh2) 

Meaning: beard 


Root/ lemma: b^a/6'^a: "beard' derived from the fussion of suffixed Root/ lemma: g^er-l, 

g^era-: "to devour; throat' + zero grade g^fhj/-^ snake, worm, fish' Root/ lemma: ang''(h)i-\ 

snake, worm, *fish'. 


Maybe alb. Geg {* g^er- g^ha) verza^ (*throat), gill offish' Latvian M/'o'a'gill offish' : 
Latvian: M/r^a 'beard' [fa]; barzda {(i^vaX) "beard' [fa] : Greek ppayxici, papavxia " gill of 
fish' = Root / lemma: g^er-l, g^era- : " to devour; throat ' + zero grade of Root / lemma: 
ang''(h)i- {* eg^hi-, og'^hi- and egh/-): "snake, worm, *fish (*hedgehog = snake eater)' 
Latin barba'beard' (assimil. from *far-ba)\ 

Old High German bart. Old English beard^beard' m., therefrom Old High German barta. 
Old Saxon barda. Old Icelandic barda^ hatchet, beards ', because the iron stands like a 
beard in the handle; from the Germanic Old Church Slavic brady^ axe, hatchet '; 

Old Church Slavic brada^beard', russ. boroda ds., also "chin', Serbo-Croatian brada, 
Akk. bradu 'beard' etc; 

Old Prussian bordus'beard' (unclear after Trautmann 27); 

Latvian barda and (see to zo' under) barzda, Lithuanian barzda, Akk. barzd^' beard'; 

Latin (*bhargh"eh2-to-) barbatus. Old Church Slavic bradati,, Lithuanian barzdotas 
"having a beard, bearded', [common Latin-lllyrian gh" > b-, Bakltic g^"- > dz-]. 

Maybe Rumanian barbat'man, jack, male, husband, spouse (bearded man?)'. 

Lithuanian and partly Latvian -zd- is probably through the analogy the Baltic correlation 
{*barzda) caused from Old Church Slavic brazda, russ. borozda' furrow '. 

Maybe alb. brazda' furrow ' a Slavic loanword. 

just as Slavic *b'brb " millet, sorghum ' (see below b^ar-' bristle ear ') will be based 
also Indo Germanic *b'"ar-d^a "beard' on *b^ar- " bristle, stand up ', next to which extension 

References: WP. II 135, WH. I 96, Specht Dekl. 87. 
Page(s): 1 1 

Root / lemma: b^arek*-or b^grek"- 

Meaning: to stuff 

Material: Gr. cppaaaw, cppaTTOj (*(ppaKi(jo from *b\rk"-) " encloses, crams into, crowds 

together ', common gr.-lllyrian -ks- > -ss-\ 

(ppaKT6(; " locked in ', with secondary y: Aor. scppaynv (Scliwyzer Gr. Gr. I 760), cppayijoq 
etc, epid. cpapxpa from *(papKa|ja, 5pu-cp[p]aKT0^ ' wooden shack, shed ', in addition 
(pupKO(; T£Txo(; Hes.; 

Latin farcio, -Tre^ to fill full, stuff full, cram ', fartus^ stuff, fill up, gorge oneself, cram into 
', perhaps frequ-ens, -t/'s^ crowded, numerous, full; of places, full, frequented, populous; of 
time, repeated, frequent, constant; of persons, often doing a thing; of things, often done or 
used '; 

Note: common Latin ph > /shift 

Middle Irish bard, 'onrush (esp. the waves, billows)'; whereas derives Middle Irish bare 
f. " fortress ' probably from gallo-rom. *bar(i)ca ' framehouse, a wooden house ' (compare 
Bollelli L'lt. dial. 17, 147 f.); 

Tocharian A prakar, B prakre' firmly fixed in place; not easily moved; physically stable ' 
(Van Windekens Lexique 100). 

References: WP. II 134 f., WH. I 456 f.. Loth RC. 38, 303 f. Zweifel by EM 332. 
Page(s): 110-111 

Root / lemma: \:>^ares- : \:>^ores- 
Meaning: point, stubble (with formants) 
Note: With s-extension 
Material: b'^a/s- 

Latin fastigium {*b^arsti-) " the gable end, pediment of a roof; hence a slope, either up or 
down; of measurements looking up, height; looking down, depth; abstract, high rank, 
dignity; principal point in a subject ', here perhaps fastus, -usvn. ' pride, haughtiness, 
arrogance ' (/^-stem), in addition fastTdium^ loathing, squeamishness, disgust, dislike; 
hence scorn, haughtiness, disdain ' (from * fasti-tTdium, to taedium); s. also Pisani Re. R. 
1st Lomb. 76, 2, 17 f.; 

Old Irish barr^ top, point, summit, foliage ', cymr. corn, bar, bret. barrds., abrit. PN 
Cuno-barros^ fierce, furious like a battle dog ', gall. *barros^ bush, treetop ' (M.-L. 964). 


Middle Irish borr^ sioui, proud, swollen', mcymr. bwrrds., corn, borlat'; 

Old High German parren^ stand up stiffly ', parrunga 'pr'\de\ Old Icelandic it's/y- "needle, 
conifer', Old English b^rs, bears, Middle High German bars, Modern High German 
Barsch, Old High German bersich " barse, perch '; ablaut. Swedish agh-borre ( *borzan, 
Indo Germanic *bys-) ds.; 

ndd. (out of it Modern High German) barsch {*b^ors-ko-) 'coarse, stern, rough'; Middle 
English burre, borre^ burdock, roughness in the throat ', engl. bur{i) ds., Danish-Swedish 
i&o/re "burdock', Swedish sjo-borre^ hedgehog ', Norwegian dial, barren, byrren^ s\.o\y\., 

Maybe alb. Geg it'i/zT'e'man, valiant man, proud man', burrni^'pu6e, bravery' mburr'be 
proud, boast' [common alb. b > mb]. 


Maybe alb. Geg burre^'r(\av\, valiant man, proud man', burrn/' pnde, bravery' mburr'be 
proud, boast' [common alb. b > mb] proves that Root / lemma: b'^ares-. b^ores-: "point, 
stubble' derived from an extended Root/ lemma: b^er-/: "to bear, carry' (see below). 

b^fsti-, b^oTst/- 

Old Indie bhrsti-hi. " prong, spike, cusp, peak, edge, point ' = Germanic *bursti-\x\ Old 
Icelandic bursfi. "bristle, ridge of the roof. Old English byrsfi. "bristle'. Old High German 
burst, borstm. n., burstat "bristle'. Middle High German burste' bristle brush ' (from PI. 
from burst' bristle mass '); Slavic *bbrst/o- in russ. borscb " acanthus ', borsc' red turnip 
soup ', etc 

With formants -d^'o- -^^a-: 


Old English breord, breardxx\. "edge, bank, border, shore, surface, plain, area ' 
{*brerda^, besides briord {*brerdia). Old Swedish braedderds.. New Swedish bradd, etc 


Alb. breth, bredh/l'\r'; 
Maybe alb. {*b'"re^ brez' belt, edge, border'. 

Old Irish brot' sting, prick ', acorn, bros, bret. broud6s., compare Middle Irish brostaim' 
spur on, drive on, goad, incite, arouse ' from *b^ros-t- (Loth RC. 42, 70), mistakenly 
O'Rahilly Eriu 13, 169 f.; Old High German brart^edge, border, stem, stem bar, stem post 
', Swedish dial, bradd. 

bh/-g2dh-, bh/bZdh- 

Middle Irish brataim^ loots, robs ' (in addition bratan^ salmon ') = cymr. brathu^ sting, 
bite, drill through '; *bh/-ozdh-or *b^rz6!^- to Germanic *bruzd in Old High German brort 
"edge, border'. Old English brordm. 'cusp, peak, germ, sprout, leaf, wsachs. brerd 

Old English bryrdan^ sting, goad, stir, tease, irritate ', Old Icelandic broddr^ cusp, peak, 
grain germ, cutting edge ', Old High German gibrorton' to hem, gird, border'; = Balto- 
Slavic *bruzda-\v\ Old Church Slavic brbzda, russ. brozde^bn6\e, rein', 

Lithuanian bruzduklis, old "bridle, rein', currently" peg, plug, toggle '. Whereas is Lithuanian 
brizgilas. Old Prussian bisgelan^bu6\e, rein' probably borrows from proto Germanic 
br/jd/7a- {0\6 English br/gde/s^bn6\e, rein', bregdan' flax, wattle, braid '). Different Specht 
Dekl. 142. 

References: WP. II 131 ff., WH. I 461 f., 546. 
Page(s): 109-110 

Root / lemma: blares- 
Meaning: barley 

Material: Latin /a/' (actually far/), farr/sn. " spelt, grain, meal ' from *fai{d)s, *fai{e)zes 
(respectively *fars, *fars-es) = Oscan far, Umbrian far, Latin far/ha^ meal, flour' (from 
*farrTna), farreus = Umbrian farsio, fasiu^ made of spelt or wheat, meal '; 
Note: common alb. ph- > /-shift 
maybe alb. /a/'e"seed, barley seed' 

Gothic bariz-eins {= Latin farfna) "from barley'. Old Icelandic barrm. " corn, grain, barley'. 
Old English bere'bar\eY' {*bar{a)z-, respectively *bar{/)z-); but Slavic *barsina-\x\ Old 
Church Slavic brastno^ nourishment, food ', Serbo-Croatian brasno ^rr\ea\, flour', russ. 
borosno^ rye flour', after Jokl Miletic-Festschr. (1933) 119ff. rather to b^er-V bear, carry 

Maybe alb. bar^ grass, pasture, fodder' : Old Icelandic barrm. "corn, grain, barley'. 
References: WP. I 134, WH. I 455 f., 864. 
See also: compare also blares- S. 109. 

Page(s): 1 1 1 

Root / lemma: b^aru-, -uo- 

Meaning: fir-tree, tree, forest 

Material: Old Icelandic bgrrm. "tree". Old English beam. Gen. bearwesm. ' wood, forest, 

shrubbery, bush ', Old High German bara-wari^ forest ranger.. .a keeper of a park, forest, 

or area of countryside, priest '; Slavic *borb in russ. -Church Slavic bort, PI. borove " fir, 

spruce, spruce forest ', Serbo-Croatian bor. Gen. bora^ pine tree ', Czech borm. " 

pinewood '. 

References: WP. 1 11 64, Trautmann 26 f.. Hoops Waldbaume 362. 

Page(s): 1 09 

Root / lemma: b^ar- : b'^or- : b^/- 
Meaning: bristle, stubble, sharp point 
Material: Mit vokal. formant: 

Gothic ba/ra-bagms' mulberry tree ', engl. black bear-berry^ uva ursi', Norwegian 
bj0rneber^ rubus caesius' are reinterpreted after the bear's name *bara-' shrub, bush ' = ' 
briar '; 

from proto Slavic. *bbrb {*b'^or-) derive russ. dial, borb, kir. bor, Gen. bru ^k\nd of millet, 
sorghum', Serbo-Croatian bar6s. 

Other formations with ^are: 

Old Irish bairgeni. "bread' {*barigenaor *barigona), cymr. etc baram. 6s. {*barag-, 
compare Latin farrago^ mixed fodder for cattle, mash; a medley, mixture '). 

With formants -ko-: 

Middle Irish barc^ spear shaft ', cymr. barchi. "spear, javelin', Slavic btrkb in Serbo- 
Croatian i6'/'/r"cusp, peak, germ, sprout, whisker, moustache ', Czech brk^ keel, pinion of 
birds, primary feather, quill-feather ', also probably russ. berce, berco " shinbone ', dial, 
"pole' (Berneker119). 

Perhaps here (with consonant increase) *brokko-^ badger ', Middle Irish brocc, cymr. 
mbr. broch6s., whether originally " pointy or sharp snouted, rat faced, incisive looking, 
spiky ' to Latin (Celtic) broccus^ to with protruding teeth ', gall. *broccos^ cus^, peak, 
spiky', French broche^spear' etc Unclear is, to what extent Middle Irish brocc' smut ', 

Gaelic brocach^ mottled, speckled, *tabby ', cymr. broch^ rage, fury, din, fuss, noise, 
scum, froth, foam ', nbr. broc'hed^ mad, wicked, evil (= stung, bitten)' are to be owed to 
secondary semantic change or belong to different stems. 

It is striking poln. (Venetic-ill). FIN Brok, perhaps signifies ' river badger'. 

References: WP. II 134, 163, 164, WH. I 455 f. 
Page(s): 108-109 

Root / lemma: b^asko-{*b^eA'"-sko) 

Meaning: bundle, heap 


Root/ lemma: b^asko-: "bundle, heap' is a truncated formation of an older root *b'^eA'^-sko 

from which derived both Root/ lemma: b^^ed^.^; -to bow, bend' and Root/ lemma: b^asko- 

: "bundle, heap' (see below). The alledged root *bhed*^-5Ao derived from b^eig!^- [common 

lllyrian -gb-> -db-]. 

Material: Maked. paoKioi Ssapoi cppuyavcjov and paoKsuTai (paaKi5£(; (these genuine gr. 

vowel form), ayKoAai Hes.; perhaps here gr. (paoKLokoq " leather sack '; 

Latin fascia^ bandage, band, girdle, girth, strap, land stripe ', fascis^ alliance, bundle, 
parcel; the fasces with excellent hatchet as a token of the imperious power '; 

Note: common Latin ph- > f- shift 

Maybe alb. i6'as/7/re "together, bound', it'asMo/T/" put together, unite', basbkel\eece (a 
bundle of wool)'. 


Alb. proves that from an early root *bheig!^- [common lllyrian -gb-> -db-] derived Root/ 
lemma: b^edh.^; -to bow, bend' and Root/ lemma: b'^ad'^-sko-: "bundle, heap' (see 

Middle Irish base' collar, neckband ', abrit. bascauda' brazen rinsing boiler ' (perhaps 
originally an earthen and burnt vessel formed about a twisted skeleton good as basket), 
cymr. baich' burden, load ', Middle Breton bech, nbret. beac'b ds.; gallo-rom. *ambi- 
basc/aload', alyonn. amba/ss/' kneader for the sheaves ' (Jud Rom. 47, 481 ff.). 

References: WP. II 135 f., WH. I 97, 459 f. 
Page(s): 1 1 1 

Root / lemma: b^ad- 

Meaning: good 

Material: Old Indie bhadra-h^ joyful, gratifying, lucky, good ', n. " luck, salvation', su- 

bhadra-h^ lovely, superb, pretty, splendid ' = Avestan hu-ba5ra-^ lucky '; 

Gothic batiza^beWef, baf/sfa^ best', Old Icelandic betre, betstr. Old English bei{e)ra, 
betst. Old High German bezzir{d), bezzist. Modern High German besser, best, in addition 
das Adv. of Kompar. Old Icelandic betr. Old English bet{*bati^. Old High German baz 
{*bataz, congealed Neutr. ' benefit '); 

Old Icelandic bat/'m. " improvement, salvation'. Old Frisian batam. " benefit, advantage ', 
Middle High German bazzeds.; Got\r\\c gabatnan ' acquire benefit ', Old Icelandic batna' 
become better ', Old English bat/an. Old High German bazzen ds.; 

with ablaut Gothic botat "benefit'. Old Icelandic Old English bot' improvement, 
replacement ', Old High German buoz(a)i. "improvement, penance, atonement '. 

References: WP. II 151 f.. Feist 83, 103, 174, J. Weisweiler Bufte (1930). 
Page(s): 1 06 

Root / lemma: b^aghu-s 

Meaning: elbow, arm 

Material: Old Indie bahu-hm. "arm, esp. forearm; with animals forefoot ', Avestan bazau-s 

"arm'. Gen. it'azi/d (Armenian bazukirom dem Iran.); 

gr. nnxuc;, Aeolic-Doric ttoxu^ " elbow, forearm ', Old Icelandic bogr, Akk. PL bogu^arm, 
shoulder'. Old English it'o^ "shoulder, arm; twig, branch'. Old High German ,6*^0^ (Modern 
High German Bug) "shoulder, hip, haunch, point of shoulder of animals '; 

Tocharian A B poke, B pauke "arm'. 

References: WP. II 130. 
Page(s): 1 08 

Root / lemma: b^agh- 
Meaning: " mud, marsh ' 
See also: s. b^ogh-. 
Page(s): 1 08 

Root / lemma: b^ago-s 

Meaning: beech 

Grammatical information: f. 

Material: Gr. cpHYO^. Doric cpayo^f. 'oak' (compare Specht KZ. 66, 59); Latin fagusi. " 

beecli '; 

Maybe alb. ahu^ beech ' : Spanish haya, French hetre, fayard, foyau, fau, fagette, faye, 

Fayette, Italian faggio, Aragones fau, Bresciano fo, Breton favenn, Calabrese fagu, 

Catalan faig, Furlan fajar, Galician faia, Irish fea, Manx faih, Piemontese fo, Portuguese 

faia, Romagnolo faz, Sardinian Campidanesu fau, Valencian faig, Venetian fagaro, fagher, 

Welsh ffawydden^ beech '. 

gall. bagos\n PN Bagacon, Bagono-, Old High German buohha^beech' {bokon-, compare 

silva Bacenis " resin ' by Caesar and Middle Latin Boconia " Rhon -an area in Germany '), 

Old Icelandic boki.. Old English boc, bece{bdkjdn-), in addition Gothic bokat " alphabetic 

letter ', Old Icelandic bok. Old English boc. Old High German buohi. n. ' book (as the 

wood of rune-tablets) ', Old High German /7i/o/7s/a/0 'alphabetic letter', actually " beech 

stick for scratching '. 

Nisi, beyk/n. 'beech forest' is (because of bsek/ds.) writing variant from *bok/, a late 
collective to bok, also is to define perhaps nisi, beykir^ cooper '. Unclear is mir Old 
Icelandic budkr, baudkr^ first aid kit, medicine box ', after Cleasby-Vigfusson 85b a 
loanword from Middle Latin apotheka^ bin, box, case, crib, tank, bucket ' is soil? 

Slavic *buza- : *b'bz-b- ' elder ' in russ. buzvn. : slov. bcz, russ. dial, boz siay away 
probably; also Kurdish buz^ a kind of elm ', goes back to older i/Jz(from Indo Germanic 

Middle High German buche, biuche^ lye ', biuchen, bOchen^ boil or wash in lye ' belongs 
rather to root b'^eug(h)- ' clean, sweep '. 

Indo Germanic side by side from b'^^aug- {:b^aug-:b''^ug-) and b^ag- is extremely unlikely; 
compare W. Schuize KZ. 27, 428 = Kl. Schr. 55. 

Perhaps after E. Leumann (KZ. 57, 190) to Avestan baga- ' interest, portion, lot, fate ', 
also ' fortune cookie tree ', because marks were scratched into it by pilgrims. 

References: WP. II 128 f., WH. I 445 f., 863 f., E. Passler in 'FriJhgesch. under Sprachw.' 
(Wien 1948). 
Page(s): 107-108 

Root / lemma: b^a-1, b^d- b'"^-{*b'"eh2-^) 

Meaning: to shine 

Material: Old Indie t)ha{\r\ compound) ' shine, light, lustre ', that/" shines, (he) appears ', 

bhat/-h'\\g\r\t', bhana-mn. ' the shiners, apparition ' (compare Old Irish ban'\Nh\te', Old 

English i6'd/7/5/7 'polish'), it'/?^/?/^/? 'light, ray, sun' (: Old Saxon banu-t}, bbama-b'Wgbt, 


Avestan ba- 'shine, appear, seem' only with a- (avantsm ' the resembling, the similar '), 
fra {fra-vaitr shines out ') and vi- {vi-ba- ' gleam, shine ', Benveniste BSL. 32, 86 f.), vTspo- 
bamfyja-' all gleaming ', bamya-'Wgbt, gleaming ', banu- m. 'light, ray'; 

Armenian banam{*b^a-n-) ' open, reveal, divulge, uncover, expose ' (if actually ' point, 
allow to become visible '), Aor. ba-t'si, compare gr. cpaivw and alb. baf, 

gr. nscpnoETai ' will appear ', *b^9-n- in present cpaivu) (*(paviu) instead of *(pa-vu) 
SchwyzerGr. Gr. I 694) ' makes visible, points ', cpaivopiai ' appear, seem, shine, gleam ' 
(scpavnv, Aor. scpnva); 

cpav£p6(; ' obvious, apparent, clear ', cpavri ' torch '; cpaoK; ' rising of a star ' (see also under 
b^a-i), cpaofja, -aTO(; 'apparition, face, omen, sign ' (compare nscpaaiJEvo^); 

ajjcpaSov, apcpaSioc; ' apparent, manifest, obvious ' (ava-cp-); cpavra AapnTovTa Hes. (to 
*cpc(Mi = Old Indie bhati); compare apYU-(p£0(;, apYU(po(; ' glossy white'; 

alb. Geg baj, Tosc benj{= cpaivw) ' make, seem ' (originally probably ' bring to an 
apparition '); 


Alb. uses a taboo explanation which reflects the religious aspect of the cognate. 

Old Irish it's/? 'white', ofbi. {*opi-b'^a) 'apparition, beauty'; 

Old Saxon banuV touchwood, tinder'; Old English i6'd/7/a/7 'polish' (i.e. 'make 
gleaming'), ndd. (and out of it Modern High German) bonen^ scour, rub, clean, beans ', 
Middle High German buenen^ beans (*white) ' (from Gothic bandwa, -wo^ mark, token, 
sign ', bandwjan. Old Icelandic benda' give a mark, token, sign ' here belong - perhaps as 
^/-derivative of participle b^^-/?/-' shining, seeming ' -, is doubtful. Lithuanian by Feist 79 


Upper Serbian baju, bacso^ burn indiscernibly, gleam ', Lower Serbian bajom, bajas se 
"gleam, flicker'; 

Tocharian A pam'c\ear, bright' {*b^9no-), pan/" beauty', B pen/jo ds. (Duchesne- 
Guillemin BSL. 41, 164); A pakar, B pakn, a-pakartse' open, distinct'; A pa-tsank, B pa- 
tsaiik^ window ' {-tsanketc 'gleam, shine'). Van Windekens Lexique 78 f.; B pate, A pat(\n 
compound) 'apparition' {*b^a-tf-), Pisani Re. R. 1st. Lornb. 78, 2, 28. 

s-extension b^d-s-'Old Indie bbas- n. (ved. also disyllabic), Instr. i6'/755a 'light, shine, 
glory, magnificence, power', subhas-^ having beautiful shininess ', bha-sati^ glares, 
gleams ', i6'/7asa/7/- 'gleaming', bbasabn. 'light'; 

gr. cpcboKEi Siacpavsi Hes., SiacpcboKU) ' begins to shine' are perhaps (from ni-cpauoKU)) 
reshaped after cpux;, also cpajOTrip 'lustre, shine, shiner' 

Doubtful is, whether Middle Irish basc^re6'. Old English basu, it'aso 'purple' {*b'^9S-ko-, - 
UO-) are to be connected, to Gothic weina-basi^ grape ', Old High German beri^ berry ', 
actually ' red berry '? In addition the full grades MN Old High German Buoso, Old Icelandic 
^05/ etc? 

^/-extension b^^-^-'Old Indie vi-bhava-h, vi-bhavan-^ radiating, shining, seeming'; 

gr. hom. cpoE (*(paF£) ' gleamed, appeared ', cpasGajv, -ovto(; 'gleaming', (pa£ai-pippoTO(;, 
Pind. cpauai-p(3poTO(; ' for the bright people shining ', 

cpaoc; (Aeolic cpauoq, pamph. (papO(;) Attic kontr. cpajq. Gen. (pwToq, cpaouc;, 'light, salvation', 
whereof *(paF£a-v6g in Lesbian cpasvvog, Ionian cpasivoq, Attic (pav6(; 'gleaming', 

hom. cpasivu) ' gleams '; nicpauoKU) ' allows to shine; points, shows, evinces; make known 
'. Different Specht KZ. 59, 58 f. 

Is Germanic *baukna-, in Old Frisian baken^ emblem, landmark, mark, fire signal ', Old 
Saxon /7d/ra/7'mark, token, sign, emblem, landmark'. Old English Mace/? 'mark, token, 
sign, banner, ensign, flag'. Old High German bouhhan^maxk, token, sign' from such 
Germanic *bau- shaped after */a//r/7a-'mark, token, sign'? 

References: WP. II 122 f., WH. I 454 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 694, 709. 
Page(s): 104-105 

Root / lemma: b'^a-2{*b'^eb2-2) 

Meaning: to speak 

Material: Old Indie probably in sabha^ congregation, meeting ' ("*conversation, 
discussion'; bha- in Old Indie indeed otherwise - up to bhanati, see below - only in the 
meaning "shine, appear, seem, shine'); 

Armenian ban {*b^a-n/s), Gen. -/'word, speech, reason, judgement, thing', bay, Gen. 
bay/'\Nord, verbalism ' {*b'^a-t/-s= gr. cpaTiq); bay part\c\e " (he, she) says ' (= cpnai, also 
bam= cpniJi, bas= Lesbian cpai from *b^as/y, 

gr. cpniJi, Doric cpapi "say', cpHMn. Doric cpapa " knowledge, shout, call, revelation ' (= 
Latin fama'a report, rumor, saying, talk, tradition'; a(pniJOV£(; appr|TOi, ouk ovopa^OMEvoi 
Hes. and only with Apuleius meeting affamen' harangue, speech ' needs to be no old 

cpaGKOj " say, believe ' (also paaKavo(;, Latin fascinum, see below *baba onomatopoeic 
word), cpoTK^f. ' rumor', cpaoK; " language, speech, assertion, announcement'; with ablaut 
cpwvn 'voice'; 

Latin for, /^/7(from *fa-jd{i) = Church Slavic baju. Old English bo/an) 'speak'; 

Latin facundus^ eloquent, fluent, ready of speech ', fatum^ an utterance, esp. a divine 
utterance; hence destiny, fate, the will of a god ', fama^ a report, rumor, saying, talk, 
tradition ' (Denom. Oscan faamat perhaps ' calls '), fabu/a' talk, conversation; a tale, 
story, fable, drama, myth ' {*b^a-6^/a), fas actuaWy 'divine command or law; sometimes 
fate, destiny; in gen. right, that which is allowed, lawful', probably from (ne)fas\s with 
infinitive fas {s-sievn) ' it is (not) to be pronounced ' (different EM 333); 

in addition dies fastus ' day on which the praetor could administer justice, court-days. 
Transf. a list of these days, with festivals, etc., the Roman calendar; a register, record; a 
list of magistrates ', fasti^ the list of these days, calendars '; as derivative of a participle 
*b^a-t6-s, Latin fateor, -en, fassus ' to confess, admit, allow; to reveal, make known ' = 
Oscan fatium' speak ', Latin Fa/^^5 'speaking by inspiration', epithet of ' foretelling 

Maybe alb. {* fateor) /^yto/" 'guilty (*confess, admit guilt)', then truncated alb. /^/'guilt'. 

Old Icelandic bon, b0n^ request, prayer ', Old English baen^ request, soccage ' {*b^a- 
ni-s, or with o-gradation as gr. cpajvn?); Old English M/5/7'brag, boast' (as Latin forirovn 
*fajdr, Slavic bajg); 

russ. -Serb. -Church Slavic baju, bajatr\.e\\, discuss, heal, cure'. Church Slavic basnb ' 
fable, spell, charm ', Old Church Slavic balbji. Gen. -bj§^ physician, medicine man, 
magician '. 

At a present *b^-en- based on Old Indie bhanati' speaks '; from *\i'^9n-u- (or in Germanic 
reshuffling after spannan) Old High German bannan redup\. verb. ' summon by 
proclamation (esp. to arms); curse or damn; pronounce an ecclesiastical curse upon ', Old 
English bannan re6up\. verb ' summon, order'. Old Icelandic banna schw. Verb. " forbid ', 
whereof Old High German ban, PL banna " order under penal threat ' (Modern High 
German Bann, Bannwald), Old English gebann. Old Icelandic bannn. " forbid, ban '. 
(under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-). 

Tocharian A pa-, pa-g-^ beg ' (Van Windekens Lexique 87 f.). 

After Kuiper (AO. XII 262) here (*bha-s-) Old Indie bhisakti'hea\s\ bhisaj- 'physician, 
medicine man, magician', jav. -bi's- ' healing '; about Avestan bisazjal compare Kuiper 
Nasalpras. 44 f. 

References: WP. II 123 f., WH. I 437 f., 450, 458 f., 525 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 674 f. 
Page(s): 105-106 

Root / lemma: b^aso-ox b^eso- 

Meaning: a kind of a large bird of prey 

Material: Old Indie bhasa-h ' a certain bird of prey '; gr. hom. Attic cpnvri " an eagle kind, 

probably Vultur monachus ', was possible from *b'^as-naox *b'^es-na, also *b'^ana{to b'^a- 


References: WP. II 135. 

Page(s): 1 1 1 

Root / lemma: b^at- : b^at- 
Meaning: to hit 

Material: Latin fatuus^ foolish, idiotic, silly, awful, tasteless from taste ' (*from beaten the 

head, dull); gall, loanword Latin battud, -ere, more recently batto^ to beat, knock ', out of it 

back-borrowed cymr. bathu ' strike coins, mint ', 

lllyrian ^a//c» "appellation for rebellion leaders', alb. batoj^rock the boat' 

compare also gall, anda-bata^ blind combatant, gladiator fights with a helmet without 

openings ' with a: russ. batt^ oaken stick, cudgel, club ', Serbo-Croatian batatT hit, knock 

', perhaps also (with a) russ. botatb " trample, swing ' etc; 

perhaps Old Danish bad^ fight, struggle, damage, pity ', Middle Low German it'a/'damage, 
pity, misfortune'. Modern High German Blutbad. 

Unclear is the relationship to *\i'^au-t- (see below); it must be assumed instead of *bha/- 
is perhaps *bh^a/-, or lies a root *bha- with variant formant the basic, which is perhaps 
present in Latin famex, -/c/s' a bruise, contusion, bloodshot ' (*haematoma, effusion of 
blood resulted from blow)? 

Note: common Latin ph- > f- shift 

References: WP. II 126 f., WH. I 46, 99, 452, 464. 
Page(s): 111-112 

Root / lemma: b^au-1 : b^u- 

Meaning: to hit 

Material: a) With present formation -d-\ 

Latin fOstis {*b^ud-sff-s) " a knobbed stick, cudgel, staff, club ' (= gall, bustis in aprov. 
bust^ tree stump ' etc), fusterna^ knot, burl, burr, stump, snag '; 

Note: common Latin p/7->/- shift, maybe alb. fut, fus^bW., insert, copulate' 

Old Irish it'/M^ "culpable, fiend ' {*b'^e-b^ud-udts). Middle Irish bua/a/m 'b\t' from *b^aud 
A ... (or *boug-l- ... to Modern High German pocben above S. 98); probably also Old Irish 
bodar'deai, stuns, dazes, deafens, baffles', cymr. byddar'deaV {*budaro)\ 

Old Icelandic bauta{-ada) 'hit, bump, poke'. Old English beatan{beot). Old High 
German bozfzjan {b/ez or scbw. Verb) ds.. Middle High German boz, boz, buzm. 'blow, 
knock'. Modern High German Amboli, Old English it'y/e/'hammer'. 

Middle Low German bote/6s., Middle High German bseze/ 'beet\e, hammer'. Old Icelandic 
b0ytiir penis of horses '; Old Icelandic butr^ short piece of a tree trunk '; with expressivem 
tt ndd. butt^6\}\\, clumsy' (in addition the fish name Butte), 

Middle High German butze^ truncated piece, clump ', Old English it^i/Z/i/c' bottom, piece 
land', Norwegian dial, it'i/// 'stump, clot, chunk' (also wood skid). But Old English bytt' 
flask, a large cask or barrel, used esp. for wine, ale, or beer ' derives from Latin buttis ' 
barrel, vat, cask ', also cymr. i6»c»//7 'flask'; 

Old Icelandic beysta'knock, hit' {*b'^auc/-st/-, compare Latin fustis); with -s/r-suffix 
perhaps Middle High German /?Jsc/7 "cudgel, club, blow, knock' {*b'^uc/-sko-), perhaps 
different from /7JSC/7" wad, bulge; bead; lip; torus; wreath; roll; bulb ', see above S. 

b) with Mormants: 

Alb. mbut, mbus 'suiiocate, drown', skut. mus 's\ay, kill', compare perm/sme' 
downfallen '; 


Common alb. b > mb 

Alb. mbut, /wMs 'suffocate, drown' : Old Irish ba{i)dim^ go under, dive, submerge; sink, 
drown', cymr. boddT drown, flood ', corn, bedhy. Middle Breton beuziW drown '; cymr. 
diffoddT extinguish, annihilate, erase ' from *di-spad- {*dT-eks-bad-). 

From Root / lemma: g^ady-: to sink, submerge, derived Root/ lemma: b'^au-l: b^J-: to hit. 

Latin confuto, -are^ to check, repress; by speech, to put down, silence ', refuto, -are^ to 
drive back, check, repress; to refute, disprove ' (mit J from previously au), probably also 
futud, -ere " have sexual relationshs with (a woman), to sleep with'; 

maybe alb. {*futud) fut'bave sexual relations with (a woman), penetrate, insert, cheat' 

Old Irish fo-botha {*butat} 'threatens', verbal noun fubthad, Gothic bauf^s^6eai, dumb, 

References: WP. 11125 ff., WH. 1 259 f., 573 f. 
Page(s): 112 

Root / lemma: b^au-2 
See also: s. b'^a-l 
Page(s): 112 

Root / lemma: b^ebh/i/- b^eb'^ro- 
See also: s. b'^er- 'braun' 
Page(s): 1 1 3 

Root / lemma: bhedh_/(bhedh-i > *b^e6^-r) 

Meaning: to pierce, dig 

Material: Latin fod/'o, -ere, fodV to dig; also to dig out; to excavate. Transf. to prick, prod, 

jog ', /bssa "ditcli, trench, cliannei', fodicare^ sting repeatedly, dig, jog '; 

gall, bedo- 'canal, ditch, trench, channel' (Wartburg I 313), cymr. bedd, corn, bedh, bret. 
bez^ grave '; gall. *bodJca^ fallow field ' (M.-L. 11 84); 

Gothic badiu. 'bed'. Old English beddds., Old High German etc bett/^be6, a garden- 
plot (to be) filled with plants; a place where osiers, willows, etc., are grown ', Old Norse 
bedrm. ' bedspread, eiderdown ' (Indo Germanic *b'^o6'^jo-), originally ' a bed burrowed in 
the ground ', compare Modern High German Flulibett, Beet, engl. beda\so ' garden bed, 
garden plot '; 

Maybe The connection with Ukr. dial, it'eo'/a 'large pit, valley, swamp', PI. ub/edrze 's\ope, 
steep bank' and Lith. bedre' swamp, valley', Latv. bedre'pW > Armenian port {* bodro) ' 
navel, belly, center ' > Old Church Slavic (etc) bedro^ thigh ' (taboo Slavic cognate) [Root/ 
lemma: bed-: to swell?]. 

Lithuanian bedu, bedziau, besti^pnzV., bore, dig', badau, badyt/" pncW, bump, poke', 
M^y^s 'hunger', bedrei. ' pit, pothole ', Old Prussian boadis^ prick, sting ', em-badusisi^ 
he/she sticks '; 

Old Church Slavic bodg, bost/{s-Aor. basb) 'prick', bod/'rc\. 'thorn, backbone ' {* bod-lb); 

Alb. boshti^ spindle' a Slavic loanword. 

Tocharian A pat-, pat- 'to plough'; 

perhaps also Hittite pfd-da-i {cav\ also be read padd-da-i) ' makes a hole into the earth ', 
compare Pedersen Hittite 77. 

Perhaps here gr. poGpoq, poGuvoc; m. 'pit, pothole', Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 262, Zus. 2. 
Different Petersson Heterokl. 128 ff. 

Probably in addition Celto-Germanic boduo-, -a 'fight, struggle' in gall. PN Ate-boduus, - 
ua, Boduo-gnatus, Old Irish bodbt 'crow, battle goddess in the form of a crow '; 

Old Icelandic bodi. {*badwd). Gen. bgdvar. Old English beadui.. Old Saxon Badu-, Old 
High German Batu-{\n PN) 'fight, struggle'. 

References: WP. I 126 ff., 188, WP. I 99, 521 f., 866, Trautmann 29. 
Page(s): 113-114 

Root / lemma: b^ed^-2 

Meaning: to bow, bend 

Material: Old Indie badhate' throngs, presses, plagues', Desid. bJbhatsate' is shy of 

something, feels disgust \Jnu-badh-^ bending knee '; 

alb. bint, med. bindem^ be bent (*be convinced, pressured) ', bashkr^ together', 
bashkonj^ unite, assemble '; 


Alb. proves that from an early root *bhe5!^- [common lllyrian -gh-> -dh-] derived Root/ 
lemma: b^edh.^; -to bow, bend' and Root/ lemma: b'^ad'^-sko-: 'bundle, heap' (see 

Gothic b/da'prayer'. Old High German betat "request', Gothic b/djan {sek. -bidan) " bid, 
beg, ask, pray ', Old Icelandic bidja. Old English biddan. Old High German bitten. Old 
Icelandic kne-bedrm. " knee pad ', Old English cneow-gebedu. "prayer' (compare Old 
Indie y/7i/-Mo/7-); 

Maybe alb. Geg me u betu "to vow', Tosc betohem^\ vow, swear' 

Lithuanian bodus " unsavory, distasteful ', bodetis " nauseate before '; 

Tocharian B peti, f\ poto^ worship, veneration '. 

References: WP. II 130 f., 140, 185, WH. I 461, 495, Feist 89 b; different Klugei2 60. 
Page(s): 114 

Root / lemma: b^eg-, b^eng- 

Meaning: to break 

Material: Old Indie bhanakti, Perf. babhanja^ break, rupture' (only afterwards after 

reshuffled the 7th class), bba/jga-b' break; billow' (compare Lithuanian banga^b\\\0M\/'), 

bhanji-h^ diffraction, declension, crooked way, sale, step, wave '; 

Armenian bekanem^ break', bek^broke'; 

but Phrygian pSKog "bread', actually " crumb ' (?)has unexplained k, 

With -^- grade: also alb. {*beuka) buka 'bread' : Phrygian pSKOc; "bread', actually " crumb ' 


From an extended Root / lemma: b(e)u-1, b'^(e)u-\ "expr. sound of hitting' derived Root/ 
lemma: b'^eg-, b'^eng-: "to break', Root/ lemma: b^engh-, b'^pgh-iM]. b'^pghu-s) : "thick, 
fat', Root/ lemma: b'^eug-l: "to flee, *be frightened'. Root/ lemma: b'^eug-2, b'^eugh-: "to 
clear away, free'. Root/ lemma: b^eug-3, b'^eugh-: "to bow'. Root/ lemma: b'^eug-4\ "to 

enjoy, *consume, bite' as taboo words. 

Old Irish bongid, -bo/ng 'breaks, reaps, harvests, wins (*gains) ' verbal noun bua/n 
{*b^og-n/-), enclitic -bach, -bech {*b^ogo-m), Thurneysen Grammar 447, 461 ; Pass, preterit 
-bocht, perhaps = bochV poor '; 

dropping the nasal the preterit buichbas probably secondary i/ (compare Old Irish mag 
"field', Dat. muig< *mages), so that it is not necessary, to go back in *b^eug(h)- "bend'; 

mcymr. di-vwng' inflexible '; to meaning "defeat, conquer' compare Old Irish maidid' 
break out' = "defeat'. Too grade point at also Middle Irish i6'c»//77/77 "morsel, bite, mouthful' 
from *b^og-smrr, 

Lithuanian banga'b\\\o\N, heap, lashings, pelting rains ', prabanga' excess ', Latvian 
buogs' a dense crowd ', in addition Lithuanian bangus^rasb, hasty, violent' (from brooks 
and downpours), bingus' gamy ' (of horses), bengiu, bengiau, bengti' finish ', pabangai. 
"termination'; Prussian pobanginnons' moves, weighs '; in the meaning "finish, end' come 
into being through ablaut derailment forms with ei, a/ (compare Endzelin Latvian Gr. 60) in 
Latvian be/gasP\. " end, inclination, slope ', Lithuanian paba/gads., beigiuar\d baigiu 
"end', Latvian beidzu ds.; 

here Latvian buoga a\so stands for "stony place', here belongs probably also russ. buga' 
flooded tract of forest '; different about be/g- (to b^e/-'h\t') Kuiper Nasalpras. 184. 

The following forms are to be kept away because of the auslauts and because of 
meaning and to indicate probably as onomatopoeic words: 

Germanic *bang-'b'\t' in Old Icelandic banga'bW, bang'd'm, fuss, noise', engl. bang 
"knock, hit', with ablaut Middle High German Middle Low German bungen' drum'; ndd. 
benger club, cudgel, boor' = Modern High German Bengel, engl. dial, bangle' gnarled 
stick ', Old Norse epithet bgngull. 

In addition witli intensive consonant increase: 

Germanic *bank-\v\ Old Swedish banka, abl. bunka^hW, knock', obd. bunken^Vx\ock, 
bump, poke'. Middle Low German bunken, Dutch bonken^hW, thrash'. 

Latvian bunga^6ruxr\\ bunga^b\o\N, knock' derive probably from Middle Low German 

Maybe alb. bunge, bunga PI. "kind of oak, Quercus sessiflora (stick for beating?)' 

References: WP. II 149 f., WH. I 503, 541, Trautmann 26. 
Page(s): 114-115 

Root / lemma: bheigr"- 

Meaning: to run 

Material: Hindi bhag- 'flee'; 

Maybe alb. mbath {bag-) " flee ' common alb. k- > th-. 

gr. (p£po|jai, cpopeoijai "flee, be afraid ', cpopoq 'escape, fear', cpopsu) ' startles', cpopspoq 
'frightening, timorous'; Note: common lllyrian g"- > b-. 

lengthened grade Lithuanian begu, begau, begt/'run, flee', begas, begism. 'escape, 
run', Latvian begu, begtl\ee', with ablaut kausat. boginu, boginti^ flee something, to get 
there quckly '; 

Slavic *begg\v\ russ. begu{\v\t bezatb), kir. bihu{\v\t bic]^ 'run', in addition as 
neologism Old Church Slavic pnbegng, pnbegngti eic 'flee', as well as Old Church Slavic 
bezg, bezat/l\ee' etc; 

Tocharian Apkant{pkat) 'remote, distant, apart, separated' (Van Windekens Lexique 

References: WP. II 184 f., Trautmann 29, Meillet Slave commun2 220, 235, Schwyzer Gr. 
Gr. 1717. 
Page(s): 1 1 6 

Root/ lemma: b^eJU^-f {*b^e\d^- > bhoidh-eh2) 

Meaning: to advise, force 

Material: Gr. nsiGofjai ' lets me persuade, follow ' (Aor. sniGopinv, hom. nsniGsTv, niGsaOai; 

Perf. nsnoiGa 'trust'), Akt. (sek.) irsiGu), Aor. snsiaa 'persuade, convince', nsiGcb, -out; ' 

persuasion ', TT\m6q (for *(p\moq) "reliable, loyal, faithful, relying', niaTiq, -loq, -sooq "loyalty, 
reliance', horn. £v nsian "in reassurance ' (*n£i0-a-); 
e- grade in: 

alb. (*bhieidhie) bet "oath, vow, pledge' {*b'^oki^a= Old Church Slavic beda'need'), 
East Geg per-bej" curse, hex' (in addition neologism (*bhieidh3a) besai. "faith, belief, pact, 
covenant, loyalty'); 

Phonetically Old Church Slavic beda^ueed' = alb. besala\t\r\, belief, pact, covenant, 

Maybe TN lllyrian Besoi: alb. it'esoy" believe, have faith'. 

Latin ffdo, -ere, ffsussum^ to trust, believe, confide in ' {ffsus\s /o- participle), ffdus 
"reliable'; foedus {*b'^oki!^os), by Ennius ffdus {*b^ei6!^os) n. " trusty, true, faithful, sure ', 
fides^ trust, confidence, reliance, belief, faith ', Dius Fidius^ the god of faith, a surname of 
Jupiter'; Umbrian combifiatu {*b^i6'^ia-) "you shall trust, confide, rely upon, believe, be 
assured'; about Oscan Fiisiais, Umbrian Fise, Fiso, Fisovio-s. WH. I 494; 


Alb. alb. fe, /^a "religion', /e/OA?/" perform engagement ceremony (marriage vows?)' : 
Reggiano /S/b'"religion' : AN fed, OFr. feid, feit: Latin fides^ to trust, believe, confide in '. 

Gothic baidJan^cov\s\xa\v\, oblige'. Old Icelandic beida. Old English baedan. Old High 
German beitten^urqe, press, push, arrogate' = Old Bulgarian causative bezdq, bediti 
"constrain, oblige', pobed/t/ ^deieat, conquer', bedai. "need'; 

here probably also Gothic beidan "wait, hold on'. Old Icelandic bfda. Old English bfdan. Old 
High German bftands., Swiss beite= Old High German beitten, but in the meaning "wait, 
hold on', basic meaning "await' from "trust' or "oneself constrain, oblige'. 

References: WP. 11139 f., 185 f., WH. I 493 f. 
Page(s): 1 1 7 

Root / lemma: b^eiii^-2 
Meaning: " bind, twist ' 
See also: s. b^id'^-. 
Page(s): 1 1 7 

Root / lemma: b^eid- 

Meaning: to prick, pierce 

Material: Old Indie /7/7//75o'/r7/ (participle bhindant-= Latin findens, bh/nna-h bes\6es bhitta-h 

= Latin fissus), bhSdam/^spWt, carve, rupture etc', bhidyate^ is split '; (Old Indie under the 

influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-). 

probably gr. cpsiSoijai (redupl. Aor. hom. nscpiSsoGai) ' with which are stingy, avoid 
sparingly; spare; avoid a thing ' (basic meaning partly perhaps " separate myself from 
something = take myself away ', above all but ' pinch off, stingy, from what cut off oneself 
only a little '); 

Latin findo, -ere, /^ic//"(probably Aor. as Old Indie Opt. bhideyam. Old English bite. Old 
High German bizzi^ to split, cleave, divide, halve '), fissum^ split, cloven ', f/ssumn., 
fissurai. 'cleft, fissure'; 

Gothic be/tan'b\te'. Old Icelandic Ma "bite; penetrate (from sword )', Old Saxon Old 
English bftan. Old High German b/zzan'b\te' (= Old Indie bhedati, gr. (p£i5o|jai); Kaus. Old 
Icelandic beita^ allow to bite, allow to graze ', Old English bsetan^reiu, curb, restrain, hunt, 
chase'. Old High German Middle High German beizen^6s., corrode'. Old Icelandic beizr 
set of teeth, bridle, rein' {*baitislan). Old English geb^tuH. PI., geb^te/n. " set of teeth '; 
Old Icelandic bitirw.. Old English b/tam. 'morsel, mouthful'. Old High German b/zzom., 
b/zzat "morsel, mouthful, nip'; Gothic ba/trs 'b\tter' ("bitting from taste '); 

changing through ablaut Old Icelandic b/tr'b'\t\ng, sharp, painful'. Old English b/ter, bitter. 
Old Saxon Old High German M/5/'"biting, sharp, bitter'; Old Icelandic beiskr^ sharp, bitter' 
{*bait-ska^; Gothic beist^ sourdough ' {*b'^e{d\-sto-); Old English Me/a "biting', bitel 
"beetle, chafer', engl. beetle. 

Maybe alb. i&/s/r" branch, twig (*beam?)'. 

Old Icelandic beitu. "ship' (originally " hollow dugout canoe ' to Old Icelandic Me "balk, 
beam'). Old English batm. "boat'. Middle English bot, out of it borrows Modern High 
German Bootan6 perhaps Old Icelandic batr6s.; Middle Low German be/te/, bete/'ch\se\'. 
Middle High German be/ze/'st\ng, prick' (: Old Indie bhedura-h, Meo'/Za-/? "thunderbolt'). 


The inanimate suffix -ur- . Old Indie bhedura-h, bhedira-h^\.buv\6erbo\\! : UAupioi , oi, 
lllyrians, UAupia , n, lllyria, also'lAAupi^ , n. Adj. 'lAAupiKO? , n, 6v, lllyrian: -kx\, the region 

or province of lllyria, UAupi^O) , speak the lllyrian language, 'IAAupla:--hence Adv. 

The fact is that b'^e/ic/- extension to *b'^e/Y9j-'h\t' seems possible. 

References: WP. 11138 f., WH. I 500 f. 

Page(s): 116-117 

Root / lemma: b^e/faj- bh/-(*bheiH- > bhiH-tjo- > bhiH-tueh2) 

Meaning: to hit 

Material: Avestan byente^ they fight, hit' (H. Lommel KZ. 67, 11); 

Armenian bir^ big stick , club, mace, joint' {*b^i-ro-)\ 

gr. cplTpoc; m. 'tree truck, wooden log', (pTm6(; m. "toggle, muzzle'; 

Maybe alb. (*bheiH) bie^hW, strike', bie^iaW, die', causative, subjunctive ,&ye/7 "strike' = bjer 
"bring' : [Common /7->y- Slavic Albanian; h->J-, y-0\6 Indie Tocharian]. 

Alb. and Armenian prove that Root/ lemma: b^ei(a)-, b^/-: "to hit' derived from Root/ 
lemma: b^er-/: "to bear, carry' through an lllyrian -r> -j. 
In o- grade: 

Venetic PN cpohiio-s-, lllyrian VN Boioi " the combatants, fighters ' (: russ. boj), gr.- 
Illyrian PN BoTov bgoc,, VN BoiojToi, Celtic-lllyrian VN Boir, Messapic piapnv Spsnavov 
a|jn£AoT6|JU)v, piapaTa KAaSsurripia Hes.; 

Latin perfines^ break through, break in pieces, shiver, shatter ' Hes.; 

Old Irish ben(a)id^b\{s, knocks' {*bi-na-ti), ro-bJth' was hit ', M/7e "beaten', fo bJth^ weel 
' (= " under the blow '), Middle Breton benaff^ cut, bite', acymr. etbinam^ to mangle ', 
without /7-lnfix abret. bitat^ cut loose, cut off ', cymr. bidio " cut a hedge ', bid^ thorn hedge 
', Middle Irish fid(h)b(h)a ^s\cV\e' = acymr. uiidimm^ lignite ', ncymr. ^i^yo'oyr scythe, 
pruning knife' = gallo-Latin v/dub/um' back, mattock, hoe ' {*vidu-bion^ wood hoe '), 
compare Middle Irish PN Fail-be " (*weapon, magic wand for killing wolves) wolf killer' 
{*vailu-bios)\ Old Irish biniti. "rennet, cleaver' ("incisive', *bi-n-antT}, Middle Irish bian^sV\v\, 
fell, fur'. Old Irish it'/a//" hatchet', acymr. bahell, ncymr. bwyell, bwya//6s., Middle Breton 
bouhaz/ds. {*b^//g//-), Old Irish be/mm n. "blow, knock' {*b'^e/-smn), corn, bommen ds., gall. 
*b/7/a 'tree stump', French b/7/e; 

Old Icelandic bJldr^ head of the arrow, bloodletting iron ' {*b'^e/-t/o-); Old High German 
i^z/ZT^a/" hatchet' {*b'^e/a-/o-), hence probably Germanic *b/7Ja-an6 not *b/P/a-\n Old High 
German Old English b/7/n., Old Saxon M'sword', Middle High German b/7, M/es 'stone 
mattock ', Modern High German B/7/ei. 'hack, mattock, hoe'. Middle High German b/77en^ 
to hoe, chip, trim ', Old High German bi7dthi, bi7idi. Modern High German Bi7d; Old High 
German bi77ai. 'sourdough'; with formants -7i- Old English bi7e'r(\. 'bill, beak, neb', 
additional form to engl. bi7f. 

Old Church Slavic biJg{bbjQ) M/'hit', Serbo-Croatian b'ijem b'iti, russ. bbju bitb6s.. Alb. 
bije, bie^ strike, hit ' therefrom with formants -dh/c,.; russ. -Church Slavic Men. ' a louse 
rake or comb ', Serbo-Croatian b77o ' the transverse piece of wood at the front of a wooden 
rake (to rake leaves with) ', Czech bid7o^ shaft, pole', russ. Mo 'beetle, hammer'; (*bhiH- 
tueh2)Mi/a 'fight, struggle, blow, knock' (: Messapic piapn). O'd Church Slavic bicb 'whip, 
scourge' (from Slavic Modern High German Peitsche); in ablaut Old Church Slavic (*b'^oiH- 
0-) u-bojbvc\. 'murder', Serbo-Croatian boj. Gen. i^oya 'battle', russ. Czech boj ds. (: lllyrian 

References: WP. II 137 f., WH. I 503 f., 506, Trautmann 33, Liden KZ. 61, 12, Karstien KZ. 

65, 154f. 

See also: S. above under b^e/d-. 

Page(s): 117-118 

Root / lemma: b^eig"- 

Meaning: to shine (?) 


From Root/ lemma: ghuoig"-: "to shine; star' derived Root/ lemma: b'^eig"-: "to shine' 

(sse above) common ghu- > Gree7< ph- > 07d Indie bh-. 

Material: Apers. *i6'/g/7a- "lustre, shine'? in PN Baga-bigna-, 'Apia-piyvr|c;; 

gr. (poTpO(; "clean, gleaming', cpoipau), cpoipa^u) "clean', a(poipavTO(; " smudges ' {*b'^oig'"- 
0-), a(piKT6(;, acpiKTpoc; {*b^/g"'-) "impure, unclean'. Note: common lllyrian g"'- > b-. 

About OoTpO(; AnoAAojv compare Kretschmer Gl. 15, 199. 

References: WP. II 138, SchwyzerGr. Gr. I 299. 
Page(s): 1 1 8 

Root / lemma: b^e/- 
Meaning: bee 

Note: with /?-, /r-or /-extension 

Material: The short form still in Old Icelandic by-fluga, Alemannian bT, Bavarian beif, 

besides forms with /? (barely extracted only the weak Dekl.), as Old High German biniu. 

"bee', ablaut. bTai. {*bhdn- = Old English beo, engl. bee), b/ha {Modem High German dial. 


Old Church Slavic bbce/a, bbce/a6s. {*b^ikela)\ cymr. bydaf beehive ', Old Prussian bitte, 

Lithuanian bite, bitis, Latvian b/te^bee'. 

Gall. *bekos'bee' (M.-L. 1014), Old Irish bechm. "bee", Gaelic speach 'pnck, sting', 
cymr. beg- eg{y)r' drone' deviate of vowel (taboo causing distortion?). 

References: WP. II 184 f., WH. I 555 f., Specht Dekl. 46. 
Page(s): 1 1 6 

Root / lemma: b{^)e1and t{^)egh{*b^e- g^) 

Meaning: outside, without 

Material: Old Indie bahih{-§) ' outdoor, outward, outside from ' (m. Abl.); 

Maybe alb. (*bhe-) pa' without'. 

Old Prussian Me "without' (preposition m. Akk.), Lithuanian i6>e "without' (preposition m. 
Gen., and nominal prefix), Latvian it'ez "without' (preposition m. Gen., and nominal prefix); 

Old Church Slavic bezeic (dial, also be) "without' (preposition m. Gen., and nominal 
prefix). Here also Lithuanian i?e "still, yet ' ("*in addition '), bet' however, but' (formation as 
/7e-/"but'), bes, Latvian best' possibly, perhaps' {*b'^e+ est, Endzelin Stud. Baltic 7, 32 f.). 

On account of here Old Irish bes " perhaps', vorton. from *beis < *b'^e-est/? 

References: WP. II 137, Trautmann 28, Endzelin Latvian Gr. 497 f. 
Page(s): 112-113 

Root / lemma: b^(e)lag- 

Meaning: weak, ridiculous 

Material: *b'^lag- or *b^ldg-\x\ wruss. biahyj' evil, bad, nasty ' (hence borrowed Latvian 

blags, Lithuanian blogas' feeble, weak '), biazic' romp ', gr., russ. blagoj' obstinate, 

nasty ', 

dial, blaznoj" s\\}'Q\d\ poln. biagi' bad, nothing worth '; barely to gr. cpsAyuvsi aauvsTsi, 

AripeT Hes., because in heavy Slavic word, which points gr. light basis; see below 


Here (apparently with expressive Gemination), liowever, Latin flaccus' flabby; of men, 
flap-eared '. 

References: WP. II 183 f., 680, WH. I 507 f. 
Page(s): 124 

Root / lemma: b^eld- 

Meaning: to knock, hit 

Note: perhaps originally o'-present of the onomatopoeic word b'^el- 

Material: From Germanic probably in addition Middle Low German bolte(n)^ bolt for a 

door, dart, arrow'. Old High German bolz. Modern High German Bolz, Bolzen, Old English 

bolt^ bolt for a door, dart, arrow', Swedish bult^ bolt for a door ' {*b'^Jd-), 

perhaps also Modern High German Balz, Vb. ba/zen and bolzen, Norwegian Dialectal bolt 

m. ' male forest bird; tomcat, male-cat'. Modern High German ^o/ze 'tomcat, male-cat'; 

Norwegian Dialectal it'o/Za 'rumble, storm ahead'. 

Old Danish bolte^ curl up, roll oneself, Swedish bulta^Vx\ocV!, Swedish Dialectal bultra 

"wallow, romp', Norwegian Dialectal bultra^rant, roister, romp', abl. Norwegian Dialectal 

baltra 'wallow, romp'; 

Lithuanian beldu, -e//and beldzlu, belstrhW, knock', ablaut, blldu, blldetr6\v\, drone, 
rumble', baldau, -y// "knock, stark rumble', baldas^ '^esWe'; Latvian belzt^hW' (perhaps 
contamination from *belzu= Lithuanian beldzlu W\\h /e/z-'hit', MiJhlenbach-Endzelin 
Latvian-German Wb. 278). 

References: WP. II 184, WH. I 560 f. 
Page(s): 124 

Root / lemma: b^eleg- 

Meaning: to shine 

Note: extension from b^eZ-ds. 

Material: b^elg-:0\(ii Indie bhargas-u. 'radiative lustre, shine' {*b'^elgos)\ Bhrgavah, PI. ' 

mythical priests of the flash fire '; Latvian balgans 'whitish'; 

Maybe alb. bardhe^ white'. 

perhaps here Old Church Slavic blagb'good', russ. (old and mtdarl.) bologoMv. "good', 

actually "light' (contrast "dark': "mad, wicked, evil'); Tocharian AB palk- 'burn, gleam, shine, 

get hot ', A palk, B pilko 'look', A polkamts 'stars' (: Lithuanian balgans), B empalkaltte 

"careless, neglectful' (Negation + *palk- "gleam, shine' besides palk-); 

bh/eig'-'gr. (pAsyu) "burn, singe, ignite ', cpAsYsSu) "singe, to set on fire; intr. burn, be in 
flames', cpAsYMa n. "blaze; inflammation; mucus', cpAsYMOvri f. "inflammation, ignition; 
ferventness, passion; rutting', (pKzyOaq a£T6(; ^av96(; Hes. (Adj. "fiery red') cpAo^, (pAoYfj6(; 

Latin flagro, -are'to blaze, burn, glow, flame, also to glitter. Transf., to glow or burn with 
passion; to suffer from ', wherefore probably f/amma' a flame, blazing fire; Transf. a 
source of light, torch, star, lightning; luster, glitter; the fire or glow of passion; devouring 
flame, destruction ' as *flagma, Oscan F/a^/^/perhaps ' an interpreter of lightning '; 

Maybe alb. {* flagro) flegra^ (*ardent, passionate breathing) nostrils', flakeroJ^\ shine', 
/7a/re "fire'; 

besides /7ag- (reduced- grades *b'^legr6-, *b^legmaor because of (pAoYMO<;, cpAo^ rather 
*b''^logma) stand zero grades b^Jg-, Latin fulg-\v\ Latin fulgdav\6 fulgeo, -ere, fulsf to flash, 
to lighten; in gen., to shine, glitter gleam; fig., to be distinguished, to shine ', fulgor, -oris^ 
lightning; in gen., glitter, brightness; fig., brightness, glory, lustre, shine', fulgus, -uris^ a 
flash or stroke of lightning; sometimes an object struck by lightning; in gen., brightness ', 
fulmen ( *fulgmen) ds.; 

Middle Irish imblissiu^ pupil (of the eye); orb ' {*n1b'^i-b^Jg-s-, Vendryes RC. 40, 431 f); 

Old High German blecchen {* blakjan). Middle High German blecken^ become visible, 
allow to see ', Modern High German blecken' show the teeth '; Old High German 
blecchazzen. Middle High German blecken^ flash ', Middle Dutch Modern Dutch blaken^ 
flame, burn, glow'. Old English blaecern, blacern^ candlestick, flambeaux ', Old Icelandic 
blakra^b\\v\k, glitter, flash'; here probably as "burnt (compare Low German b/akenirom 
blackening lamp flame), sooty ', Old English Zj/^c" black', n. "ink'. Old High German b/ah 

nasalized Germanic *b/enk-, * blank- in Middle High German Modern High German blinken. 
Middle High German blinzen {*blinkatjan). Modern High German M/7ze//7 (besides with 
Germanic polder Danish blinge^b\\v\k, glitter, flash' , s. Falk-Torp under blingse); Old High 
German blanch. Middle High German i6'/a/7/r" blinking, gleaming, gleaming, white'. Modern 
High German blank. Old English blancam. "steed' (actually from bright color, compare:) 
Old Icelandic blakkr 'saWow, paled', poet, "steed' ("dun horse, grey, *white horse '), Old 
Swedish blakker^ sa\\o\N, paled, dun (horse)', but also "black, dark' (from Germanic 
borrows French blanc, Italian bianco). From this nasal form also Prussian bllngs " pallid '; 

Lithuanian blagnytis^ sober oneself up; iigliten up', Old Lithuanian Mng/'nt/ ^sh\ne'. 

A variant on -g- perhaps in Latvian b/azt' shimmer ', blazma (blag-ma) " reflection of 
moonlight on the water '. 

References: WP II 214 f., WH. I 510 f. 865, Pedersen Tocharian 162, 218, Van Windekens 

Lexique 17, 98, EM. 398. 

See also: Beside bhe/e^- stands synonymous to b^ereg-, see there. 

Page(s): 124-125 

Root / lemma: b^e/eu- 

Meaning: to hit; weak, ill 

Material: Acorn, ba/i., pi. -c»i4^'disease, malady', mbr. baluent, 

Gothic balwa-weseT wickedness, malice, cowardice ', ,^5/^75/7 "torment, smite'. Old 
English bealo^evW, mad, wicked, evil'. Old Icelandic bgl, Dat. it'p/i/e "misfortune'. Old High 
German balo. Gen. balawes^ ruin'; Gothic bliggwan {* bleuuan) "hit'. Old High German 
bliuwan. Modern High German b/euen ds., Middle English b/owe'b\o\N, knock'. Old 
Icelandic blegdem. {*blauuidan-) "wedge'; 

Old Bulgarian boli^ "sicker', boleti^ be ill '. 

Proto-Slavicform: boleti 

See also: bolb 

Page in Trubacev: II 187-189 

Old Church Slavic: boleti^be ill, be in pain' [verb] 

Russian: bo/ef'be ill' [verb], bo/eet[3sg]] bo/ef acbe' [verb], bo//t[3sg] 

Ukrainian: ,6'c»///k "suffer pain, be ill' [verb], bo///e[3sg]] bolfty^acbe' [verb], i6'c»///'[3sg] 

Czech: bo/et/'acbe' [verb] 

Slovak: boliet'^acbe' [verb] 

Polish: bolec^acbe' [verb] 

Slovincian: buolec^acbe' [verb] 

Upper Serbian: bolec^acbe' [verb] 

Lower Serbian: boles^acbe' [verb] 

Bulgarian: bolja^be ill' [verb]; bo//^ acbe' [3sg] 

Serbo-Croatian: bo/Jet/^acbe' [verb] 

Slovene: bo/ef/'acbe' [verb] 

Indo-European reconstruction: b'^ol(H)-ehi-tei 

Page in Pokorny: 125 

other cognates: Go. it's/wya/? "martyr' [verb]; Olc. bg/va ^ curse' [verb] 

Notes: {1} The possibility exists that we had *b^/e{H)u-{Gk. cpAaupoc; "inferior, bad', Olc. 

Z?/5^J/-"timid'?) alongside *b^e/{HJ-{ci. Pokorny 125, 159). 

About Modern High German Block eic see below b^eZ-J. 

References: WP. II 189, Hirt Indo Germanic Gr. II 150, Feist 79, 100, Specht Dekl. 133. 
See also: Besides a root form b'^leu-: b^/au- : b^/u-, see there. 
Page(s): 125 

Root / lemma: b^elgh- 

Meaning: to swell 

Note: (extension of b^e/- "inflate, bloat' etc) 

Material: Old Indie barhfs- n. " sacrificial grass, (*sacrificial bed of straw) ' = Avestan 

barazis-v\. "cushion, pillow, cushion', npers. Z7a//s "pillow, cushion'; Old Indie upa-barhana- 

m, upa-barhanTi. "cover, cushion'; 


Clearly alb. bar^Qxass, straw' derived from Indian languages. Hence alb. is a direct 

descendant of Sanskrit. Clearly alb. belongs to satem family. 

Whether with Asp. -Diss, against forms -ha- here Old Indie barjaha-h'u66er'7 

Irish bo/ga/m ' s\Ne\\' , bo/gt "bubble', bo/gm. "sack, bag, belly, husk, trouser'. Middle 
Irish bolgachi. "swelling, blister, bubble, blister; pox', bo/gamm ^gu\p\ cymr. bo/, bo/a, bo/y 
"belly, sack, bag', bu/^ seed capsule, seminal shell ' (PL. oi bo/}/), bret. bo/c'h^ linen pod ', 
vann. peh/-en (from *peh/-) ds., gall, bu/ga "leather sack' (out of it Old High German bu/ga^ 
water container made of leather '); gall. Be/gae " the angry (*a warlike people in the north 
of Gaul)'; 

Gothic ba/gsm. "hose'. Old Icelandic be/grm. " stripped animal skin, bag, belly'. Old 
High German Middle High German ba/g ^bag, hose, bellows, sword scabbard ', Old 
English b/e/g, by/(i)g^sac, bag', engl. it'e/Zj/" belly', be//ows ^beWo^s' (Germanic *ba/j/-n\., 
compare Old Prussian ba/sinis, perhaps hat also Old Indie barhis-, Avestan barozis- Indo 
Germanic -is- as extension dieses /-stem); 

Old Icelandic participle bo/ginn "swollen', (under the influence of common Celtic -/7S-, - 
nt- > -nn-), Kaus. be/gja^rc\ake swell up'. Old Saxon Old English be/gan stem-V . " be angry 
', Old High German be/gan^sweW up', refl. "be angry with'. Old Frisian participle ovirbu/gen 

Old Icelandic bylgJa^\Nave', Middle Low German bulge 6s.; *bul(h)stra-\x\ Old Icelandic 
bolstrxu. "pillow, cushion', Old Englishit'o/s/e/'n. "pillow, cushion'. Old High German bolstar 
ds., Dutch i6>c»/s/e/'"fruit skin, husk'; 

Old Prussian ba/s/n/s^ p\\\o\N, cushion' {*b^olghi-nos), pobalso^ feather bed ', Latvian 
pabalstsm. " pillow ' (and "pad', see above S. 123); slov. /7/5z//7a "pillow, cushion, 
mattress, a downy or feather bed; pad, ball of the foot or ball of the thumb, heel of hand 
[anat.] ' (and "roof beam, crossbeam of the sledge, stake, stanchion', see above S. 123), 
Serbo-Croatian b/az/na' p\\\o\N, cushion, feather-bed'; russ. bolozenbxw. " weal, callus, 
swelling, blister, clavus, corn' (but russ. dial. b6lozno^\.\\\ck board'). 

Here probably as Venetic-lllyrian loanword Old Prussian balgnanu.. Old Lithuanian 
balgnas, Lithuanian balnas^saAd^e' (probably from "pillow, cushion'). Further Balto-Slavic 
forms see above S. 123. 

References: WP. II 182 f., WH. I 122. compare about gr. [joAyo^ "leather sack' Vendryes 
BSL. 41, 134f. 
Page(s): 125-126 

Root / lemma: b'^el-l, Balto-Slavic also b^ela-{*h^e\-^ > b^elH-o-) 

Meaning: shining, white 

Note: to b^a-/ standing in the same relationship, as stel- to sta- "stand', del- "split' to *da(i)- 


Material: Old Indie bhalamu. "lustre, shine, forehead', sam-bha/ayat/ ^g\ar\ces' (lengthened 

grade); ba/aka' a crane's kind ' with b- after baka-h^ a heron's kind '; 

Armenian bar pallidness, paleness '; 

Maybe alb. it'a/e "badger (animal with white spots in the snout)', balo^a dog with white spot 
on the forehead'. 

compare Skt. i6'/7a/a/77 "brightness, forehead', Welsh ,6>a/"having a white spot on the 

gr. cpaAoq "white' Hes., cpaAuvsi Aannpuvsi Hes., cpaAi(F)6c; "gleaming, white, white- 
fronted ', (paAr|p6(;, Doric -apoc, ds., cpaAr|pi<;, Doric -ap\c, " coot (*bald-headed) ', (paAaKp6(; 
" bald-headed ' 

Note: Doric cpaAr|p6(; -apit; " coot (*bald-headed) ', cpaAoKpot; " bald-headed ' related to alb. 
alb. i6'5/e "forehead, (*shining forehead, *bold as a coot)'. 

Doric naiJcpaAaw "look shyly around'; paAi6(; "white, it is white-mottled ' is probably lllyrian 

lllyrian *i75//5 "swamp, marsh, white clay', out of it Latin blateat, "excrement lump', 
adalm. balta^ sea swamp '; Ligurian 16'o/a "swamp, marsh' (M.-L. 1191b), FIN Duria 
Ba u t/ca {irom *Baltica), perhaps here mare Balticum (Venetic-lllyrian?) "Baltic Sea ' 
(Einhard, 9. Jh), compare Bonfante BSL. 37, 7 f.; 

Maybe Spanish barm : French boue : Albanian balte : Czech blato : Polish bfoto : Venetian 
paltan: Zeneize bratta^ mud ' : Romanian balta^ bog, marsh' : Lithuanian balta^ white ' : 
alb. {balaga) bardhe^ white' common alb. -g > -dh. 

Notes: Cf. also the Rythabalt mea^o^N and the placename Namuynbalt\s the equivalent of 
Namoyumpelk {pelk^ s^Nam'^'). For the semantics cf. Pol. dial, biel, bielaw, Bel. bel' 
"swampy meadow' (Trubacev II: 180). PSI. *bolto\s sometimes considered an "lllyrian" 
substratum word. In this connection not only the above-mentioned forms from the Balkan 
Peninsula are adduced, but also Romance forms such as Lomb. palta, Piem. pauta. 

alb. bale, ba//e lorehead, (*bold as a coot?) ' (= Old Prussian ba//o ds.), balash^ white 
horse or ox ', baltei., ba/tm. "slime, mud, swamp, marsh, white clay'; 

Maybe alb. {*ba/akha) ba//uke '\r\a\r innge' . 

Latin fu//ca {compare Old High German belihha) and fulixt "coot' {*b^olik-\N\Vc\ dial. u)\ 
but whether feles, -/si. " a polecat, cat, marten; hence a thief ' here belongs, is dubious 
because oi meles, -/si. "marten, badger'; 

Celtic be/o- "luminous, white' in cymr. beleu {*b'^eleuo) "marten'. Old Irish ofbellru. 
"blaze, glow, heat' (f. "spark, glowing coal') = cymr. ufelm. "spark, fire' {*opi-b^elo). Middle 
Irish Bel-tene^ festival of 1st May ' (= beacon), gall. GN {Apollo) Belenos, {Minerva) 
Bel/sama {Super Latin), FIN Belena> French Bienne, (under the influence of common 
Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), Swiss Biel, Old French bailie " paleness ' (out of it Middle Breton 
baillds.) could on ablaut, gall. *balio- go back, compare frz PN Bailleuil< *Balio-ialon\ gall. 
belsa "field' from *belisa\ 

Gothic balam. " bald horse, horse with a blaze ' (from Belisar's steed [Belisar was a 
Byzantine commander]), engl. dial, ball' horse with white paleness ' (out of it cymr. bal 
ds). Middle English balled, engl. bald, Danish bseldet' naked, bald, bleak ', Old High 
German belihha {compare Latin fulica). Modern High German Belche ' coot' , BergN 

Belchen{\.o suffix s. Brugmann Grundrift II 1, 511, Specht Dekl. 213 f.), lengthened grade 
Old Icelandic i?5/'flame', Old English b^r pyres, funeral piles ' {*b'^ef-). 

Whereas are Germanic *pdl- in Old English pol, engl. pool. Old High German pfuol 
"poor, ablaut. Dutch peel{*palh) 'morass'. Old English pyll, engl. pill {*pulja-, older *Mc»-) 
probably from Venetic-IH. borrows (see above *bola), different Petersson Heterokl. 205; 

Lithuanian M/as 'white' and ' snowdrop ', bala\. 'white anemone' and m. 'swamp, 
marsh, moor, fen, pool', balu, balau, baltr become white'; Latvian lengthened grade M/s' 
pallid, pale, wan '; Old Prussian balloi. 'forehead' and *i6'5/c» 'swamp, marsh' in PN; 

Maybe alb. balash' white cow ' : Lithuanian: M/as 'white'. 

Old Church Slavic lengthened grade it'e/b 'white' (*bhe/o), f. 'splint in wood', poln. dial. 
biel\. ' marshy wood, forest', russ. dial. M'swamp, marsh'; ablaut. balai^bi^olS) in russ. 
bala-ruzina^ puddle, slop ', kir. balka^ marsh '; 

Lithuanian baltas {*b^ol9tos), Latvian /^aT/s 'white'. North Sea Baltirja ezers, 

Slavic substant. neutr. Adj. *bolto-{*b'^ol9to-) 'swamp, marsh, pond, pool, sea' in Old 
Church Slavic blato'sea', Serbo-Croatian blato^sea, ordure', russ. boloto' swamp, marsh'; 

Lithuanian ba'lnas^\Nh\te' (with glottal stop, Indo Germanic *b^olanos), balandis^ 
baptism ', balanda^ orache ', russ. lebeda, serb. loboda^s.; 

Slavic (*bholH-neh2) *bolna\. (with trail tone, Indo Germanic *b'^oln3) in Czech slov. 
blana^ membrane, skin, cutaneously', russ. bolona^ sickly outgrowth on trees, sap-wood, 
(dial.) lump ', bolonbi., 'splint in wood', originally identical with Czech blana' meadow, 
grassland', poln. blohi., blonieu. ds., russ. bolontjeu. ' deeply situated meadows '; 

perhaps Tocharian B palsk-, palsk, A pal(t)sk^ cogitate ' (*see, compare Old Indie sam- 

whether here gr. cpsAAoc; {*b^el-so-), 'cork, oak cork ', (^zKKzdQ, ' rocky ground ', a(p£Ari(; 
'even (*of land, ground, etc.: level, flat, not hilly or sloping; of uniform height) ', (poAi(; ' 
scale, flake (ones of reptile)'? 

References: WP. II 175 f., WH. I 108 f., 559 f., W. Schuize Berl. Sbb. 1910, 787 = Kl. Schr. 
Ill, Trautmann 25, 29 f., Specht Dekl. 1 1 6 f. 

See also: Here further b^el-2;b^eleg-;b^lei-, -g-, -k-; b^len6'^-;b^les-;b^leu-, -k-, -s-; b^leuo- 
; b'^Jn&^o-; b^loido-. 

Page(s): 118-120 

Root / lemma: bhe/-2( > *bhel-(e)-n-) 

Meaning: in names of henbane 

Note: probably with b^e/-/ identical 

Material: Gall. (Illyrian ?) belinuntiai., psAsviov n. ' hyoscyamus ', to names oi Apollo 

Belenos{see above b'^el-f); 

Old English beolone {*b^eluna). Old Saxon bllene, zero grade Old Danish bylne 
(Germanic *bul-n-), b0lme, Swedish bolmort. Modern High German dial, bllme; but Old 
High German bl{i)sa\s probably Celtic loanword (compare aprov. belsa); 

Slavic *belena-, *belena\v\ r.-Church Slavic belen-b m., russ. belenat, Slavic *beln-b m. 
in slov. blen. Old Czech blen, zero grade Slavic *bbln-b in Serbo-Croatian bun. 

References: WP. II 180, WH. I 99 f., Trautmann 30, KretschmerGI. 14, 97, Specht Dekl. 


Page(s): 120 

Root / lemma: b^el-S, b^/e- 

Meaning: to grow, spread, swell 

Material: Old Indie bhanda-u. "pot, pan, vessel' {*b'^aln-dal)\ after Thieme (ZDMG. 92, 47 

f.) here Avestan baro-s-man- ' bundle of branches ', Old Indie barsva m. PI. ' bulge; bead; 

lip; torus; wreath; roll; bulb, gums' (loanword from Avestan *Z?a/'s/77a/7 'cushion'); 

compare under Old High German bllorn. 

Armenian it»e/^/7 'fertile' (: gr. (paAr|<;), beln-awor6s. (: gr. (paAA6(;), Adontz, Mel. Boisacq 

Gr. (paAA6(;, cpaAnc; 'penis' (cpaAAoq from *bh//7ds or *bhe//7ds; compare Old Irish ball 
Modern High German Bulle); 

Maybe alb. Geg pallosh ^per\'\s' : gr. cpaAAoq 'penis' 

in addition cpaAAaiva (formation as Aukqivq), cpaAAr) 'whale' (compare that probably 
borrowed through Illyrian mediation Latin ballaena; also Middle High German bulllch caWs 
big fish kinds; 

identical is cpaAAaiva "motli', about a(p£An(; and supplementary see above Z. 1 ; about 
6(pzKoq see be\o\N phe/-; after Persson Beitr. 299 also (pA6|J0(; (cpAovoq) Great mullein, 
plant with thick woolly leaves, as *bh {e)/o-mo-s7 

Probably Phrygian pa|j-paAov, pa-PaAov 'ai5oTov' Hes., also paAAiov 'penis'; thrak. VN 

Latin fo///s ' a leather bag; a pair of bellows; a purse; a puffed-out cheek ' {*b'^Jn/sor 
*b^olnis, compare the Germanic words with -//- from -//?-); 

cymr. bali. "elevation, rise, mountaintop ' (*bh/a); 

Maybe alb. mal [coxwxwou alb. mt>-> m-]. 

zero grade Old Irish ballm. 'limb, member, part, body part ', then 'deal, portion, place, 
spot, mark' (also in the body), hence perhaps also cymr. i?a//'epidemic', baZ/eg 'sack, bag'; 
changing through ablaut bo/, bo//\n cymr. dyrn-for glove ', arfolli' become pregnant ', 
ffroen-foir with swollen nostrils ' (: cpaAAoc;); 

Maybe alb. bole 'testicle' 

zero grade with formants -/ro-and meaning as Old High German bald {see below): nir. 
it's/© 'strong', cymr. balch, bret. balc'h 'sioui, proud, hubristic, overbearing'. 

b']/-(bheA) in Old Swedish bulin, bolln 'swoWen', bulde, bolde, byld' hump, ulcer'; Old 
Icelandic buir, boir rw. 'tree truck, trunk'. Middle Low German Middle High German bolet 
"plank' (Modern High German Bohle); Old Icelandic boirbuW, Old English bula6s., bulluc 
'young bull', engl. bull. Middle Low German Modern High German Bulle{as *bull-dn= gr. 
*(paAAu)v from a stem *bulla-= (paKko-q); Hessian bulle'vuWa'; Old Icelandic boll/m. 
drinking bowl ' ('*spherical vessel'; Middle Irish ballan' drinking vessel ' probably from 
Nord.), Old English bollavn. 'bowl', heafodbolla' brain box, cranium ', Old Frisian strotbolla 
"larynx'. Old Saxon i&c»//o "drinking bowl'. Old High German bollai. "vesicle, blister, fruit 
skin or knot of the flax ', Middle High German bollei. "bud, spherical vessel'. Old High 
German birn/bolla ' cran\urc\' , Modern High German Bolle, Rolibollen, Middle High German 
bulllch, bolch " big fish among others cod ' (compare cpaAAaiva), compare also Old High 
German bolon. Middle High German boln'roW, throw, toss, fling' and with the meaning 
swollen = "thick, big, large', Swedish Dialectal bal, bor thick and large, strong, very daring 
', Old Icelandic poet, bolmr'bear'; here probably Old Icelandic bulkrsh\p load', Swedish 
Danish bulk' hump, nodules, tubers'; 

in heterokl. paradigm (?) *b^'e//; Gen. *b^'eA7es interprets Old Higli German bilorrrfw. f. 
"gums' (*Mi//77d "swelling, bulge; bead; lip; torus; wreath; roll; bulb '), whether not from 

Germanic *bel-n- also in Hessian M/e "penis' (: bulle). Middle Low German {ars-)bille, 
Dutch M"buttock', Swedish fotabjalle^baW of the foot'; 

also alb. M/"penis', i&o/e "testicle' 

changing through ablaut Old High German ballo, balla. Modern High German Ball, 
Ballen, Old High German arsbelllm. PI. "buttocks', Old English beallucm. "testicles' {*b^ol- 
n-), Old Icelandic bgllr'baW, sphere, testicle'; Old Icelandic it'a//" elevation along the the 
edge of the lake bank; small rise on ground level '; with formants -/o-and the meaning 
"swollen, inflated' = " arrogant, bold ', Gothic bal-t^aba Mv . " boldly ', balt^eii. " boldness ', 
Old Icelandic it's///" "dreadful, dangerous', baldinn ' def\ant' , (under the influence of common 
Celtic -/7S-, -/?/- > -nn-), Old English beald'bo\6, audacious'. Old High German bald^bo\6, 
audacious, quick, fast'. Modern High German bald Adv.; in addition Old English bealdor 
"prince, lord, master, mister', Old Icelandic GN Baldr. 

With coloring gradation *b'^dl- probably Norwegian b0r\n heat, rutting, of the sow ' 
(changing through ablaut bala^ rutting, be in heat '). 

root form b^/e-: 

Gr. cpAnvacpoq 'gossip, talkative', (pAr|v-£co, -aco "be talkative'; EKwcpAaivw as cpaivoo 
from b^a-, Aor. SKcpAnvai "bubble out'; 

Latin fid, flare^ to blow; intransit., of winds, persons and instru- ments; transit., to blow, 
blow forth; to blow on an instrument; to cast metals, to coin ' (probably from *b^l9-ld), but 
flemina^ varicoses ' is probably loanword from gr. cpAsyiJOvri; Norwegian dial, blsema^ bleb 
on the skin, skin vesicle '; Old Swedish blaemma 6s.\ Old High German blat(t)ara. Old 
Saxon bladara ^b\\s{er, bubble'. Old English blaedre^s., reduplication-stem Old Icelandic 
it'/ad/'a "vesicle, blister, bubble'. Old High German etc i6'/a/"leaf'; Old Icelandic bla-\x\ Zs. 
"excessive, very'; with prevalent meaning "blow' Old High German 7c>-present blajan, blaen 
"blow, swell, blowout'. Old English blawan^b\o\N' (here n/from Perf.), Old High German 
blat. Old English bl3ed^b\ow, breath, breeze, gust of wind'. Old Icelandic blaer^^usi of 
wind'; with -5- Gothic i//Z7/es5/7 "inflate, bloat'. Old Icelandic blasa^b\o\N, pant, gasp, inflate, 
bloat; unpers.: "swell up'. Old High German blasan^b\oW, blasa ^bubb\e\ it'/as/ "blast. 

breath, breeze', Old English blaest, Old Icelandic blastr{*blestu-) "blast, breath, breeze, 
snort, rage, fury'; 

Maybe alb. p/as'b\o\N' 

Latvian b/e/jas ' prank' derives from russ. loanword it'/eo'/is "confidence trickster, swindler 

Maybe alb. Geg blenj^\ buy, bargain, strike a deal)' similar meaning shift as Latin Ted -ere^ 
hit, wound, strike, smite; esp., to strike a bargain ' 

Here perhaps Gothic bldl=>^b\oo6\ s. b'^el-4. 

References: WP. II 177 f., WH. I 515, 524 f. 

See also: In addition b^e/-^ "bloom' etc and the extensions b^elgh-, b^led-, b^leg"-, b^lei-, 

b^leu-^\.o swell' etc 

Page(s): 120-122 

Root / lemma: b^el-4av\6 b^/e- b^lo- b^la- 

Meaning: leaf; bloom 

Note: probably from b^e/- "to swell' in sense of "vegetable lushness ' and "swelling = bud' 

Material: Gr. cpuAAov "leaf {*b^"J/om), Latin folium 6s.\ Middle Irish Medc"leaf' (from *bile< 

*b'^e//o-); moreover probably Old Irish Men. "tree'; 

Maybe alb. (*(puAAov) py//" forest' [common alb. shift u > y\ 

b^/e-, mostly b^/o- in: Latin f/os, -r/'sm. " a flower, blossom. Transf., the prime, flower of 
anything, the best, the pride; on the face, first beard, down '; f/oreo, -ere' to bloom, flower. 
Transf., to be in one's prime, to prosper, flourish, be in repute; with abl. to abound in, 
swarm with '; Oscan Fluusaf' the goddess of flowers, whose festival was celebrated on 
the 28th of April, often with unbridled license ', Fluusasiafs' of the festivals of Flora ', 
sabin. Flusare " of or belonging to the festival of Flora, of the Floralia '. 

Middle Irish blathxw. "bloom, blossom, flower', cymr. blawd, acorn. blodon'b\oo'r(\, 
blossom' (t)h/o-/-). Middle Breton (with -/77e/7-suffix) bleuzven, nbret. bleun(v)enn6s., 
(common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), with 5-derivative Middle High German bluost'b\oorr\, 
blossom'. Modern High German Blust, Old English blostma, blosma, b/dstml\o\i\/er, 
blossom'. Old Norse b/omstrds., Dutch b/dsen'b\oom' (= Middle Low German blosen 
"blush', see below b^^/es- "shine'); 

Gothic b/omavn., Old High German b/uomom. "flower, blossom', Old Icelandic blomixw. 
ds., it'/o/T? collective "flower, blossom'; Old High German bluojen, bluowen. Old Saxon 
blojan. Old English /7/0M/5/7 "bloom'; Old High German bluoti. " blossoming, bloom, 
blossom' = Old English bledi. "scion, shoot, twig, branch, flower, blossom, fruit'; but Gothic 
blot^u.. Old Icelandic blod. Old Saxon Old English blod. Old High German /^A/o/ "blood' 
probably to *b'^ele- "effervesce'. 

With e: Old English blaedm. "breath, breeze', n. "bubble', f. "bloom, blossom'. Old High 
German it'/a/ "bloom, blossom' (compare also Old English blaed. Old High German blat 
"life, breath, breeze' and b'^e/- "inflate, bloat'); 

with a: Old High German blat. Old Saxon blad. Old English blsed. Old Icelandic bladu. 
"leaf; Tocharian A. pa/t6s. 

References: WP. II 176 f., WH. I 518 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 351. 
Page(s): 1 22 

Root / lemma: b^e/-5, mostly with -g- {-/(-) suffix: b'^g/^-, b^Ja-n-g-, b^eleg-, b^JR- 
Meaning: balk 

Material: Basic b^eA in Old Indie bhurfjau Du." arms, arms or shafts of the cart's pole'; gall. 
*ba/akon ^ {\Na\\) projection ', cymr. it's/o^ "pinnacle' (M.-L. 890). 

With guttural extensions: 

Gr. cpaAay^, -yyoqf. "stem, balk, beam; battle row, array ', cpaAayyai "planks, planking' 
(if only with secondary nasal rendering from other nouns in -y^, so *cpaAaY- = Old Indie 
bhurij-; yet perhaps with b^^e/a-^- only parallel ^-extension from a /7-stem *bf^e/a/7-from); 
with -/r-.- (paAKr|<; m. "balk, beam plank in ship'. 

Latin fulcio, -Tre, fulsT, -tum{*b'^Jkid) " to prop up, support; to strengthen, secure; morally, 
to support, stay, uphold ' (actually "through balk, beam'); fulcrum (*fulc-lom?) " the post or 
foot of a couch (prop, rack, rest camp) '. 

Perhaps also sufflamen' a brake, drag, hindrance ' i^flag- = Indo Germanic *b'^/9g- 

Old Icelandic biaiki (*belkan-)^ba\k, beam'; ablaut. {*balkan-): Old English baica, beaica; 
Old High German Old Saxon i6'a//rc»"balk, beam'; Old Icelandic it's/Zr/'" partition wall, dividing 
off, partitioning off, i6'(?/Ar"dividing off, partitioning off; 

zero grade Old English bo/cam. "gangplank'; but Old High German bloli^h), Middle High 
German bloch. Modern High German (ndd.) Block^ c\o{, chunk, balk, plank' contains Indo 
Germanic u, also from Indo Germanic *bh/i//rc»- or, whether with Germanic consonant 
increase, from *b''^lugo-, to Middle Irish it'/o^ "piece, fragment', further perhaps to Gothic 
bliggwan. Old High German bliuwan. Modern High German b/euen'\r\\t', from Indo 
Germanic *b^leu-ono-, see below b^eleu-. 

Whereas belong probably to *b'^elgh- "to swell' from a meaning mediation "thick, 
tumescent' from: 

Lithuanian balziena^ long beam in the harrow ', ba/z/enas ^ crossbar, crossbeam', 
Latvian balziens, belziensm. "prop'. East Latvian bolgzds rr\. " props connected in the 
wood sledge level ', Latvian pabalstsm. "prop, handle, grasp, handle in the plow ', balzft, 
paba/stft' prop, sustain'; 

russ. Dialectal (Gouv. Olonez) /7d/oz/7c» "thick board', slov. /7/az//7a "roof beam, 
crossbeam of the sledge, stake, stanchion'; kasub. bfozno'tbe runners connecting the 
sledge skids '. 

References: WP. II 181 f., WH. I 559, Trautmann 25 f. 
Page(s): 122-123 

Root / lemma: b^e/-6 

Meaning: to sound, speak, onomatopoeic words 

Material: Old Indie ,6'/7a5a-/7 "barking, baying' {*b^e/-s-), bhasate '\.a\ks, speaks, prattles'; 

bhandate {Dbatup.) "speaks, jeers, rebukes' {*b^e/-n-c/d), bhanat/ ^\.a\ks, speaks' {*b^e/-nd) 

are after Kuiper Proto-Munda 32 f. not Indo Germanic 

Old Icelandic be/Ja'roar, bellow'. Middle Dutch be/en^bark, bay'; Old Icelandic by/Ja, 
bu/da' tbreater), drone, roar', /7y//'"gust of wind'. Old English by/gan'roar, bellow'. Middle 
High German bo/n^cry, roar, bellow'; 

with Germanic //(consonant increase in the onomatopoeic words). Old High German 
be//an'bark, bay'. Old English be//an'roar, bellow, bark, bay, grunt'; Old High German 
bu//dn'\r\o\N\ (from the wind), bark, bay, roar, bellow', isl. -Norwegian bu//a^babb\e, chat'; 
Old Icelandic bja//a. Old English be//e, engl. be//. Middle Low German be//e^be\\'. Modern 
High German (actually ndd.) ^e///7a/77/77e/" bellwether (with bell)'; 

with Germanic /c/ (probably from a present d^- and perliaps witli Litliuanian bilduio 
compare, because latter contains most probably Indo Germanic d^) Danish baldre, 
Norwegian Dialectal baldra, schwed Dialectal ba//ra'rant, roister' Middle Low German 
Dutch ba/deren6s., Danish buldre, Swedish bullsa. Middle Low German Dutch bulderen, 
bolderen. Middle High German buldern. Modern High German poltern; Old Prussian billit 
"say, speak', Lithuanian bilstu, bilau, bilti^io start to talk ', bTlu, b/7ot/^ta\k', biloju, -d//"say, 
talk', byl-au, -d//ds., /y/a "speech, pronunciation, conversation, entertainment', Latvian 
bPstu, bPzu, b/Ist{\r\ Zs.) "talk, address, speak to', Mo'e/ 'address, speak to'; Latvian b^/at 
(from *bllQa) "weep, cry'; with formants -50- Lithuanian ba7sas'vo\ce, sound, tone'; 

Tocharian AB pa/-, pa/-'pra\se, laud' (Van Windekens Lexique 89). 

References: WP. II 182, WH. I 516, Trautmann 25. 
See also: From this derived *b'^/e- "bleat'. 
Page(s): 123-124 

Root / lemma: b^en6^- 

Meaning: to bind 

Material: Old Indie badhnati, only later bandhat/ 'b'mds, fetters, captures, takes prisoner, 

put together ', Avestan bandaya/t/"b'\r\6s\ participle Old Indie baddha-, Avestan ap. basta-. 

Old Indie bandhana-u. " ligation ', bandha-hm. " ligation, strap'. 


Probably from Avestan ap. basta-n. " ligation ' derived alb. bese'pact, covenant, faith, 
belief, armistice', previously lllyrian TN ^eso/[common alb. shift st>s]; clearly lllyrian 
displays simultaneous satem and centum characteristics since it was created before the 
split of Indo European family. Because the institution of besa\s the most important pagan 
medium that surpasses monotheistic religions in alb. psyche, that means alb. are the 
descendants of lllyrian Only alb. and Indie languages relate to the fact of blood bond. The 
institution of besa marks the ancient code of blood revenge and the victory of patriarchy or 
the blood line of the father. 

Avestan banda-m. "band, manacle' (: Old Icelandic Old Saxon bant, Old High German 
bantu.. Modern High German Band, Gothic bandi. Old English bendi. ds.; Lithuanian 
banda^ caiWe', see below); Old Indie bandhu-hrc\. "kinsman, relative' (as nEvGspoO. 

Gr. nsTapa "rope, hawser, rope, cable' (from *n£v9aMa, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 287, 
compare Brugmann IF. 11, 104 f., also for nsapa and naapa), n£v9£p6(; "father-in-law' 
(*"linked by marriage '); 

here after Pedersen (REtlE. 1 , 192) also naaxu) "suffer' as " is bound, is entrapped ', as 
also Latin offendd\o strike against, knock; to hit upon, fall in with; to shock, offend, 
displease; intransit. to knock, strike; to run aground; to stumble, make a mistake, to give 
offence (with dat.); also to take offence', defendo^ (*release from the entanglement) to 
repel, repulse, ward off, drive away (2) to defend, protect; esp. to defend in court; in 
argument, to maintain a proposition or statement; to sustain a part '; naGvr) (covers late, 
but old), with sound metathesis hom. Attic cpawn "crib' {^h^nd^-na, under a basic meaning " 
twisted, woven basket' as Celtic benna " carriage basket ') (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn- 


thrak. p£v5- "bind' (compare Kretschmer Einl. 236); alb. bese'pact, covenant, faith, belief, 

I Nyhan TN Besoi 

Latin offendimentum, offendix^ the knot of a band, or the band itself, chin strap under 
priest's cap, apex ( a Roman priest's cap), fastened with two strings or bands'; 

gall. benna'V\u6 of vehicle', Galatian Zsuc; Bsvvioq, cymr. /7e/7/7 "wagon, cart' (out of it Old 
English binn, and through roman. mediation Modern High German dial, it*©/?/?© "carriage 
boxes', Dutch i?e/7 "basket, trough'; basic form *b^en6'^-na)\ Middle Irish bu/nne'strap, 
bangle ' {*b^on6^/a); (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-). 

Gothic Old English b/ndan, Old Icelandic b/nda, Old High German b/nfan^b\n6', Gothic 
andbundnan "\s unfastened ', Gothic band/ etc see above; 

Lithuanian bendras ^partner, comrade' (formant associated with gr. nEvGspoq), banda' 
herd of cattle ' (actually "the tied (down) cattle, the bound cattle '). 

Here also Gothic banstsm. "barn' {*b^on6^-str, compare in other meaning Old Frisian 
bosf^ matrimonial union' from *b^on6^-stu- 'bond'; 

ndd. banse' silo, garner, barn'. Old English *bds, engl. i^oose "cattle shed'. Old English 
bos/'g' cnb', Old Icelandic bassm. "room for keeping, cattle stall' {*band-sa-); 

jut. bende^ divided off room in cattle shed' erases probably every doubt about the 
relationship of above group with binden. 

References: WP. II 152, WH. I 102, Feist 79, 80 f., 93. 
Page(s): 127 

Root / lemma: b^end- 

Meaning: to sing, rejoice 

Material: Old Indie bhandate 'rece'wes cheering shout, is praised, glares, gleams', 

bhandistha-h^ in loudest cheering, shrilly, screaming, best of all praising ', 

t>handana-h ^ cheenng' , bhandana ' merry tintinnabulation, cheer' (doubts the meaning 

partly); zero grade Old Irish Middle Irish i7//7o' "melodic', abret. /7a/7/7 'melodious, 

harmonious', (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-). 

References: WP. 111 51 f. 

Page(s): 126-127 

Root/ lemma: b^engh-, b^Qgh-{M]. b^pghu-s) 
Meaning: thick, fat 

Material: Old Indie bahu-'der\se, rich, much, a lot of "compounds Sup. barhhlyas-, 
batfihistha- {= gr. naxu(;); 

bahula-^Mck, dense, vast, spacious, big, large, rich, much, a lot of (= gr. naxuAwq Adv. 
by Aristot., if these not newer formation); bambate {ur\covered) ' increase, multiply ', 
bhaifihayate^ clamps, fastens, strengthens'; 

Avestan b^zah-r\. 'height, depth', bqsnu-rr\. ds., Baluchi it'az'much, a lot of, baz 

gr. TTaxu(; 'thick, dense, fat, obese' (compounds naaawv), "rraxoq n. 'thickness, 
fatness' (occurs after naxu(; for *n£YX0(; = Avestan bqzah-), jrdx^ioq, 'thick; thickness, 

Old Icelandic bingr^bea'^\ Old Swedish binge 6s., Old High German bungo^\uber, bulb', 
Modern High German Bachbunge, in addition with intens. consonant-sharpening Old 
Icelandic bunki^ stowed away shipload', Norwegian bunka{ar\6 bunga) ^sruaW heap, 
swelling, blister', Dutch it'o/?/: 'clump, lump' ; 


Alb. bunge^ kind of edible oak fruit ' : with -^- grade alb. {*beuka) buka'brea6' : Phrygian 
pEKoc; 'bread', actually ' crumb ' prove that from an extended Root/ lemma: b(e)u-1, 
b^(e)u-\ 'expr. sound of hitting' derived Root/ lemma: b'^eg-, b^eng-: 'to break'. Root/ 
lemma: b'^engh-, bh^^^-(Adj. b'^ijghu-^ : thick, fat'. Root/ lemma: b'^eug-l: to flee, *be 
frightened'. Root/ lemma: b'^eug-2, b'^eugh-: to clear away, free'. Root/ lemma: b^eug-3, 
b^eugh-: 'to bow', Root/ lemma: b^eug-4\ 'to enjoy, *consume, bite' as taboo words. 

Latvian b/ezs'dense, thick', i6'/e'z^/77s"tliicl<ness, fatness'; 

Latin pinguis^ fat; oily; ricli, fertile; n. as subst. fatness, fat. Transf. thick, dense; heavy, 
stupid; easy, quiet ' has perhaps originated through hybridization of *fingu-is= naxuc;, 
bahu-mVc\ that to opTmus, niwv respective words; 

Tocharian B pkante, /0/ra//e "greatness, bulk, extent' (Van Windekens Lexique 96); 

Hittite pa-an-ku- {panku-) 'all,ingenerar. 

References: WP. 111 51, Couvreur H 177. 
Page(s): 127-128 

Root / lemma: b^e/?- 

Meaning: to hit, wound 

Material: Avestan bqnayan^W makes me sick', banta- "sickens, waste away'; 

Gothic ban/a 'b\o\N, knock, wound, ulcer'. Old Icelandic ben, Old English benni., (under 
the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), Old Saxon beni-wunda "wound'; Old 
Icelandic banirw. "death; murderer'. Old English bana. Old High German Old Saxon bano 
"killer, murderer'. Old High German bano. Middle High German bane, it's/? "death, ruin'; 
perhaps also Middle High German bane, bani. and m. "pathway, way, alley' as "* by all 
means through an wood, forest' or "* a (well-) beaten track, a way used often '; Middle Irish 
ep/ti. "scythe, pruning knife' from *eks-b^en-tr, corn, bony'axe'; but cymr. bon-c/usf^ s\ap 
in the face, box on the ear' contains /?c»/7 "stick'. 

Avestan bata-, if " ground coarsely, from the grain ', could be related as *b^n-to-, but 
because of the uncertain meaning is only to name with reservation. 

References: WP. II 149, Feist 80. 

Page(s): 1 26 

Root / lemma: b^ered'^- 

Meaning: to cut; board 


Root/ lemma: b^ered'^-: "to cut; board' derived from Root/ lemma: b^eregh-: "high; 

mountain, *sharp' [common lllyrian - bait -gb- > -db-]. 

Material: Old Indie bardhaka-h^ c\iV(\v\(^, clipping', m. "carpenter", sata-bradh-na-h^ having 
100 metal points '; perhaps gr. nspGu) 'destroy, smash', nopGsu) "destroy, smash, 

b^re6!^os-\v\ Old Saxon Old English bred^boaxA', Old High German bretu., therefrom Old 
High German britissa. Modern High German Pritsche; 

bhycjho-in Gothic fotu-baurdu. " splint ', Old Icelandic bordu. "board, table, desk'. Old 
English bordu. ds.. Old High German borfds. = Umbrian forfo- ds. in furfant' they lay on 
the board '; probably with it identical Old Icelandic bord' edge, border, ship's rim ', Old High 
German Middle High German bort6s. (Modern High German Bordirom Ndd.), Old English 
bord'board, edge, shield'; Old English bordam. "edge, ornament, decoration'. Old High 
German borfo, Modern High German Borfe; 

b^o/6^o-\n Old Icelandic bard'e6ge, border', Norwegian dial, bard 6s. 

From Germanic *burd- derive Serbo-Croatian brdo, russ. berdoeic " weaver's reed ' and 
Latvian birdei. " weaver's rack '. 

References: WP. 1 11 63, 174, Devoto Mel. Pedersen 227 f., Meillet Slave commun2 75. 
Page(s): 1 38 

Root / lemma: b^ereg- 

Meaning: expr. to sound, roar, cry, etc., *sharp voice 

Note: compare b^eA-ds. as well as that by b^z-e^- "break, rupture' and "crack, creak' 

encountering onomatopoeic sounds 


Root/ lemma: b^ereg-: "expr. to sound, roar, cry, etc., *sharp voice' derived from Root/ 

lemma: b'^eregh-: "high; mountain, *sharp'. 

Material: Old English beorcan siem-M., bearkian {*barkdn), engl. bark^bark, bay'. Old 

Icelandic berkja^bark, bay, rumble, rage, clamor'; 

Lithuanian (zem.) burget/" drone, grumble, quarrel, squabble, be unfriendly ', burgesus' 
crosspatch, grouch '; presumably also Serbo-Croatian brg/Jaf/ ^{r\u{r\b\e, murmur, chat', 
brgalica "turtledove'. 

Besides similar b'^ereg'-; Latvian br§cu, brekt^cvj', russ. bresu, brechatb "yelp, cry, 
quarrel, squabble, lie', it'/'ec/?/?/^ "empty gossip', Serbo-Croatian bresem, brehat/'pani, 
gasp, loud cough' {*b'^req-s-), brekcem, brektat/" pant, sniff, snort'. 

Somewhat different because of the clear onomatopoeic words are the following words, 
which in their partial /-and ^-vocalism in these by b^er(e)g- 'roast' remind present vocal 
differences, which are explained from different sound imitation: 

gr. (ppuYiAo(; "a small bird' (metathesis from *(ppiYuAo(;: Latin frig-?); 

Latin frigo, -e/ie "squeak (of small children)', friguttid, -/?e "chirp, twitter (from birds), 
lisp', later fringulio, fringultid6s., frigulo, -are^cvj (from the jackdaw)', fring(u)iHa^i\v\c\\, 

maybe alb. (^fringuilla) ferge//oJ ^shwer, tremble (like a bird?)' 

russ. it'e/p'/ez "goldfinch', Serbo-Croatian b'rglijez^ Sitta syriaca ', Czech brher Eurasian 
golden oriole, golden oriole ', mahr. " woodpecker', poln. it'a/p'/e/"mountain titmouse '. 

Similar ones, but indeed new onomatopoeic words are Latin merulus frindit, Lithuanian 
br/z-get/" b\eat, grouse, drone, hum, grumble'. 

References: WP. II 171 f., WH. I 548. 
Page(s): 138-139 

Root / lemma: b^eregh-{*b^erg'^-o-) 

Meaning: high; mountain 


Root/ lemma: b^eregh-: "high; mountain' derived from Root/ lemma: b^erag-, b'^reg-: "to 

shine; white, *ash wood, ashen, birch tree, elm' 

Material: Old Indie Kaus. barhayat/ "\r\creases\ brmhat/" makes iai, obese, strengthens, 
uplifts', presumably barha-s, -m "tail feather, tail of a bird, esp. from a peacock'; brhant- 
"big, large, high, convex, elevated, noble, sublime', also "high, loud (of the voice)', fern. 
brhatT{= Irish Brigit, Germanic Burgund), Avestan bsrszant- {npers. buland), f. berezaitJ 
"high', in compound barazi-{: *bar9zra-), baraz-^b\QW and "height, mountain' (= npers. 
burz6s., Irish brl; the Nom. Avestan barsSubst could contain Aryan -ar-, but also Aryan - 
/-, Bartholomae IF. 9, 261), zero grade Avestan uz-barazayen/"\ shall allow to grow up ' (in 
addition IaTi-pap^avr|<; " improve luck ', Iran. *barzana-), barazan-m. barazah-v\. "height', 
barasnu-m. "elevation, height, sky, heaven, head', barazyah-^\r\\g\r\er', barazista-^ the 
highest, the most suitable '; npers. i?aAa "height' {*barz-), burz{see above); 

Old Indie brhant- stands for also "big, large, vast, grand, thick, massive' and brrhhati 
"makes fat, obese, invigorates, strengthens, increases, furthers', bfhana Mv. "dense, tight, 
firm, strong, proficient; very, absolutely', pa/7Z?/p'/7a-/7 "standing firm, dense, solid'. 

Armenian it'e/y" height' in erkna-, lerna-berj^sky-, mountainous' {*b^erghos), barjr^\\\Q'W 
{*b^rghu-), {ham-)barnam ( *barjnam, Aor. barji) "lift up' etc. 

Berg-\v\ PN the Mediterranean countries: thrak. BspyouAri, maked. Bspya, lllyrian 
^e/y//7/^/77 (Bruttium: Bergae), Ligurian Bergomum, Celto-Ligurian Bergusia, hisp. 
Bergantia eic about yO in klein Old Saxon nspyr), rispyaijoc;, maked. Cretan n£pya[JO(; 
suppositions by Kretschmer Gl. 22, 100 f., Krahe ZNF. 19, 64. 

Formations in i- grade: 

Latin for(c)tis. Old Latin forctus, dial, horctus, horctis^ physically, strong, powerful, 
robust; morally, brave, courageous, steadfast, bold, audacious ' (from *forg-tos, Indo 
Germanic *b'^rgb-tos = Old Indie brdhah). 

Cymr. bera'beap' (= Modern High German Berg), acorn, bret. bernds. (-rgh-n-?s. 
Pedersen KG. I 105), gall. PN Bergusia, zero grade Middle Irish bri, Akk. brig'\\\\\ (see 
above), cymr. i?/y"high, above', fem., cymr. corn. bret. bre^\\\\\ , gall. Litano-briga amouQ 
others PN; gall. Brigantes, BpiYavT£(; people's name (either "the sublime, noble' or " 
troglodyte, cave dweller, cliff dweller '; Old Indie brhant-), BrigantiaPH "Bregenz (western 
Austria)' and name of a feminine divinity. Old Irish Brigit {*b^rghntT} "name of a famous 
saint and generally women's name' (also Old Indie brhaff\s used as woman's name, also 
Old High German Purgunt), cymr. it'/'a//?/" privilege, prerogative' (actually "highness'), pi. 
breiniau, in addition mcymr. breenhin, ncymr. brenin^V\x\<^ , corn, brentyn, bryntynds. 
( *brigantTnos). 

Gothic bafrgahei^ mountain range, mountainous region ', Old Icelandic bjarg and berg. 
Old High German Old Saxon it'e/ig "mountain'. Old English beorh, i&eo/ig "height, burial 
mound', engl. barrow'buna\ mound' (compare Armenian -berj, cymr. bera. Old Indie 

Germanic *burgundT{= Old Indie brhatT, Celtic *brigantT, Irish Brigit) in Burgund, oldest 
name of Bornholm {Danish island) (actually " the high-rising ') and name Danish and 
Norwegian islands. Old High German Purgunt women's name, in addition Burgundiones, 
family name. 

Gothic baurgsi. "town, city, tower'. Old High German burg etc "castle' is genuine 
Germanic equivalent of Avestan bsrsz-, Celtic br/g-\N\t\r\ the meaning "fortified height as 
refuge'; With it is coincident though Latin burgus "castle, fort', that is borrowed from gr. 
nupYO(; "tower', an oriental loanword from urart. burgana ^pa\ace, fortress' derives (820 v. 
Chr., s. Adontz REtlE 1, 465), whereof would have also derived Armenian burgn, aram. 
burgin, burgon' tower' etc. after Kretschmer though nupyoq Germanic loanword 

Maybe alb. burgu^pnson' a Latin loanword. 

This contemplates *berghd'save, hide, shelter', originally ostensibly " providing 
sancturay for someone at a refuge ' as retrograde derivative to *b'^ergb- "mountain' (Gl. 22, 
113); s. above S. 145. 

Old Church Slavic bregb'bank, border, shore, slope', Serbo-Croatian br/jeg'\r\'\\\, bank, 
border, shore', russ. beregds., is probably not Germanic loanword, but rather Venetic- 
lllyrian origin; Bruckner KZ. 46, 232, Persson Beitr. 927; 

Maybe alb. bregu'bank, border, shore, slope' is a Slavic loanword not from lllyrian 

from latter with bregb as genuine Slavic words related kir. o-borfh, Czech it'/'a/? "haystack' 
etc belongs rather to Old Church Slavic bregg'care' (*preserve, save, hide, shelter), as 
stogb : GTsyu). 

Maybe alb. brenge'care, sadness, sorrow', i&/"e/7^c»s "sadden, worry' Slavic loanwords. 

With other vowel gradation *bh/-e^/7- perhaps in Old English brego, breogo^ master, 
mister, ruler, prince, lord'. Old Icelandic bragr^best, most exquisite, most distinguished, 
leader, chief, prince'. Middle High German brogen^ rise, direct upwards, wanton brag'. 

Tocharian AB park- " arise, rise, come up ', A parkant, B pirko " the rising ', A parkar, B 
parkre, parkre "tall'; 

perhaps A prakar, B prakre "tight, firm, solid' (compare Latin fortis); Hittite par-ku-us 
{parkus) "high' (: Armenian barjr). 

Hittite: parku- ' high ', parganu- (I) 'make high', pargatarr\. (r/n) 'height ', parkija-, park- (I) 
'stand up' (Friedrich 160-161) 

References: WP. II 173 f., WH. I 124, 535 f., 853, Feist 75 f., 85 f., Trautmann 30 f.. Van 
Windekens Lexique 90, Couvreur H 178. 

Page(s): 140-141 

Root / lemma: b^erem-1 
Meaning: to stick out; edge, hem 
Material: b'^orm-: 

Old Icelandic tiarmr^edge, hem', ey-barmr^ the edge of an island ', Norwegian dial. 
barm^ extremity, border, brim, edge, rim ' (e.g. in the sail), ndd. barm, berme^ a ledge at 
the bottom of a bank or cutting, to catch earth that may roll down the slope, or to 
strengthen the bank; a narrow shelf or path between the bottom of a parapet and the ditch 


Perhaps Latin frons, frondist " a leaf, foliage; meton., a chaplet or crown of leaves ' 
{*b^rom-di-, as g/ans irom *glan-dh)\ 

Note: common Latin ph- > /-shift 

Old Norse brumx^. "leaf buds ', Old High German brom, brum 6s., Swiss brom^ flower 
bud, young twig, branch', ablaut. bramediS. 

In a basic meaning "bristly, thorn' go back: Old English bromm. "broom' {*b'^remo-). 
Middle Low German bram^ blackberry bush, broom'. Old High German bramom., bramat 
"briar, blackberry bush ', bramberi. Modern High German Brombeere, Old English bremel, 
engl. bramble (proto Germanic *bramil), ablaut, mnl. bremme. Old High German brimma 
"broom' and Middle Low German breme, brummeAs. 

With the meaning "edge, border': Middle High German bremu. "border, edging, edge'. 
Modern High German verbramen, changing through ablaut Middle English brimme, engl. 

References: WP. II 102. 
Page(s): 142 

Root / lemma: b^erem-2 

Meaning: to buzz, drone 

Material: Old Indie bhramara-h^bee'; 

In -/7/suffix: 

Maybe nasalized alb. (^bl§-te) blete^ bee' : gr. ppovrri f. "thunder' [common alb. r- >/-]. 

gr. cpoppiv^, -YYO<;f- "zither', because of suffixes loanword? Initial sound variant *brem- 
probably in ppspu) "boom, blaster, sough, rustle, bawl, blaster', pp6|jO(; m. "noise, crackling 
', ppovTH f. "thunder' (*ppo|j-Ta); 

Latin fremo, -ere^ roar, murmur, growl; with ace. to murmur out something, grumble, 
complain '; frontesia "thunder and lightning ' is loanword from gr. (3povTriaiO(; (to ppovrn); 

Maybe alb. fryme^ breath, exhalation', fryn/"b\0M\/'. 

cymr. brefu 'b\eat, roar, bellow'; Old High German breman^ drone, grumble, roar, 
bellow'. Old English bremman^roar, bellow', brymmn. "flood, sea'. Middle High German 
br/mmen6s., ablaut, brummen^ drone, grumble' (in addition brunff heat, rut, rutting 
season '); Middle Low German brummen and brammen ds.. Old High German Old Saxon 
bremo^ Qadi\y, brake'. Middle High German breme. Old Saxon bremmia. Old High German 
brimisse. Modern High German Breme and (from dem Ndd.) Bremse; 

poln. brzmiec^ sound, clink, buzz' {*brbm-), Bulgarian brbmcb'buzz, drone, hum', 
brbmkam ds., brbmb-al, -ar, -^/'"bumblebee, beetle, chafer'. 

Maybe alb. Geg diminutive {*brum-ef} brumull, Tosc brumbuir bumblebee, beetle, bug' 
[common alb. m > mtf[ 

As extensions *b^rem- perhaps here the onomatopoeic words: Old Indie bbr/jga-b ' g\ant 
black bee'; poln. brz^k^ sound, tinkling, clinking; gadfly, brake', russ. brjakatb "clang, clink, 
clatter', Czech it'/'o^/r "beetle, chafer'; Lithuanian brjnktereti^ fall chinking ' etc; 

Lithuanian brenzgu, brengst/ ^c\ang, clink, knock', ablaut, branzgu, brangsf/^ sound, 
clink'; Slavic br^zgb in russ. brJazgiP\. "empty gossip'; russ. -Church Slavic brjazdati 
"sound, clink'. 

References: WP. II 202 f., WH. I 544 f., Trautmann 37. 
Page(s): 142-143 

Root / lemma: b'^eres- 

Meaning: quick 

Material: Latin festJno, -are^ to hasten, hurry; transit., to hasten, accelerate ', Denom. von 

*festid(n)-, -/T?- "haste, hurry', Erweit. to *festi- (from *fersti-) in confestim^ immediately, 

without delay ' (from *com festr\N\Vn haste, hurry'); 

Middle Irish bras'qu\ck, fast, stormy' {*b'^reSto-), cymr. brys ds. {*b^rsto-), Middle Breton 
bresic, brezec^\\as\>j'; 

Lithuanian bruz-g-us^c\\}\ck, fast', bruz-d-us^ 'r(\oyab\e, nimble', besides burz-d-ulis 
ds., burz-deti^ run to and fro '; 

Slavic *b'brz-b\v\ Old Church Slavic brbzoMv. "quick, fast', Serbo-Croatian i^/lz'quick, 
fast', russ. it'o/'zoy "quick, fast, fiery', besides *b-brzd-b in wruss. borzdofKdN. "quick, fast', 
Serbo-Croatian brzdicai. "rapids, speed in stream'. 

Perhaps here Ligurian FIN Bersula, Swiss FIN Birsig {Kxahe ZONF 9, 45). 

Maybe alb. {*bersul) versul, "rush forward, attack', truncated {*versul) si//"rush, attack' 
[common alb. b- > k- shift]. 

References: WP. II 175, WH. I 259, 488 f., Trautmann 40, Specht Dekl. 192. 
Page(s): 143 

Root / lemma: b^(e)reu- : b^(e)ru- 
Meaning: to boil, to be wild 
Note: extension from b^er-2. 
Material: A. ablaut b'^eru-{b^eru-), b'^ru-: 

Old Indie bhurvan/'-h ' rest\ess, wild', M^/va/?- "uncontrollable movement of water'. 

Armenian bark'sbarp, sour, cruel, savage' {barkanam^ I get angry '), which is very 
much ambiguous, it is constructed here from Dumezil BSL. 40, 52 as *b^r-u-, likewise 
berkrim " I am glad ' as *b^er-u-\ very doubtful! 

Gr. (papup6(; ToA|jr|p6(;, 9paau(; Hes. {*b'^er-u-) and cpopuT6(; "mixture, rubbish, chaff, 
crap, muck', cpopuvu), cpopuaau) "knead, jumble, mingle, sully, besmirch', probably also 
(ppu-aaao|jai " gestures, behaves impatiently (esp. from wild horses); be rollicking, wanton 
' common gr.-lllyrian -ks- > -ss-. 

Thrak. PpuTO(; (see below). 

Alb. brumm., brumet "sourdough', mbruj, mbrun/"knea6'. 

Latin ferveo, -ere, fervo, -ere'to be boiling hot, to boil, seethe, glow. Transf., to be in 
quick movement, to seethe; to be excited by passion, rage ' (about fermentum s. b'^er-2); 
defrutum' leaven, yeast; a kind of beer. Transf. anger, passion ' (: thrak. ppuTO(;, ppuTOV, 

ppouTO(; " a kind of barley beer '; from thrak. *brutia (gr. ppuria), derives lllyrian bnsa "skins 
of pressed grapes', proto extension alb. bers/ds., from which serb. bersa, bfrsa, bfrza' 
mould on the wine'; Latin bnsa irom dem Venet. or Messapic). 


Not only alb. is the direct descendant of lllyrian but Albans in Alba Longa brought their 
beer formula from lllyricum {A/bano/ \\\ynan TN) to Italy. Slavic languages borrowed their 
cognates from lllyrian 

Middle Irish berba/m ^ cook, simmer, seethe', cymr. berw/, bret. b/rv/'s\mmer, seethe, 
boil', bero, berv^cooked, boiled', gall. GN Borvo {irom spa, mineral spring), compare with 
other suffix Bormo above S. 133; perhaps also French bourbe ^sWme, mud' from gall. 
*borva ' n\\nera\ water'; Old Irish brufb^b\aze, glow, fury'. Middle Irish bru/fb ^ cook' , 
enbru/fbe^ broth, meat broth' (to e/7- 'water', see be\o\N pen-2), acymr. brut' courage, 
spirit, vivacity; also pride, arrogance ', ncymr. brwd'boV {cymmrwd ' mortar' from *kom-bru- 
to; compare Middle Irish combru/tb 'smmer, seethe, boil'), it'/yo'/b 'seethe, froth', acorn. 
bredion' dea\er, broker' (Umlaut), abret. brot' jealousy ', nbret. broud'bot, fermenting'. 

About Germanic bru-iorms see below B. 

B. ablaut b^reu-ar\d (partially again) b'^/ii-: 

At first in words for 'wellspring' = ' bubbling over ' (/-//7-stem, perhaps b'^reuf, b'^reun-, 
b^run-); Armenian afb/ur, aibeur{Qer\. aibei) 'wellspring' (from *b'^rew(a)r=) gr. cppsap, - 
QToq 'stream, brook' (*(ppr|Fap-, -aTO(;, hom. cppnara, consigns cppEiara); Middle Irish tipra 
f. 'wellspring' (maybe from Old Irish *tiprar< *to-eRs-b^reuj), Gen. tiprat {*to-eRs- 
b^reuntos); Old Irish -tiprai' streams against ' {*to-eRs-b^reu-Tt?); from stem b^run- the 
case obliqui from as e/7-stem proto Germanic *i6'/'i//7d, *brun{e)n-, Gothic brunna. Old High 
German brunno. Old English brunna, burna ' well, water hole, spring ' (Old Icelandic 
brunn), (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), with metathesis Modern 
High German (ndd.) Born. 

Maybe alb. i6'i//'c»/7y "spring, originate', /?^/7/77 'origin, source, spring, bubbling water (as if 
boiling)' : russ. it'/'^a 'current'; also alb. {*bruth) burth 'Cyc\arr\er\ europaeum (burning of 
donkey's mouth)' where -th\s a diminutive alb. ending. 


Alb. shows that Root / lemma: b'"(e)reu-\ b^(e)ru-\ "to boil, to be wild' is an extended Root 
/ lemma: b^er-2\ "to boil, swell; to get high' (see below) while the latter root evolved from 
Root / lemma: b^er-1 

: "to bear, carry'. 

With similar meaning russ. bruja ^currev\{\ bruftb " rapidly flowing, streaming in ', wruss. 
bruj/'c 'unnate, to make water ' (this meaning also in Middle High German brunnen {under 
the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-) and in Modern High German dial, brunzen. 
Bavarian brunnlen "urinate, to make water ' from Brunnen), formal next to Lithuanian 
br(i)aujs, br{i)autis^ push forward with brute force ' {*b^reu-), Latvian brau//gs ^borny, 
lustful'; also Old Prussian brew/ng/ ^conducWe, helpful'? 

b'^re-n-u- {present wib nasal infix, compare Modern High German brennen) with 
respect on licking flames lies before in Gothic Old High German Old Saxon brinnan, ais. 
brinna. Old English beornan, b/rnan ^burn', Kaus. Gothic brannjan. Old Icelandic brenna. 
Old High German brennan. Old English i6'^/77a/7"burn', wherefore among others Old High 
German brant^b\aze\ brunsC burn, blaze'. Old Icelandic bruni. Old English bryne^b\a2.e\ 
Old High German bronado. Old English brunat^a^\\.cb\ness, heat in the body ', Swedish 
branad^ ruWSnOf'; 

b^reu-: b^ruu-\n: Old High German briuwan. Old English breoivan'bre\N', Old Swedish 
bryggja {irorr\ *bryggwa) ds.; Germanic *bruda-\n: Old Icelandic Old English brod. Old 
High German prod^broVn' (: defrutum. Old Irish bruth, thrak. (3puT0(;; Middle High German 
brodelen. Modern High German brodein); 

Germanic *brauda-\n: Old Icelandic braud. Old English bread. Old High German brot 
"bread' (from the ferment); about Old High German wintes pruV storm; tempest, whirlwind 
's. Klugeii692. 

References: WP. II 167 f., WH. I 333 f., 487. 
Page(s): 143-145 

Root / lemma: b'^ereg-, b'^reg- 

Meaning: to shine; white, *ash wood, ashen, birch tree, elm 

Note: equivalent with b^ere/(-, s. d. the groups b'^ereg-, b^ere/(-sb'\ne, appear, seem to be 

extensions to b^^e/"- "bright, brown'. Similar to extension b^e/e^- besides b^e/- "shine'. 

Material: Old Indie bhrajate ^g\ares, gleams, shines'; Old pers. braza/t/ ds. {*b'^regd), npers. 

barazTdan "shine', it's/'az "jewellery'; 

Balto Slavic *bresk-iror(\ b^reg-sk-'\n Lithuanian breksta, bresko, brekstr break, (dawn), 
(from the day)', apybreskis^ time around daybreak '; slov. brqsk, Czech bfesk poin. 
it'/'zas/r 'daybreak, dawn', poin. obrzasknqc^ become bright ', brzeszczy s'iq^W. dawns, the 
day breaks ', with Assimil. of auslauts -sk-\o the sounding word aniaut Old Church Slavic 
pobrezgi>^6a\NX\, twilight, daybreak', russ. brezg, poin. brzazg^s. 

With gradation b^{e)rdg- probably Swedish it'/'o/r/ig 'varicolored', Norwegian Dialectal 
brok^ a young salmon with transverse bands ( ', also as brokai. ' large-scale mottled 
animal '. 

With lengthened grade the 1. syllable: Gothic i6'5//'/7/5 'bright, gleaming, distinct'. Old 
High German beraht. Middle High German i?e/'/7/'gleaming' (also in names Old High 
German Bert-, -bert, -brecht). Old English it'eo/'/?/ 'gleaming, radiating' (engl. bright). Old 
Icelandic biartr^\\<^\\\., bright'; cymr. it'e/Y/? 'gleaming, beautiful', PN bret. Berth-walart, Irish 
Flaith-bertach; UVc\uav\\av\ javaT berst^ the grain becomes white '; probably also Norwegian 
Dialectal bjerk^very bright' (compare noch berk^ white trout ', Swedish /?yic>/'/r/75 'Abramis 

reduction grade alb. barth{bard!"-i) ' white ' {*b''^gr9go-). 

In names of the birch (Slavic partly elm, Latin ash tree ): 

Old Indie bhurja-hrc\. 'a kind of birch'; osset. barz ^b\rcb'; dak. PN Bersovia, Latin farnus 
'ash tree' {*far[a]g-s-no-s, originally stuff adj. 'ashen', as well as:) fraxinus6s. (to begin 
probably with a, *b^er9g-s-ends); twofold development of -e/'a-in farnus and frax/nus \nou\6 
be caused by old accent difference as in pa/ma = gr. *naAa|jc(, naAapn compared with 
/atus = tApitoc;; 

Maybe alb. Geg /^5s/7e/7 'ash-tree' : Latin frax/nus 'asb-tree'; 

Old High German birihha {*b^er9g-ia). Old English beorc, birce. Old Icelandic bJQrk 
{*b^eraga) 'birch'; 

Lithuanian berzasm., PI. berza/ ^b\rcb', ablaut, b/rztvat " birch forest '; b/rz//a/" birch 
twigs ', Latvian b^rzsm.. Old Prussian berse^b\rcb'; russ. bereza, Serbo-Croatian breza, 
acech. /7/7ez5 'birch' (the old color meaning still in Bulgarian brez^ white spotted ' = 
Norwegian bjerks. o., slov. br^za' naxne of a white spotted cow or nanny goat'); 

Maybe alb. brez^ strip, belt (white stripe?)' : Romanian brau, brana^ belt ' Slavic loanword. 

with formants -to-{= Gothic ba/rhts) and intonation change Slavic *berstb in russ. berest 
m. "elm, framework ', Serbo-Croatian brijest, Czech brest6s., but with the meaning 'birch' 
against russ. berestai., berestou. " birch bark ', Czech bfesta' upper birch bark '. 

Old High German -brechtcoKM, if this vocalization instead o\-ber{H)t'(\o\. a innovation is, 
are applied to b^'e/ie/^-, as also in Gothic bafrhts, cymr. berth, Hittite parkuis. 

References: WP. II 170 f., WH. I 458, 510 f., 544, Trautmann 32, 37 f., Specht Dekl. 57. 
Page(s): 139-140 

Root / lemma: h^ersR-, b^re/f- 

Meaning: to shine 

Note: equivalent with U^erag-, b^ri^-ds. (see there, also because of ambiguous words) 

Material: Old Indie bhrasate ^b\azes, shines' (uncovered); 

gr. cpopKOv Asukov, noAiov, puaov Hes., compare but S. 134; 

perhaps here Old Irish brecc 'motWed, speckled, *tabby', cymr. brych ds., gall. PN 
B r/cc/us {irom *b^rk-, with expressive consonant stretch); 

uncertain suppositions about the origin of cymr. breuddwyd' dream', Middle Irish bruatar 
ds. by Pedersen Litteris 7, 18, Pokorny IF. Anzeiger 39, 12 f.; whether from *b'^rog"'hd^-eiti- 
, -ro-? 

Middle High German brehen ^suddeu and strong flash'. Old Icelandic brja, bra{*brehdn) 
"flash', braga, bragda 'spark\e, glitter, flame, burn', bragd ' {*b\\nk) moment ', with originally 
bare pras. -d^- also Old Icelandic bregda, preterit it'/'a 'quick, fast move, swing, reproach'. 
Old English bregdan, bredansiem V. 'quick, fast move, swing', engl. bra/dl\ax, wattle, 
braid', ^^it'/'a/ic/' rep roach'. Old High German brettan. Middle High German bretten^'puW, 
tear, twitch, weave' (in addition Old High German bndel. Old English bndel, older brigdels 
'bridle, rein'); 

with formants -t/o- Gothic brafv in in brafva augins 'ev pinp 6cp9aA|Jou, in a flash, at the 
moment ' (compare Old Icelandic augnabragdu. 'blink, winking the eyes ') and lengthened 
gradees *brehwa, *brejwa\n Old Icelandic brai. 'eyelash'. Old English braew, breaw, breg 
m. 'eyelid'. Old Saxon braha' eyebrow', s/eg/-brawa 'eyeWd', Old High German brawai. 
'brow', w/nf-prawa^eYe\as\r\' (the meaning 'brow' oriented from l&m-'brow', Indo 
Germanic*bh/-J-); that in spite of Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I. 350, 4636 and Specht Dekl. 83, 162 

Old High German brawa co\i\6 go not back to *b'^reua, is proved tlirougli tlie grammat. 
variation in Old English, the form with -ku- assumes (Sievers-Brunner 200). 

Here probably a kind offish Old High German brahs{i)a, brahsina. Old Saxon bressemo 
' bream, freshwater bream ', Norwegian brasma, brasmeds., ablaut. Old Icelandic brosma 
"a kind of codfish'. 

Hittite par-ku-is{parkui§) "clean, pure', par-ku-nu-uz-zi {parkunuzi) 'purified, clean'. 

References: WP. 1 11 69, Feist 76 f., 103 f., Couvreur H 327. 
Page(s): 141-142 

Root / lemma: b^ergh- (*bhergh-) 

Meaning: to hide, keep 

Material: Gothic bafrgan^save, store, keep'. Old Icelandic bjarga. Old English beorgan. 

Old High German bergan. Old Saxon gibergan "save, store'; changing through ablaut Old 

English byrgan^buxy', byrgen{*burgiznd), byrgels. 

Old Saxon /?^/ig/s//" burial, funeral' and Old High German borfajgen' spare, look after, 

entrust, borrow'. Old English borg/an'\ook after, watch over, keep, borrow'. 


Alb.-lllyrian and celt.- Slavic languages prove that from a zero grade of Root/ lemma: 

b^eregh-: "high; mountain' derived Root/ lemma: b^ergh-: "to hide, keep'. Cognates 

deriving from those two roots mark of wave of IE people who introduced burial mounds in 


Maybe alb. nasalized {*bergo) brenge^ concern, sadness (for a dead person?)', brengos 
"sadden' Slavic loanwords. 

Slavic *bergg\n Old Church Slavic (*bhergMei) bregg, bresf/^care, worry' in nebresti 
"neglect', russ. beregu, berecb "beware, preserve, protect, spare, look after, spare', Serbo- 
Croatian older brzem, br/jec/^guard, watch, preserve, protect, care, worry; hold festivities'; 
changing through ablaut kir. oborfh, gen. Oit'o/'d/?^ "haystack', Czech it'/'a/? "haystack, heap', 
poln. brog^barn, haystack' (out of it Lithuanian bragasds.); zero grade Czech brh^cave, 
cottage, tent'; East Lithuanian b/rg/nt/" spare'. 

Perhaps here gallo-rom. (rhat.-lllyrian) barga ' co\/ered thatched hut ', whether from 
*borga, Tagliavini ZrP. 46, 48 f., Bonfante BSL. 36, 141 f. 

References: WP. II 172, Trautmann 31, Feist 76. 

See also: compare above S. 141 . 
Page(s): 145 

Root / lemma: b^er-1 

Meaning: to bear, carry 

Grammatical information: The root b'^er-, forms the exceptional both themat. and athemat. 

present, because the durative recognizes neither Aor. nor Perf. in Indo Germanic 

Note: Beside b^er-, with them, vowel b^ere-, sees a heavy basis b^erg: b^re- 

Material: Old Indie bharat/" cames', Avestan baraiti6s. (and "ride"). Old pers. barantiy 3. PI. 

ds. (= Armenian berem, Phrygian ap-pspsr, gr. (pspu), Latin fero. Old Irish biru, alb. bie, 

Gothic baira. 

Old Church Slavic berg); Old Indie bharti{a\so as gr. cpspTS, Latin ferto\6 unthem. form), 

bibharti, bfbharti, bibhrmah, b/bbrat/ {compare that probably with nicppapsv = bibhrme 

derived sa-nicppavai "bring in, take in'), them, abibhran, bibhramana-h av\6 Avestan - 


Perf. ba bha ra av\6 jabhara {bybn6\zaWov\ o^ babbara wltb Jabara kom harti); 

participle Old Indie bhrta-h, Avestan berate-, Supin. Old Indie bhartum, Kaus. Old 
Indie bbarayat/ = \ter. Avestan baraya-, 

Sup. Avestan ba/r/sta-'be cherishes best, cares, looks after' (= gr. cpspiGTOc; " most 
superior, best', probably ' he carries the richest, most fertile '); 

Old Indie M/Y/-/? 'carrying, sustenance, livelihood, food, wage ' = Avestan baretis 
"carrying' (= Latin fors, Gothic gabaurt^s, Armenian bard); Old Indie bbrtya lood, 
nourishment, care, cultivation' (compare Gothic baurt^ei); 

Maybe alb. bar^ fodder, grass'. 

Old Indie bharman-v\. "preservation, nourishment, care, cultivation; load' (= gr. cpeppa. 
Old Church Slavic brem^), heavy basis in bharfman-u. ds.; bharftra-m^arxvi ("*wherewith 
one carries '); 

Old Indie Mara-/? "acquiring, carrying off, profit, gain, booty; burden' 

Maybe alb. it's/re "burden' : Old Indie bhara-h^buv\A\e, work, load'; 

npers. barlruW (= gr. cp6po(;, Old Church Slavic sh-borb); Old Indie -bhara-h 'beanu^, 
carrying, bringing etc', Avestan -bard 6s. (= Armenian -vor, gr. -cpopo(;, e.g. 5ua(popo(; = 
Old Indie durbhara-h); 

maybe alb. bar^^rass, herb' related to npers. it's/'" fruit'. 

Old Indie bbarana-m ' carrying, bringing, providing, support' (= Inf. Gothic bafran); Old 
Indie bhartar-, bhartar- " bearer, provider ', prabhartar- 'carrier (of the sacrifice)', Avestan 
fra-bsretar-^ carrier of things, secondary priest ' (compare Latin fertor-ius, Umbrian 
arsfertur), fem. Old Indie bharfn, A\/es\.ar\ bare^rf supporter, upholder, mother'; 
lengthened grade Old Indie i6'/75/'5-/7 'bundle, work, load', bharin- 'bearing, carrying', 
bharman-{r\.) 'bringing, attendance', bharya-h^\.o bear, carry, support, nourish' (== Old 
High German ban or = *b'^dr/o-\r\ gr. (pLop\a[Jidqy, ba-bbri-b ^bear\r\g, carrying, borne'. 

Armenian berem'bear, bring' (Aor. eber= scpsps, abharat), bern. Gen. it>e/7/7 'burden, 
load' (compare gr. cpspvp 'dowry'), it'e^'yield, fruit, fertility' and 'movement, run', -ber 
'bringing, bearing, carrying', e.g. in lusaber^ light-bringing, morning star', secondary 
instead of -vor, e.g. lusa-vor^ light-bringing ' (compare Latin Luci-fer, gr. AsuKO-cpopoq); 
bari^ goo6', barv-ok'good, best'; bard^beap; compound', lengthened grade *b'^dr-\n burn 
'hand, fist; force, might'; 

Phrygian (kqkouv) appspsT (also appspsTai) '( injury, evil) cause, carry '; 

gr cpspw 'bear' (only present system, once participle cpsprot;; Ipv. cpsprs), med. (p£pO|jai ' 
moves me fast ' (also Old Indie bharate, Latin ferrf, compare above Armenian berar\6 
under Alb.), Iter, cpopsw 'bear etc' (= alb. mbaj); about (^tpxaioq, 'the best, noble ', Kompar. 
(^tpizpoc, see above S. 128 and Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I SOO^, 535, 538; about ocppa s. Boisaeq 
s. V. andS. 132; 


common alb. b- > mb- > m- as in alb. Geg /r?^ "bear' 

cpsprpov, with them. Vok. cpspsrpov 'bier, stretcher ' (Latin feretrum 'a litter, bier' from 
Gr.); cpsppa 'fruit, field crop, agricultural crop, unborn child; fruit of one's womb, fetus '; 
cpspvp 'dowry', Aeolic with them, vowel cpspsva f. ds.; cpopoq 'yield, tax', -cpopoq 'bearing, 
carrying', cpopa: 'carrying, plentiful yield, fullness, wealth'; aMcp[icp]op£U(; ' means: 
container/vessel with two grips/handles '; cpoproc; 'burden, load, cargo'; cpapsTpa ' quiver'; 
5i-cppo(; ' the charioteer's and the combatants' holding part of the war chariot '; cpcbp 'thief 
(= Latin fui), lacpajpsc; Anarai, KAsnTQi. AaKU)V£(; Hes.; from cpcbp derived cpcupacjo ' spy on 

the thief ', then generally "spy on, track ', cpoopa: " house search '; (poopiapog ' box for the 
storage of clothes ' due to *b'^drios 'wearable, bearable'. 

From the heavy basis b'^(e)re-{l): Fut. -cppnaw, Aor. -Ecppnaa, -cppnvai joined together 
(with 5ia- "let pass', with sia- ' let in, put in ', with £k- ' bring out, let out, unburden '); 
paradigmatic with (£a)-ni-(ppavai (see above to Old Indie bibhrmah). 

Ligurian FIN Porco-bera^ guiding fish ', Gando-bera^ guiding scree '. 

Mess, ma-beran, berameic, tabara^ ^nesiess' {*to-b'^era), Doric-lllyrian pspvcbpisGa 
KAripwacbpsGa. AoKcoveg, Hes. (to gr. cpspvri 'dowry'), doubtful apnp oiKr||ja oiodq sxov, 

[common Messapian Albanian b- > mb-, m(a)b-, the intervocalic -a- under the influence of 
Latin consonant + vowel + consonant order.] 


lllyrian. Mess, and later alb. display satem characteristics the same as Old Indie and 
Avestan Not only lllyrian shares with Old Indie and Avestan the cognates for 'bear' but also 
the institution of priesthood and earth fertility: Mess, ma-beran, beram etc, tabara 
"priestess' : Avestan fra-bsratar-' earner of things, secondary priest' (compare Latin fertor- 
ius, Umbrian arsfertur), fem. Old Indie bbartn, Avestar\ bare-drf supporter, upholder, 

Alb. [causative bjei\ b/e{*b^erd), 2. PI. b/rn/ ^br'mg, bear, lead, guide', also 'fall, fail, hit ', 
ber, beronje ' dart, arrow'; kompon. *dz-bier, vdjeretc 'fall, lose, destroy', /7o'2/i6'/-' bring out 
', zbjer^iaW, lose'; also bie\r\ the meaning 'fall' (compare cpspopai etc), wherefore dzbore, 
debore, vdore etc 'snow' (prefix dz(a)-, de-ar\d *b^ era actuaWy ' the falling down, falling off 


[Albanian prefix dz(a)-, de-, z- is of Macedonian Slavic origin (as in Mac. *dz-astra, dzastra 
' the day after tomorrow, tomorrow'), from Slavic za ' behind; for, after, because of, during, 
at, in, on' see Root/ lemma: ghd\ behind, towards]. 

Albanian dz(a)-bora\. ' snow' = Romanian f. za-pada ' snow'. 

£7- grade Albanian dz(a)-bora\. ' snow, heap of snow ' : Old Church Slavic sh-borh 
'congregation, meeting', alb. borica' sleet ', suffix -ca of Slavic origin. 

Breton ober erc'h : Kurdish Kurmanji berf barm : Romagnolo bofe : Welsh bwrw eira : 
Latvian birt : Albanian bie bore ' to fall snow'; 

iterative alb. *b'^ore/d\n Tosc mbanj, mbaj, older mba, Geg mba, mbaj'keep, tend, look 
after, observe, bear'. North East Geg also used from carrying pregnant animals, with 
restored r also mbar, bar^bear, drag'; [common alb. b- > mb-] Kaus. *b^dre/d\n gr.-alb. 
bonj, pass, bonem irom mating of the mares and cows, actually "make bear, make 
pregnant', and dzbonJ{etc) " chase away, drive out, drive away' (*'make fall away, make 

[Albanian prefix dz(a)-, de-, z- is of Macedonian Slavic origin (as in Mac. *dz-astra, dzastra 
" the day after tomorrow, tomorrow'), from Slavic za " behind; for, after, because of, during, 
at, in, on' see Root / lemma: ghd\ behind, towards]. 

alb. mbare^goo6, lucky', barreloa6' {*b'^orna, compare Gothic barnn. "kid, child'); mberat 
"pregnant', i6»a/'/r" belly' etc, bar^Qxass, herb' fbhoro- "yield'); 

bir^sovC {*b^er-, compare Gothic baur^sovi), bije, gr. cal. Me "daughter' (with diminutive 
suffix -ele, -ej§) : Old English byre^sow'; Maybe Kurdish i^e^e "offspring'. 

burre {* baur) "man, husband' (compare to meaning Old High German baro^rwau, 
husband'; alb. basic form *b'^ornos, reduplication-stem besides Gothic barn); presumably 
also mburr^ praise', mburem'boast, brag, be proud '. 

Latin fero, ferre^to bear, bring, carry; to bring forth, produce; to bring to a place or a 
person, fetch, offer; to bear away, carry off; to bear along, move forward, put in motion. 
Transf., to move, impel, carry away; without object, to lead, tend ' (as gr. cpspu) only 
present system), Umbrian fertu' you shall bear ' etc, Volscan ferom^ bear, carry ', 
Marrucinian ferenter^ they are carried, they are born ' (compare from compound ad-, 
affero: Gothic atbafra; effera. SKcpspu), Old Irish as-biur); /fe/HA- "fertile'; 

Latin ferculum " a frame, litter, bier, tray; of food, a course or dish ', praefericulum "wide 
offering vessel'; *fertor^\.be bearer ', assumed from fertorius "a sedan which serves for 
carrying' and = Umbrian ar-fertur, arsfertur^ the priest of some particular god '; fertilis 
"fertile', Paelignian fertlid f\b\. Sg.; -fer\v\ compound secondary instead of -/b/'" bearing, 
carrying, bringing'; fordai. "pregnant' (ofc»- extension of Adj. *b^'c»/'d-s "bearing, carrying', s. 
WH. I 527); fur\h\eV {= gr. cpcbp, s.o.; to Latin us. WH. I 569); 

fors Nom. (= Indo Germanic *b'^rtis), forte No\. " chance, luck ' = Paelignian forte PI. 
"chance, hap, luck, fate, fortune '; 

fortuna^ chance, fate, lot, luck, fortune. Transf., lot, condition, state, mode of life; 
property, possessions ' (from tu-siem *b^r-tu-s). 

Note: common Latin ph- > f- shift. 

Old Irish 1. Sg. biru, -biur, 3. Sg. benc/'bear, carry', as-b/ur'te\\\ cfo-b/ur'g'\\/e\ cymr. 
cymerartake' etc; Middle Irish bertm. "bundle, load', f. "feat, dead, act, plan, birth' etc, b/'r/t 
"sow' = Old Indie i6'/7a/'a/7//" bearing, carrying'; 

Old Irish Middle Irish bretb and (actually Dat. Akk.) br/tb, bre/fb {Gen. br/tbe ^carry\ng, 
parturition (verbal noun to b/ru); birth; judgement' {*b^rta); cymr. ,6'/yo' "thought, notion' 
(rather *bfyY^- as *b'^rt/-, s. Lewis-Pedersen 345), corn. Zj/ys "thought, notion', brys^ womb'; 
gall, uergo-bretus OW\ce title, whether for *-britos, 

Irish it's/?? "judge', cymr. bret. it'a/T? "judgement' (probably *b'^ornos, compare above alb. 
burre, Pedersen KG. I 51 nimmt -?-, i.e. ere, an); 

Old Irish brath, gen. -o "court', cymr. /7/'5M/o'"judgement', corn. bres6s., bret. breuf 
address to the jury; summation; summing up; plea ', PI. breujou^ the assizes of justice, 
judgments of a court of law ', gall. Bratu-spantium PN, pparouSs " from judgment ' {*b^er9- 
tu-)\ gall. *com-boros^ the amassed ', out of it Middle High German kumber^ rubble, heap 
of rubble ', Modern High German Kummer. 

Gothic bafran^beax, carry, bring, beget, spawn, to give birth to children ' {berusjos 

Old Icelandic bera^beax, carry, bear, endure, bring, produce, give birth to children ', 
Old English Old High German beran'bear, carry, beget, spawn, to give birth to children ', 
Modern High German gebaren; 

Gothic Old Icelandic Old High German Old Saxon barn. Old English bearn^V\6, child'; 
Gothic i6'a/777s "breast', Swedish dan. it'a/TT? "breast, lap'. Old Icelandic badmr^bosom'. Old 
High German Old Saxon barm^\a'^\ Old English bearm ds. (= gr. (poppi6(;? s. S. 137); Old 
High German baro^man, husband'; 

Swedish Dialectal bJare{*beron-), bare {*baron-) "( carrying, i.e.) luck-bringing magical 
creature '; Old Icelandic PI. barar, barir, bgrur'barrow, bier'. Old English bearwe, engl. 
barrow. East Frisian barwe, Dutch berr/e' barrow, bier'; 

lengthened grade Old High German -ban, Modern High German -t)ar{e.g. fruchtbar= 
bearing fruit, bearing, carrying). Old English baere {w3estm^re^ierW\e'), Old Icelandic b^rr 
" capable for carrying, bearable'; 

Old High German Old Saxon bara. Old English baert 'barrow, bier' (also Old Icelandic 
bara. Middle English Middle Low German bare "wave'? perhaps here as " the lifting one ', 
compare below the group from Old High German burian^soax, rise'); 

zero grade Gothic baur^ the born ', Old Icelandic burr. Old English byre^sov^; Gothic 
gabauru. 'money collected from people, ((p6po(;), tax', gabaurm. 'feast, festival ' (to 
gabafran ' collect, gather '), Middle High German urbor, urbari. n. " interest of a property ', 
m. ' tax-payer'; Old High German bori. ' upper space, height'. Old High German in bor(e) 
'at the height, upwards ', Middle High German enbor(e). Modern High German empor. Old 
High German burian. Middle High German burn'ra\se, uplift'; here obd. borzen ' overhang' 
= Old English boreftan ' s\N\ng' {Gem\an\c*-af/an), in addition Modern High German Burzel 
un6er purze/n. Old High German giburian. Middle High German geburn^ occur, happen, 
close juridically, to be due'. Old Saxon giburian. Old English gebyrian. Old Icelandic byrja^ 
be proper, befit, be suitable'. Old Icelandic byrja a\so 'begin', actually * 'lift, raise'; 

Maybe alb. buron'beg\r\s, springs, originates', burim^ spring'. 

Old English byre, gebyrem. ' favorable occasion, opportunity ', Gothic gabaurjabaa&j. 
'willing, fain, yearning ', gabaurjo^us^ lust, desire '; from the concept of 'aroused, lifted, 
high' arose from the strengthening mode of Old High German bora-, e.g. in bora-tail^yery 
tall, very high', next to which ograde Old Saxon bar- in barwirdig 'very solemn, honorable, 
noble'; presumably also Old Icelandic byrrxn.. Old English /y/'e 'favorable wind'. Middle 
Low German Z^OAe-Zos 'without wind ' as '(the ship) bearing, carrying'. 

QiO\}(\\c gabaur^s\. 'birth, parentage, ancestry, gender, sex'. Old Icelandic burdrxw. ' 
carrying, parturition, birth', byrdi. 'birth'. Old English gebyrdi.. Old High German giburt. 
Old Saxon giburd^b\rVc\\ also 'fate, destiny' (=Old Indie bhrti-fi, Latin fors); Gothic baurt^ei 
'burden, load'. Old High German burdTi. 'burden', *b'^rtidn-: -tm; Old Icelandic byrdr. Old 
English byrt^en, by rd en 6s. 

Old Church Slavic (*b'^erdieh2) berg, btrati {bi^rati) 'gather, collect, take', Serbo-Croatian 
berem brati6s., russ. beru bratb6s. etc (Slavic */7b/'a//derived from an older *Z?b/f/after 
the preterite stem Balto Slavic *bira-). Old Church Slavic bremg^\oa6, burden', Serbo- 
Croatian breme, russ. Dialectal beremja, ac. bi'ieme {*b^era-men-). Old Church Slavic sb- 
i&o/Tj 'congregation, meeting'; Church Slavic Z^/iez^ya 'pregnant', russ. it'e/'ezaya 'pregnant 

(of the mare)', Serbo-Croatian breda6s. from cows {*b^er9-di^, in forms similarly Latin 
forda; Old Church Slavic brasbno^6\s\\, nourishment, food' see below bhares- 'barley'. 

Lithuanian bernas^ youngling; farm laborer'. Old Lithuanian "kid, child', Latvian b^rns 
"kid, child'; probably Latvian /^^/^"heap, bulk, mass'. 

Here with specialization on delivering the seminal grain: transitive Lithuanian beriu, 
beriau, bert/^strew, distribute' (from grain, then also from flour, ash, cinder etc), Latvian 
beru, berths., in ablaut intransitive Lithuanian byru, birau, b/rt/' strew, distribute, fall out', 
Latvian b/rsfu, biru, b/rtlaW out, fall off, drop ', etc. 

Tocharian A B par-'bear, carry, bring, get, fetch', perhaps also in A kos-prem^\r\ow 
much?' ku-pre^W, taprem^W, tapar{k) "yet', whether to gr. o-cppa ... TO-cppa " as long as ' 

About Hittite i6'a/'-5/7-z/" hunts, scuds, chases' s. Pedersen Hittite 185. 

Specht will restore here also (Dekl. 148), with i- and i/-forms. Old English bri-d, bird 
"young bird', Germanic bru-f/s^\N\ie, woman, bride'. Old Indie bbruna- ^ embryo' , Latvian 
brauna, cech. brnka {*b^ru-nka) " placenta, afterbirth '. S. but under b'^(e)reu- "gush, well 
up, soak '. 

References: WP. II 153 f., WH. I 483 f., 527, 569, 865, 866, Trautmann 31, E. Hermann 
Stud. Bait 3,65 f. 
Page(s): 128-132 

Root / lemma: b'^er-2 

Meaning: to boil, swell; to get high 

Note: often with /t?- forms; also as heavy basis b^era-: b^/-, b^(e)rei-, b^(e)n-. compare 


Material: Old Indie bhurati {*b^~r-e-ti) " moves, shrugs, jerks, flounces, flounders', Intens. 

Jar-bhunti 6s.\ also: " flickers, from fire'; bhuranyati^ shrubs, jerks, is restless; sets in violent 

movement, stirs, stirs up' with /77-forms Old Indie bhramati, bhramyati^ wanders around, 

turns round ', 

bhrama-h^ whirling flame, whirlpool', bbrm/-b 'rr\oyab\e, nimble; whirlwind' (see below Old 

Icelandic br/m/ etc); bburn/- bWo\ent, angry, irate, wild, keen, eager', might be based as 

*b'^rn/- likewise on the heavy basis; 

here probably Avestan avabara/f/" streams irom' , uzbarante' they stream forth (?)', 
baranti ay^n^ during one day, where it squalls, storms'. 

From gr. TTopcpupw (*TTopcpupj(w) " boils up, surge up, be in restless stir ' (: Old Indie 
Jarbhunti); presumably also cpupw 'mix up, mix' (if originally from bubbling up from cooking; 
basic form *b^orid\N\t\\ u- colouring conditioned by the labial of the reduction vowel), 
wherefore cpup5r|v ' chaos, in a mess ', cpuppoq 'perplexity', cpupaw 'mix, mingle, stir 
chaos, knead, bewilder'. 

About Ligurian and Venetic names see below. 

Alb. burme' fully ripe ' (*fully cooked) from *\i'^ornno-. 

Maybe alb. i&^/v/?? 'spring, bubbling up', buronj^to spring, bubble' 

From Latin probably fretum -/'n. a strait, sound, estuary, firth, channel; the sea in gen., 
usually plur.; fig., disturbance, turmoil', fretus, -Osrr\. 'a strait; an interval, difference 
(surging of the sea, esp. strait, stream, foaming, heat)', fretale^ frying pan '; 

fermentum^ leaven, sourdough, yeast; a kind of beer. Transf. anger, passion, ' (: Old 
English beorma, engl. barm. Low German barme, from which Modern High German Burme 
' brewer's yeast '); also fervereS. 144; 

Old Irish topur, nir. /c»i6'5/''wellspring' {*to-uks-boro-). Middle Irish commar= cymr. 
cy/77/77e/''confluence' {*kom-bero-)\ Ligurian FIN Comberanea, Middle Irish fobar 
'wellspring, subterranean stream, brook' = cymr. gofer ^stream, brook', bret. gouver6s. 
{*u[p]o-bero-), cymr. beru^6r\'^, trickle'. Middle Breton beraff^i\o^\ gall. FIN Vobera, 
French Woevre, Voivre etc; with /77-forms Celto-Ligurian aquae Bormiae, GN Bormo, hisp. 
PN Bormate, FIN Borma, dak. PN Boppavov, Venetic FIN Form/o {but gall. GN Borvo 
belongs to b^ereu-^boW). Uber Middle Irish breol\ame' see below. 

Old English beorma m. etc (see above); from of a root form *b^{ejre-: b'"{eJrd-:0\6 High 
German bradamm. 'breath, breeze, heat'. Middle High German bradem^baze, mist'. 
Modern High German Brodem, Old English brsed^baze, mist, breath, breeze, blow' (engl. 
breath). Old IcelandiCit'/'adr'stormy, hot tempered, hasty', brad^ tarred wood, creosoted ', 
bradna ^rweVi, intrans.. Old High German bratan. Old English br^dan^^ry'; ablaut. Middle 
Low German broien ^s\r\Qe, brood'. Middle High German bruejen, bruen. Modern High 
German bruhen. Old English brodi., engl. brood^broo6, breed, breeding'; Middle High 
German bruoti. 'heat. Brut', Old High German bruoten^ brood,'; unknown origin are Old 
High German bratom. ' soft eatable meat ' (^/"a/e/? previously are reinterpreted Middle 

High German time to " roasted meat '), Modern Higli German Wildpret, Old Norse brado 
"calf, late Latin borrows brado^ham\ Old English braedem.. Old Icelandic brad^x3>N meat'. 

Beside the very productive root form bi^ere:/- (see there) has to be recognized probably 
also b^(e)rei-, b'^(e)n-. These are based on Old \x\^\q, jar-bhun-ti, gr. *(pupj-u), *TTopcpupj-u) 
(see above); 

with /77-formant presumably gr. cppipiau), cppi|jaaao|jai "makes me anxious, spring, snort' 
common gr.-lllyrian -ks- > -ss-\ 

Old Icelandic brimi^i\re'\ Middle English it'/'//?? "blaze, glow', probably also Old Icelandic 
brimu. "surf, surge, breakers'. Old English brimu. "sea'; in bruhen, Brodem, braten 
present meaning colouring turns again in Norwegian prim "a kind of cheese prepared from 
sour wheys under strong cooking ' (also Modern High German Brimsenkase), Dialectal 
also bnm'ds.; also crust, sediment of boiled down liquid ' (Modern High German Bavarian 
Brimsen, Brinzen " what settles with the mush browned in the frying pan '); besides with 
formant -uo- very probably Old High German br/d, Middle High German br/{e), Old English 
it'/w "porridge, mash' (as "*south, hot; cooked'), br/'wan' cook'; moreover also Middle Irish 
breo "flame' {*b^rf-uo-). 

An 5-extension perhaps in Old Indie bhrSsat/'wavers, staggers, sways ', Norwegian 
Dialectal brrsa'b\aze, flare, shine, show off; set on fire', brrsl\re, flame', it'/vs/r "agile, lively, 
alert, awake, smart'. 

Maybe alb. i&/7s/r "sharp, smart, keen; knife' 

References: WP. II 157 f., WH. I 482 f., 546, 865. 

See also: compare the related root forms b'^ereg- "cook', b^ereu- "boil', b'^reus- "to swell', 

b'^rfg-, bh/77g-"cook, fry' 

Page(s): 132-133 

Root / lemma: b^er-3 

Meaning: to scrape, cut, etc. 

Material: Old Indie (gramm.) bhrnati{'7) "injures, hurts, disables' = npers. burrad^c\As, 

slices'; Avestan tizi-bara- "with with sharp edge ' (= Armenian bir, compare also alb. 

borig(e), perhaps here Old Indie bharvati^cbe\NS, consumes' (Avestan baoirya-^\Nba\. must 

be chewed', baourva- "chewing') from *b'^arati\s transfigured through influence of Old Indie 

carvat/" c\r\eM\/s up'. 

Armenian beran'moutW (originally "cleft, fissure, orifice '), -b/r- " digging up ' in getna-, 
erkra-, hoia-bir^ digging up the ground, ransacking ' (*b^'e/'c»-), in addition brem{*birem) " 
digs out, hollows out, drills out ', br-ic^hack, mattock, hoe'; bah. Gen. -/"spade' {*b^r-tf-, 
perhaps *b'^ort/- =russ. bortb), bor. Gen. -oy "scurf'. 

Gr. *(papu) "split, cut up, divide' (cpapaaiv axiaai EM), cpapou) "plow' = Old High German 
boron), cpapot; n. "plough, plow (?)', m. = cpapuy^ {*b^eros), acpapoq " plowed up ', cpapay^ " 
cliff with gaps, gorge, ravine, gulch' (in addition rom. barranca 'gorge, ravine, gulch', M.-L. 
693a), jon. (papooq n. " ragged piece, deal, portion'; here perhaps (paoKoq m. 'moss villus' 
as *(papo-Koq. A /r-extension in cpapKic; "wrinkle', cpopKOc; "wrinkly' Hes. 

Perhaps here (I J. 13, 157 n. 100) mak. pippo^ 5aou (compare Pippu)9r|vai TaTT£ivu)9r|vai 
Hes.), basic meaning "wool villus ', gr. Lesbian Thessalian psppov 5aau, Doric psipov ds., 
psppspiov " shabby dress ', Latin burrai. " straggly garment ', respectively "wool', reburrus 
" wool with bristling hair '. 

Alb. bie{2. pi. birni. Imp. biere) " knocks, hits, plays an instrument; whether (hit there) '. 

Alb. brime'\\o\e' {*b'^r-ma), b/'re ds. {*b^era), Geg brej, Tosc brenj' gnaw, argue '; britme 
"September and October' (if actually "harvest, autumn', due to *b^r-tf- " the reaping '); brese 
"bitter root, chicory' ("bitter' = "incisive'; -sefrom -t/a, borfg(e)) "splinter, chip' {*b^er-v(\. 
form. -ige). 

Maybe alb. /77i6'/'e5e "print, shock' [common alb. b- > 777,6'- shift] 

Latin ferid, -Tre' to strike, knock, smite, hit; esp. to strike dead, slay, kill; colloq., to cheat 
' (see also WH. 1481 to ferentarius' a light-armed soldier, skirmisher '). About forma' 
form, figure ' s. WH. I 530 f. 

ford, -are' to bore, pierce ' (meaning as Old High German boron, but in ablaut different; 
denominative oi*b^ora' the drilling '), foramen' hole, opening, aperture '; forus, -/"" the 
gangway of a ship; a block of seats in the theater; plur., tiers of cells in a beehive '; but 
forum (Old Latin also forus) ' an open square, marketplace ' not as " space surrounded by 
planks ' here (Umbrian furo, /iy/^y "forum'); see below 6^uer-. 

Middle Irish bern, bernai. "cleft, gap, slit', bernach 'c\eit'; 

probably also Middle Irish ba/renn'cWii piece ' (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), (in 
addition bairnech' mussel plate '); Old Irish barae. Middle Irish bara{Da\.. barainn) "rage, 
fury', bairnech' angry, irate', cymr. bar, baran'rage, fury'. 

Old Icelandic berja {pretent tarda) "hit, bump, poke', berjask 'f'\gM\ bardage 'batWe', Old 
High German berjan. Middle High German berjen, bern^hW, knock, knead'. Old English 
bered^ low-spirited' (Germanic *i&5/75/7= Slavic borjg). Old Frisian i?©/"" attack'; Middle High 
German bart "balk, beam, bar, gate, barrier, enclosed land' (: Latin forus, -um), engl. bar 
"bar, gate, barrier'. Old Icelandic ber//ngs-ass ^ba\k, beam'; Germanic is probably (different 
Wartburg I 260) also Middle High German barre'ba\k, beam, bar, bolt' and rom. family of 
French barre, barr/ere etc (-/r-from -rz-); 

*baru-ha, -^s- "castrated pig' (perhaps with Slavic *borv-TD based on *bhc»m-5 "castrated 
animal' and ending in -ha-: -ga- after *farha-^ pork, pig ' extended) in: Old High German 
barug, barh. Modern High German Barg, Barch {Borg, Borch); 

Maybe alb. it's/v^ "shepherd, herdsman (of pigs?)' phonetically equal to Latvian baru, baru, 
bart^sco\d, chide' (see below) or maybe a truncated gr. pcbrajp "herdsman, shepherd'. 

Old English bearg, bearh, engl. barrow. Old Icelandic -bgrgr^a castrated boar' (in addition 
also Old Icelandic va/-bass/"\N\\d boar' as *barh-s-arR s. Falk-Torp under basse N.); Old 
High German Old Saxon boron. Old English borian. Old Icelandic bora, -ada'bore' (see 
above); Old High German bora'borer'. Old English bor, byres 6s.; Old Icelandic bora'\r\o\e' 
{auga-, eyra-bora). 

Lithuanian baras, Latvian bars^ grain swath, strip of cut grain '; Lithuanian baru{an6 
bariu), bart/^sco\d, chide, vilify', refl. " be quarrelsome', Latvian baru, baru, M/Y"scold, 
chide' (== Slavic borjQ); 

Maybe alb. {*barti) bertas'sco\6, yell, scream', mbaroj, "extinguish, finish, end, make 
ashamed', alb. Geg {*bar-) mbare , marre^ shame, sth to be scolded', [common alb. b- > 
mb-s\\\i\] : Latvian: M/'//"scold, blame' [verb]; M/Y/ies "quarrel' [verb]. 

Lithuanian barn/'s {Akk. barn/) "quarrel' (=Old Church Slavic brant); Lithuanian burna 
"mouth' = Bulgarian bbrna'Wp' (basic form *b^orna, compare above Irish bern and to 
meaning Armenian beran). 

Here with Baltic forms ± Latvian be?zt\ub, scour, rub, clean', intrans. b/rzt' crumb, 
spall, crumble ', birze^ sowing furrow ', Lithuanian birzisi. " field furrow '. 

With of a basic meaning 'notch': Lithuanian burtaiP\. "lot, fate, charm, spell' = Latvian 
burts^mark, token, sign the magician, alphabetic letter', Lithuanian it'i//'// "conjure, perform 
magic', Latvian it*^/? "conjure, perform magic', burtains^ perform wood-carving notch '; gr. 

cpapiJaKov "remedy, magical cure, magic potion; pliiitre ' (probably not Indo Germanic) has 
nothing to do with it. 

Old Church Slavic borjg, i?/-^// "fight' (frequent reflexive), russ. borju, it'o/'d/^ "subjugate, 
prostrate', refl. "fight', poln. dial, it'/'dcs/i? "wrestle, struggle'; Old Church Slavic i6'/'5/76 "fight, 
struggle'. Old Russian it'o/'o/?^ "fight, struggle', russ. /7d/'c»/7i. "forbid', Czech it'/'a/? "weapon, 
armament, armor' , russ. za-ZJor "fence, plank fence '; 

maybe alb. {*bron) mbronj" deiend', mburq/e 'sh\e\d, armour' : poln. t>ron/c 'deiend' 
[common alb. b- >/77i6'- shift] Slavic loanword. 

(as Latin forus on the concept "board' rejecting: compare russ. alt. zaboro/o^ wooden town 
wall, scaffold, trestle', Czech zabrad/o ^handraW, parapet' ); russ. borona' harrow', and with 
Slavic -zda-lorms Slavic *borzda\n Old Church Slavic brazda, russ. borozda lurrow'; 

maybe alb. brazda lurrow' a Slavic loanword. 

russ. borov^ hog, castrated boar, (dial.) boar, castrated bull ', Serbo-Croatian brav^ 
sheep, cattle ', Dialectal "castrated pig', Slovak, it'/'ai/" castrated pig', poln. Dialectal browek 
" fattened boar, porker ' (see above Germanic *baruha-)\ *b^rt-b "drilling, cavity' (*bho/Y/-) in 
russ. bortb " the hollow of the tree in what bees have nested ' etc. 

References: WP. II 159 f., WH. I 481 f., 537, 865, 866, Trautmann 27, MiJhlenbach- 
Endzelin 354. 

See also: compare the related root forms \:i^ered^-, b^re/- {b^re/g-, -k-, see there also about 
b^erg-J, b'^reu-, b^reu-q-, -^-"cut, clip', b'^reus- "break, rupture', b'^e/'^^- "gullet'. 
Page(s): 133-135 

Root / lemma: b^e/"-^ 

Meaning: to roar, buzz, onomatopoeic words 

Root/ lemma: b^er-4\ to roar, buzz, derived from a truncated Root/ lemma: bse^mb- 
{ba>^mbafj\ a k. of noise. 

Note: An extension at most in *b^erem- "drone, grumble' and treated onomatopoeic words 
under b^erg- "drone, grumble'. 

Material: Armenian bor, -oy "bumblebee, hornet' [from truncated kir. ,6>c»/77i6'a/'" cockchafer'], 
to redupl. Old Indie bambbara-b {unbe\.) "bee', bambhara//b {unbe\.) "fly', bambha-rava-h^ 
the bellow of the cows'; 

gr. n£[j(ppr|5ibv "kind of wasp' (formation as av9pr|5u)v, T£v0pr|5u)v); similarly also Serbo- 
Croatian it>/y/r7it>5/'" bumblebee', kIr. i6'c»/77i6'5/'" cockchafer'. 

Maybe alb. {*bumbar) bumballa ^b\ixwb\ebee' a Slavic loanword. 

Here at least partly (with fractured reduplication) also the Balto Slavic group from 
Lithuanian barbeti^c\av\Q, clink', birbiu, -iali, birbti^buzz\ burbiu, burbet/^ drone, grumble, 
bubble, seethe' ; 

Maybe Lithuanian {*boburuze) boruze : Romanian buburuza : alb. i6'^/t'^(7e"ladybug'. 

kir. borbor6syP\. " sullen talk ', Serbo-Croatian brb/at/"c\r\at' , in which indeed the meaning 
" talk indistinctly, stammer ' would go back to the group of Old Indie barbarah etc (see 

References: WP. II 161 f., Trautmann 39 f. 
Page(s): 135-136 

Root / lemma: b^er-5 

Meaning: shining; brown 

Note: extensions of b'^er- "shine, appear, seem', b'^ereg-, b'^erek- 'shine'. 

Material: Old Indie bhalla-h, bhallaka-h bhalluka-h^beaf {-II- from -a/-); Old High German 

bero. Old English bera^beaf {*b^eron-), Old Icelandic blgrnds. {*b^ernu-, whose ^as like 

Jfrom Old Indie bballuka-b m\g\r\t have derived from the stem *b'^eru-) = Old English beorn 

"warrior, chieftain'; 

Old Icelandic bers/'bear' (5 as in F^c/75.' Gothic faubo Lucbs' lynx '.Swedish lo); ablaut. 

Lithuanian beras, Latvian it'^/'s 'brown (from horses)'; 

Belarusian pwcb {rys), Russian pwcb {rys), Ukrainian pucb {ris), Bulgarian puc {ris), 

Macedonian puc {ris), Serbian puc {ris), Croatian ris, Slovenian ris, Serbian (lower) rys, 

Serbian (upper) rys, Czech rys, Polish rys, Slovak rys, Albanian rreqebull {ras^ lynx ') + 

buair bull ', Romanian ras^ lynx ' 

Slavic cognates derived from lllyrian Romanian ras^ lynx ' < Lithuanian it'eras 'brown'. 

gr. cpapn vscpsAai Hes.? (*(pap£[a]a or *(pap£Fa? If finally exactly to:) cpapuvei AafJirpuvEi 
Hes., cppuvri, cppuvoc; 'toad, frog' (* ' the brown one ' = Old High German brun); if cpapn as 
' blanket of clouds ' to 7. b'^er-? 

nep. i6>/7i//'c»' brown' (*b'^/x7/'c»-); Old High German Middle High German Z?/77/7 'gleaming, 
brown'. Old English brun. Old Icelandic brOnnds.; (under the influence of common Celtic - 
ns-, -nt- > -nn-), russ. Dialectal bryneti^ 'white, gray shimmer', changing through ablaut 
brunef-b ds. {*b^rou-no-'7) and (from *b'^r-ono-, -eno-) russ. -Church Slavic brorrt 'white; 
varicolored (from horses)', russ. bronb{av\6 Dialectal brynt), kIr. brehfty^ become dun (of a 

dull or dingy brown colour, dull greyish-brown), ripen'. Old Church Slavic brbnije {brenije) 
"ordure, excrement ', slov. brn'nver mud '; 

Old Indie babhru-h' reddish brown; giant ichneumon kind ', Avestan bawra-, bawri- 
"beaver'; Latin fiber, fibrrbeavef (also febers. WH. I 491; probably /has changed for e, as 
also) Celtic (only in names): *bibros, *bibrus in gall. PN and FIN Bibracte, abrit. VN Bibroci, 
Middle Irish VN Bibraige {*bibru-rTgion), PN Bibar{*Bibrus) besides *bebros\T\ gall. FIN 
*Bebra, French Bievre; Bebronna, French Beuvronne, Brevenne etc; (under the influence 
of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-). Old High German bibar. Old English beofor {o\6es\. 
bebr). Middle Low German bever. Old Icelandic b/drr6s. (Proto German *bebru-)\ compare 
also Modern High German FIN Bever, old Biverna, 

Lithuanian bebras, babras, bebrus^s. (dissimil. debrus). Old Prussian bebrus ds.; 
about Lithuanian bru/s/s etc " roach (Latin Leuciscus rutilus) ', Old Prussian brun-se ds. s. 
SpechtDekl. 120; 

Slavic *bebrb in poln. FIN Biebrza, russ. etc bobr{zur o-reduplication s. Berneker47; 
besides perhaps *bbbrb in Serbo-Croatian dabar 'beaver' and Old Russian bebrjanb " 
from beaver fur '). compare noch Latin fibrmus " of the beaver, beaver ', Volscan Fibrenus 
brook name, Avestan bawraini-' of the beaver'; Old High German bibarm, gall, bebrinus 
(Schol. luv.), Lithuanian bebrinis ds.; 

Tocharian B perne, A /75/770 "luminous', therefrom B perne, A pararn " majesty, grandeur 

References: WP. II 166 f., WH. I 490 f.. Van Windekens Lexique 93. 
See also: compare further b'^eA/with similar meaning. 
Page(s): 136-137 

Root / lemma: b^er-6 

Meaning: to roast, cook 

Note: with ^-extensions, before partly /-, i/- vowels; it derived from b'^er-2' move violently, 

surge, boil, cook'. 

Material: 1 . forms without -/- or -u-: b^ereg-: 

Old Indie bburajanfa ' cook\ng' {*b^ereg-); bbrj/af/' roasts', bhrsta-h' roasted', bhrastra-h 
"frying pan', bharj{j)ayati' roasts, brat', bharjana-h' roasting'. 

Middle Persian barstan ds.; presumably is *b^raz- {*b^oraz- \n bhurajanta), *bh5/'z- Aryan 
root form and Indie -j^'only in present *b^rg-skd, from which derived *b'^j{g)sgd, as gr. 
Miayoj from *piy-aK(ji). 

Latin fertum " a kind of sacrificial cake ', Old Latin ferctum {firctum, s. Ernout El. dial. 
Latin 165), participle Te/yd'bake', Oscan fertalis^ the ceremonies where sacrificial cakes 
were needed '. 


common Latin ph- > /-shift. 

Maybe alb. {**fergd) fergonj^ bake' \ also truncated alb. {*fertalis) /7/" sacrifice'. 

Lithuanian birgelas ^bas\c, simple beer', Latvian b/rga'baze, mist, fume, smoke, coal 
smoke ', Old Prussian aubirgo^ cookshop ', birgakarkis^ a big soup ladle ' (with Venetic- 
lllyrian ^). 

2. forms with /; e'r. 

Npers. biris-tan^ivj\ b^rezan^ oyev\\ Baluchi brejag, brijag^ivj\ npers. biryan{*brigana-) 
"roasted', pam. (shifted) wirzam ^roasi' (Iran. *bnj-, *braij-). 

Latin fngo, -ere^roasi, dehydrate, desiccate', Umbrian frehtu^ cooked, boiled'. 

3. forms with Cr. b^rug-: 

gr. cppuyu) 'roast, dry', (ppOKT6(; "roasted; fire brand', cppuyavov "dry wood', cppuysTpov 
" vessel for roasting barley '. 

It is extraordinary that in the onomatopoeic words of gr. (ppuYiAo(; "a bird', Latin frigd^{* 
roast, parch) squeak', poln. it'a/ig/e/" mountain titmouse', russ. berglez-b "goldfinch' the 
distribution of the forms with u, with /; and without either, is the same like in the words for 

References: WP. 11165 f., WH. I 486 f., 548 f. 
Page(s): 1 37 

Root / lemma: b^er-7 
Meaning: to weave 

Material: Horn. (pc(po(; = Attic (papo(; n. (*(papFo(;) "kerchief, ciotli, canvas, fabric, velum, 
cover'; cpapai (?) ucpaivsiv, hAsksiv Hes.; (pop[j6(; " pannier, mat'; 

Lithuanian burva'a l<ind of garment', Latvian burvesP\. "small sail' [-u- suffix as in gr. 
*cpapFo(;), Latvian buras6s., Lithuanian bure^saW. S. to vocalism Walde Streitberg- 
Festschrift 176. 

References: WP. II 164, Specht Dekl. 182. 
Page(s): 137-138 

Root / lemma: b^es-1 

Meaning: to smear, spread 

Material: Old Indie babhast/^ chews up', 3. PI. bapsati; bhasma-u. "ash' resulted through 

verbal extensions oi psa(i)-, pso/i/-, psa(i)-, psT-\x\ Old Indie /05a//"consumes', gr. ipaw, 

i^jaiu) "rub', ijjaipu) ds., i^jauu) "touch', njr|v6(; " baldheaded ', iijr|(po(;f., Doric 4JC((po(; 

"pebble', ijjnxw rub off, ijjcbxu) "grind, pulverize'; 

M^oAoc;, (p£iiJaAo(; "soot, smoke'; ijjap|jO(; f. "sand, beach, seaside' from *ijja(p|jO(;, 
compare i^jacpapoc; "frail, breakable' {*b'^sa-b'^-) and Latin sabulum^ coarse sand, gravel ' 

with already Indo Germanic sporadic alteration of aniaut. b^s- to s-: gr. apaGoc; "sand' (= 
Middle High German samfy, through various contaminations C(|J|jo(; and ijja|ja9o(; ds., in 
addition \^~\K6c, "naked, bald, bleak, bare', \^\tiq, "drop' etc; 

alb. fsiii, psiii, mes/ri's\Neep, thresh'; 

Maybe alb. fseb, psef, msefcover, hide, sweep away' [common alb. p- > mp- > m-]. 

Latin sabu/um ' san6' (see above), wherewith EM. 881 compares Armenian awaz6s.; 

Middle High German samt {* samatho) besides Old High German sa/7/"sand' 
( *samtho-, Germanic sanda-, out of it Finnish santa); 

Tocharian A pas- "diffuse, sprinkle' (?). 

References: WP. II 189, Boisacq 48, 1074, Kluge^^ s. v. Sand, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 328 f., 
676; Specht Dekl. 255, 325, Van Windekens Lexique 91. 
Page(s): 145-146 

Root / lemma: b^es-2 

Meaning: to blow 

Note: probably onomatopoeic words 

Material: Old Indie babhasti ^b\o^s\ bhastrai. 'bellows, hose', bhasati. "rump", bhamsas 

n. 'abdominal part'; 

gr. 4JU-XW 'blow' (to suffix s. Hirt Indo Germanic Gr. 3, 256), itJuxn 'breath, breeze, soul'. 

Here probably ijju-xu) 'cools off (originally through blast), 4Juxo(; 'coldness', i^juxpos 
"cold' etc in spite of Benveniste BSL. 33, 165 ff.; after Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 329 
onomatopoeic, as also i^jiGupoq 'lisping'. 

References: WP. II 69, WH. I 477, Boisacq 1075, Uhlenbeck Old Indie W. 186, 198. 
Page(s): 146 

Root /lemma: b^euA^-, nasal. b^u-n-&^-{*b'^eu6'^-; b^oundh-) 
Meaning: to be awake, aware 

Material: Themat. present in Old Indie bSdhati, bodhate^ awakened, awakens, is awake, 
notices, becomes aware, observes, heeds ', Avestan bao5aiti' perceives ', with paitT-^ 
whereupon direct one's attention ' (= gr. TTSuGofjai, Germanic *biudan. Old Bulgarian 
bljudg); Aor. Old Indie bhudanta{= snuGovTo), Perf. bubodha, bubudhima {: Germanic 
*baud, *budum), participle buddha-' awakened, wise; recognized ' (== gr. a-nuaTO(; 
'ignorant; unfamiliar'); 

maybe alb. {* bubudhima) bubullime ^ ibuudex {*beaxiy [common alb. : Latin o'/7> //shift]. 
Old Indie buddhf-i. 'understanding, mind, opinion, intention ' (= Avestan paiti-busti-i. 
'noticing', gr. nuaiK; 'investigating, questions; knowledge, tidings '); causative in Old Indie 
bodhayatr awakens; teaches, informs ', Avestan baodayeitT perceives, feels' (= Old 
Bulgarian buzdg, buditi, Lithuanian pasibaudyti); of state verb in Old Indie budhyate^ 
awakes, becomes aware; recognizes ', Avestan buidyeiti^becomes aware', frabuidyamno 
'awakening'; Old Indie boddhar-m. ' connoisseur, expert ' ( : gr. n£uaTrip-iO(; ' questioning 
'); Avestan bao5ah-v\. ' awareness, perceptivity ', Adj. ' perceiving ' (: hom. a-nsuGnc; ' 
unexplored, unacquainted; ignorant'); Avestan zaeni-bu5ra-' watching keenly' (:Old 
Bulgarian bi)drb, Lithuanian budrus); Avestan baoidi-' fragrancy ' (= Old Indie bodhi-^ 
plenary cognition '); 

gr. iTEuGopai and iruvGavopiai (: Lithuanian bundu. Old Irish ad-bond-) ' to learn; to find 
out, perceive, watch' (nsuaopai, snuGopinv, nsnuaijai), nsuGcb 'knowledge, tidings '; 
nuGTK;, ttsugk; f. 'question'; 

maybe alb. {*peus) pyes'ask questions', pye^e "question' : gr. ttuotk;, TTe(Jo\qi. "question'. 

Proto-Slavic form: pytati: Old Church Slavic: yoy/a// "examine, scrutinize' [verb], Russian: 
yoy/^/'" torture, torment, try for' [verb], Slovak: pytaf ask' [verb], Polish: pytac' ask' [verb], 
Serbo-Croatian: pitat/" ask' [verb], Slovene: p/tat/" ask' [verb]. Other cognates: Latin putare 
"cut off branches, estimate, consider, thinl<' [verb]. 


From Root / lemma: b'^euA'^-, nasal. b'^u-n-6'^-\ "to be awake, aware' derived Root/ lemma: 
peu-1, peua-. pu-\ "to clean, sift' , Root/ lemma: peu-2'. "to research, to understand' (see 

cymr. bodd{*b^u6'^a) " free will, approval ', corn, itx?//? "volition' (: Old Icelandic bod). Old 
Irish buide^ contentedness, gratitude '; here also Old Irish ad-bond-^ announce, 
promulgate ', uss-bond-^ call off, cancel, refuse ' (e.g. verbal noun obbad); zero grade Old 
Irish robud^ admonishment ', cymr. rbybudd 'warmng' , rbybudd/o ^warn' (: russ. probudftb 
" awaken '); 

Gothic anabiudan^or6er, dispose', faurb/udan' forbid', Old Icelandic /yioda "offer, bid, 
give recognition'. Old English beodan. Old Saxon biodan. Old High German b/otan'offer, 
bid, proffer'. Modern High German b/eten ' geb/eten, verbieten, Gebiet aciuaWy " (area of) 
command '; Old Icelandic bodu.. Old English gebodu.. Middle High German botu. 
"commandment'. Old High German etc ,6*0/0 "summoner'. Old High German it*^/// (Modern 
High German Buttel), Old English i6yo'e/"summoner, court servant'; Gothic biut^s, -dis 
"table, desk'; Old Icelandic bjodr. Old English beod. Old High German beot, yO/b/ "table, 
desk; dish ', actually " which is offered on tray ' (in addition also Old High German biutta. 
Modern High German Beute' kneading or dough trough; dough tray; hutch, beehive '). 

With i7 (compare Hirt Indo Germanic Gr. II 96): Gothic anabusnsi. " commandment ' (*- 
b^ud'^-sni-). Old Saxon ambusant ds.. Old English byseni. " model, example'. Old 
Icelandic bysnn. "wonder, miracle' (from "*warning'), bysna^ foretoken, warn'; 

Lithuanian bundu, busf/^wake up, arouse' and (without nasal infix) budu, budet/ ^watcW, 
budinu, -//7// "waken, arouse, revive', it'^^'ms "watchful, wakeful'; causative baudziu, bausti 
"punish, curse, chastise, castigate '; refl. "intend, mean, aim' {*b'^ou6\id), baudziava 
"socage, compulsory labour ', 

Lithuanian i&a^s/ys "command, order', Latvian bauslis^ command ', Latvian bauma, baume 
"rumor, defamation ' {*b^ou6'^-m-), Lithuanian pasibaudyti^ rise, stand up, sally ', baudlntT 

to cheer up, liven up; ginger up, encourage, arouse, awal<en one's lust ', Old Prussian 
etbaudints^ to raise from the dead, reawaken '. 

Thetnat. present in Old Bulgarian bljudg, bljustT look after; protect, beware, look out', 
russ. bijudu, b/Just/" observe, notice' (about Slavic -y^from Indo Germanic eus. Meillet 
Slave commun2 58). 

causative in Old Bulgarian buzdg, bud/t/" waken, arouse, revive', russ. buzu, bud/tb ds. 
(etc; also in russ. budent 'workday', probably actually ' working day ' or 'day for corvee '); 
stative verb with e-suffix in Old Bulgarian btzdg, bbdet/ ^watcW, perfective (with ne-/no- 
suffix as in gr. nuv9-avo-|jai, wo -avo- from -nno-, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 700) v-bz-bbng 
"awake' {*b^ud-no-, shaped from Aor. of type gr. shuGeto, etc, s. Berneker 106 f.; 

Maybe truncated alb. {*zbudzid) zgjoj^&wakevi : Old Church Slavic: ubud/t/' awaken' 
[verb]; vbzbud/t/' awaken' [verb]; phonetically equal alb. -gj-: poln. -dz/- sounds budzic 
"awaken, arouse' [verb], perf. zbudzic^ awaken, arouse'. 

also about Serbo-Croatian badnjTdan^ Christmas Eve ', bad njak^ wooden log which one 
lays in the in the fire of Christmas Eve' etc). Old Bulgarian sb-na-bbdetT (^uKm^zwi'; Old 
Bulgarian bbdrb^ j\^b'd\}\xo(;;, willing, ready', bbzdrbds., russ. b6dryj^a\ex\., awake, smart, 
strong, fresh', Serbo-Croatian badar^aQ\\e, lively'. 

Tocharian B paut-, A po/' honour'? (Van Windekens Lexique 87). 

References: WP. 11147 f., Feist 41 , 97, Meillet Slave commun2 202 f. 

Page(s): 150-152 

Root / lemma: b^eug-1 

Meaning: to flee, *be frightened 

Note: after Kretschmer (Gl. 30, 138) to b^eug(h)-2 {fKvesian baog-\n the intransitive 

meaning ' escape ') 

Material: Gr. cpsuyoj (Aor. scpuyov, Perf. nscpsuya) 'flee', cpuyn f. (= Latin fuga) 'escape, a 

fleeing, flight, running away ', hom. cpu^a (*(puYja) ds., Akk. cpuya-Ss ' to flight, to flee ' of 

consonant-stem *(puY-; 

perhaps in Venetic PN Osuyapov (Westdeutschl.) 'refuge, escape castle '; 

Latin fug/o, fugl -ere^ to take to flight, run away; to pass away, disappear. Transit., to 
flee from, run away from, avoid; with infin., 'fuge quaerere', do not seek; of things, to 

escape the notice of a person', fuga\. ' flight, running away; esp. flight from one's country, 
exile, banishment. Transf., swift course, speed; avoiding (with genit.)'; 

Note: common Latin ph- > f- shift 

maybe alb. fugonj^ruvi 

Lithuanian bugstu, bugau, bugt/'mir. "be frightened', kaus. bauginti^^mo. get a fright ', 
it's^^^s 'timorous'. 

References: WP. II 144, 146, WH. I 556 f., Kretschmer Gl. 30, 138. 
Page(s): 1 52 

Root / lemma: b'^eug-2, b'^eugh- 

Meaning: to clear away, free 

Material: Avestan baog-, bunja- "loosen, escape, they escape before' {bunja/nt/" re\ease, 

escape', i6'Jy5ya/77/70 "discarding', bunjayaf'be escapes'), buJ/'mAkk. " cleaning, purification 

', ^zo-buj-' from need of releasing ', baoxtar- l\berator'; 

Maybe alb. {*b^uj7ssa) bujis, bujisaaor. "bloom', i6'^ye"fuss' : pali bhuj/'ssa- ^re\eased, free' 

Pahlavi paz. boxtan^ escape, release'. South Baluchi bq/'ag^ unbolt, loosen, unbind', as 

pers. loanword Armenian buzem'\r\ea\, save, relieve ', /7c»/z" healing, deliverance '; pali 

panbhun/at/" pur'\i'\es, cleans, sweeps from'; but pali bhuj/ssa- 're\eased (from previously 

slave)' = Old Indie bbuj/'sya-lree, independent' (Lex., in the Lithuanian as " exploitable ', 

Subst. " maid; maidservant, servant'), to b^eug-4. 

Illyrian FN Buctor, Venetic Fuctor{: Avestan baoxtar-), Fugonia, vhuxia, vhou-xontios, 


Here Illyrian Buctor : Venetic Factor : Avestan baoxtar- "liberator' proves that Avestan a 
satem language can display centum characteristics. Alb. follows the same Illyrian - Venetic 
pattern in -/o/; -/a/" suffixes. The tendency in Illyrian -g- > -c/- shows the intermediary phase 
from centum to satem in later alb.: common alb. -g(h)- > -th-, -k- > -t- in the middle of the 

Gothic usbaugjan^ s'^eep up, sweep out, sweep away'. Modern High German dial. 
^oc/7/ "rubbish, crap, muck'; moreover probably also Middle High German biuchen^ cook 
in lye ', originally "clean', bOchei. "lye' (with secondary ablaut). 

The doubleness Germanic^/?: Aryan ^-also by b'^ eugh- {Modem High German 
biegen): b^eug-{0\6 Indie bhujatieic) 'bend'. Probably identical with it. 

References: WP. II 145, WH. I 560, Kretschmer Gl. 30, 138. 
Page(s): 1 52 

Root / lemma: b^eug-3, b^eugh- 
Meaning: to bow 

Material: Old Indie bhujat/^bends, pushes away ', bhugna-h 'bent, curved', bhuja-h ' arm' , 
bbuja' twist, arm', bboga-b' coil of a snake; ring' (: Old High German boug); nis-bhuj- 
"push'. Pass. " flunk, escape; to get away '; 

perhaps bierher alb. bute'soit, flexible' from *b^ug{h)-to- 'pliable'; 

common alb. -g(h)- > -th-, -k- > -t- in the middle of the word. 

Irish fid-bocc' wooden bow', probably also bocc' tender' ("*pliable'), nir. i&og'soft' 
{^xoxr\*buggo^, KZ. 33, 77, Pick 11^; forabret. buc' rotten, putrid; loose, crumbling, friable, 
flabby ', pi. bocion' rotten, decayed ', nbret. amsirpoug' soft, mild weather ', allowed to 
expect brit. -ch-= Irish -gg-, Pedersen KG. I 161 considers borrowing from Irish 

In Germanic *bhe^^/7-.- Gothic biugan. Old High German b/ogan'ben6', Old Icelandic 
participle boginn "bent, curved'; (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), 
ablaut. Old English bOgan' be bent ', with framl\ee'; 

Kaus. Old Icelandic beygja. Old Saxon bogian. Old English bTegan, Old High German 
bougen. Modern High German beugen. Old Icelandic biugr' bent, curved ', Old High 
German b/ugo' curve'; Old Icelandic bog/, Old English boga {eng\. bo\A^, Old High German 
bogo. Modern High German Bogen{0\6 High German swibogo' Christmas candle arcs 
(which literally means „an arched buttress") ' from * swi[bi-]bogo); perhaps in addition 
Gothic bugjan' let out, lend, buy ', Old Icelandic byggia' obtain a wife'. Old English 
bycgan. Old Saxon buggian'buy' (compare Modern High German dial. ' be bent by 
something ' = "acquire, take'); in addition probably Latvian baugaand baugurs'bWV. 

Intensive (with intensification) Germanic *bukjan\n Middle High German bucken, Swiss 
bukche; Middle Low German bucken. Old Frisian buckia' to stoop, bend forward, bend 
down ' (Wissmann Nom. postverb. 171, 181). 

References: WP. II 145 f., WH. I 556, Feist 96. 
Page(s): 152-153 

Root / lemma: b^eug-4 

Meaning: to enjoy, *consume, bite 

Material: Old Indie bhuiikte {W\Vc\ Instr., newer Akk.) "enjoys', compare bhunakti, bhunjati 

'grants pleasure, enjoys, consumes', bubhuksa^huuqef, bhoga-h 'enloyment'; 

about Old Indie bhujisya-see above under b'^eug-2, 

common Old Indie gh- > ks- 

alb. bungei., bunk, bunguxr\. " kind of edible oak fruit ' (as " nourishing or nutritious tree 
', post-verbal = "food grantor '); 


Alb. bunge^ kind of edible oak fruit ' : with -^-grade alb. {*beuka) buka'bread' : Phrygian 
PeKot; "bread', actually " crumb ' prove that from an extended Root/ lemma: b(e)u-1, 
b^feju-: "expr. sound of hitting' derived Root/ lemma: b'^eg-, b^eng-: "to break'. Root/ 
lemma: b'^engh-, b'^Qgh-{k6]. b'^pghu-s) : "thick, fat'. Root/ lemma: b'^eug-l: "to flee, *be 
frightened'. Root/ lemma: b'^eug-Z b^eugh-: "to clear away, free'. Root/ lemma: b'^eug-S, 
b^eugh-: "to bow'. Root/ lemma: b'^eug-4\ "to enjoy, *consume, bite' as taboo words. 

Latin fungor^ to occupy oneself with anything, to perform, execute, undergo, usually 
with abl.; absol. in special sense, to be affected, suffer ', with Akk., later Abl., defungor^ to 
perform, discharge, have done with, bring to an end, survive ', perfungor^ to perform fully, 
execute, discharge; to go through, endure '. 

References: WH. I 565 f., Wackernagel Synt. I 68, Jokl L.-k. Unters. 179. 
Page(s): 1 53 

Root /lemma: b'^eu- b'^eua-{b^ua- b'^ue-) : b^ou-: b^u-{*b'^e\}B- > b^Hu-ehi-t) 

Meaning: to be; to grow 

Root/ lemma: b^eu- b^eu9-{b^ua- b^ue-) : b^du-\ b^u-{*b^eu9- > b^Hu-ehi-t): to be; to 

grow, derived from Root/ lemma: b(e)u-2, b'^(e)u-{*b'^eHu- > b^Hu-iH-t): to swell, puff. 

Note: (probably = "to swell'), compare Old Indie prabhuta-hW\Vc\ Old Indie bhOri-heic under 

*b(e)u-, bh{e)u- "inflate, bloat, to swell', from which "originate, become, be', farther " where 

usually one is, live ';7a/7- present b'^u-ijo, b'^u-ije-si, b'^u-F-s/etc as verb "be' supplies often 

paradigm of es- "be'; extended root b'^euh, b'^uei- 

Material: Old Indie bhavati^'xs, there is, happens, prospers, becomes ' = Avestan bavaiti^ 

becomes, originates; happens; will be ', Old pers. bavatiy^becoxnes'; Fut. Old Indie 


Avestan busye/t/ part\c\p\e busyant-' will come into existence ' (latter = Lithuanian bus/u, 
Church Slavic bys§steje^ to psAAov ', compare gr. cpuau)); Aor. Old Indie abhut{= gr. EcpO) 
and bhuvat, Perf. babhuva, participle Perf. Akt. babhuvan, f. babhuvusT{: gr. nscpucbq, 
nscpuuTa, Lithuanian buvo. Old Church Slavic byvati). Inf. bhavitum, Absol. bhutva 
(compare Lithuanian ,6*^/^ passive "to be', Old Prussian buton\ni.); 

Old Indie bhuta-h, Avestan ,6* J/5- 'become, being. Old Indie bbuta-m ' entity' (: Lithuanian 
buta ' been ', Old Icelandic budi. "dwelling', russ. bytb "entity, way of life, lifestyle '; with u 
gr. cpuTov, Old Irish -both^ one was ', bothi. "cottage', Lithuanian butas^ house'); pra- 
bbuta-b'nch, numerous', npers. Inf. budan^be'; 

Old Indie bhuti-h, bhutf-hi. "being, well-being, good condition, prospering; flourishing ' 
(Avestan buf/'-m. "name of daeva '? = Old Church Slavic za-, po, pre-bytb, russ. bytb. Inf. 
Old Church Slavic byti, Lithuanian butr, with u^r. cpuoK;). 

Pass. Old Indie bhuyate, kaus. bbavayat/' brings into existence; looks after and 
nurtures, refreshes ', participle bhavita-h a\so " pleasantly excited, in good mood ' (=Old 
Church Slavic /z-bav/t/lree, release'), with ders. lengthened grade /7/751/5-/7 "being, 
development, becoming, affection ' (: russ. za-bavai. "conversation, entertainment') 
besides bbava-h' development, welfare, salvation'; 

Maybe alb. zbav/t' amuse, entertain ' a Slavic loanword. 

bbav/fram'\Nor\6' (ablaut, with gr. cpuiAa "nature, gender, sex' and Lithuanian buk/a 
"dwelling' etc, and with Germanic *buMa- and *bdNa-, next to which with formants -6^lo- 
Czech bydio); bhavana-m^Vne development, becoming; dwelling, house (: alb. bane, but 
Middle Irish it'Ja/? "unwavering, steadfast' from *b''^ou-no-), ablaut, bhuvana-m^ enWiy'; 

Old Indie bhu-t "earth, world', bhumT, bhumih-, Avestan ap. bumT-, npers. bum^earVn', 
Old Indie bhuman- n. "earth, world, being' (= gr. cpuija), bhuman-m. "fullness, wealth, bulk, 
mass, wealth '; pra-bhu-h^rui^hiy, salient '; 

5-stem i6'/7ai//s-/7^-/7 "becoming, thriving', i6'/7j5a//" makes thrive, strengthens', bhusayatT 
bedecks, blazons ', bhusana-m "amulet, jewellery'. 

The /^basis *b!^(e)uT-, as it seems, in Old Indie bobhavTti \n\.ens. and bhavT-tva-h^\\s\.\sxe'\ 
about Iran, it'^forms see below. 

Armenian bois. Gen. /7^soy" sprout, herb, plant', busanim^ burst forth, spring forth ', 
further perhaps boin. Gen. bunoi^nes\! {*b^eu-no-), zero grade bun. Gen. b no/" stem' . 

Thrak. PN Kaai-pouvov. 

Gr. cpuco (Lesbian cpuiu) as Oscan fuia, see below), 'beget' (Aor. scpuaa), cpuopai 
"become, grow' (compare Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I, 686), probably neologisms to Aor. ecpOv 
"was, became', besides (neologism?) scpunv; cpurov "growth, plant, kid, child, ulcer', cpun 
"growth; nature, character', (pupa n. "plant, growth, ulcer', cpuaiq "nature', cpuAov n. "stem, 
gender, sex, kind of, cpuAn " municipality and from it located department ' (: Old Church 
Slavic bylt, Aparticiple bylbje); lengthened grades *bf^d/i7//c»- perhaps in cpwAsoc;, cpwAsioq 
"hiding place, nook, bolt-hole, den of wild animals', cpajAEuw " sleep in a cave ', (p(joAi(; " a 
sea fish which is hidden in the mud '; 

Maybe alb. foleja " nest 
hibernation of bears, 2. 

' : gr. cpooA-eia , 
of fishes, (pi.) ' 

, orcpooA-ia , n, " 
, alb. {*fole) fie ' 

life in a 
■ sleep ' 


; or cave, 

of the 
" sleep 

in a 

cave '. 

but Old Icelandic bolu. " a camp for animals and people ', is not from i7o/(probably from 
*bdt^la) "dwelling' miscellaneous word; in addition zero grade Swedish Dialectal bylja, bolja 
"small nest' from *bulja. 

As 2. compound-part in UTr£p(pun(;, un£p-cp[*F]iaAo(;. About cpTiu see below. 

Illyrian VN Bum', PN Bouvvoc; (: alb. bun^. 

Messapic pupiov oiKPiMa, paupia oiKia Hes. (:Old High German bur); 


The inanimate suffix -ur- . Illyrian Messapic pupiov oiKriMa, paupia : lAAupioi , oi, lllyrians, 
'lAAupia , n, lllyria, also'lAAupi? , n. Adj. 'lAAupiKO^ , n, 6v, Illyrian: -Krj, the region or province 
of lllyria, lAAupi^a) , speak the Illyrian language, 'IAAupia:~hence Adv. 'lAAupiaii. 

alb. buj, buj{ *bunjd) "stay, stay overnight, spend the night ', burr, burre {*buro-) "man, 
husband', /75/7e "dwelling, abode, residence, half dilapidated house ' {*b^ouona:0\6 Indie 
bhavanam), banoj^siay, dwell'; bun(e)^ c\\a\e\! {*b'^una); perhaps also bote^ earth, bottom, 
world, people' Cb'^ ya-ta or *b'^ue-ta). 

Latin /^/"(Old Latin fulj "I have been' from *fu-a/, metathesis of older Aor. *fum{= gr. e- 
cpuv. Old Indie a-bbut' he was '), fu-furus' future, about to be ', /bre/r? "would be', fore' will 
be ', Old Latin Konj. fuam, fuat'be' {*b'"uuanr, compare Lithuanian buvo'was' from *b^u- 
uaf), besides -bam {*b'^uam : Oscan fu-fans " they were ', Old Irish -ba " I was ') in lege- 

bam etc, compare Latin-Faliscan -i6'o(from *b^ud) in ama-bo, Old Latin venT-bo, Faliscan 
pipaft^eic with Irish b- future {do-nmiub^ I will enumerate ' from *to-nm-T-bud), intensive 
futaviV he/she was '; 

Oscan fu-fans^ they were ', fu-fens^ they were ', fusfd= Latin foret, fust{= Umbrian 
fust) " he/she will be ' and ' he/she will have been ', f^/io'Konj.-Perf. ' he/she will have been 
'; but about /^////-'daughter' s. Vetter Gl. 29, 235, 242 ff. against WH. I 557, 867; 

Umbrian /^s/'he/she is going to be', furenf they are going to be ' ( *fuset, *fusent}, 
fefure " they will have been ', futu " you will be ' {fuuetodor fu-tod). 

kjo/h present to root *b^u-: *b^u-lid\\es before in Latin fTo, fferV of persons and things, 
to be made, come into existence; with predicate, to become, be appointed; with genit., to 
be valued at; of actions, to be done; of events, to happen ', the /"instead of /"is correlated to 
ffs, iTt{*b^u-T-si, *b'^u-T-ti)\ Oscan fiiet{*b^ulient} " they become, they are made', Umbrian 
fito^ good deeds, benefits?', fuia^ he/she will become, he/she will be made ', fuiesV 
he/she will make ' (*b'^^vo besides *b'^6'//oas in Lesbian cpuioj, see above); 

Latin nominal formation only in o'^/?/^s 'doubtful; act., wavering; in opinion, doubting; 
uncertain; as to action, hesitating, irresolute; pass., uncertain, doubted, doubtful, 
dangerous, critical ' {*du-b^u-lio-s^ of double form, consisting of two parts ', compare 
Umbrian di-fue^ split into two parts ' < *dui-b^uiom), probus^ good, excellent, fine; morally 
good, upright, virtuous, right ' {*pro-b'^uos\ Old \r\d'\c pra-bhu-h^ salient, superb '), Oscan 
am-prufid^ dishonest, lacking probity ', prufatted^ has shown, marked, indicated, 
manifested, proven ', Umbrian prufe^ upright, honest, proper'; Latin super-bus^ haughty, 
exalted, proud; arrogant, overbearing; brilliant, splendid '. 

About Latin moribundussee Niedermann Mel. Meillet 104, Benveniste MSL. 34, 189. 

Old Irish it's© "benefit' {*b'^ud-/om), buan 'stea6iast, good' {*b^ouno-, in addition cymr. 
bun^queen, wife, woman'); Middle Irish ba/'/e^bome, place' {*b'^u9-///o-); 

Old Irish bu/fb^be' (originally Dat. of 5- stem both< *b^uta= cymr. bod, corn, bos, bret. 
bout= Old Irish bothi. 'cottage', cymr. bodi. "dwelling': Lithuanian butas^bouse"; 
moreover also Middle Irish for-baid^ burial cloth, shroud, barrow, bier'), Fut. -bJa^ will be ' 
(= Latin fiat), preterit 1. Sg. ba{*b'^uam), 3. Sg. boT{*b'^due), Pass, preterit -both^ one was 
' {*b'^u-to-); the paradigm of the verb Subst. and the copula exists from forms von es-and 
b^eu; e.g. hat 1. Sg. present Konj. Old Irish beu {*b^-esd) the aniaut related to b^eu-. 

Old Irish -bTu^ I care to be ', mcymr. bydaf, corn, bethaf, Middle Breton bezaff6s. 
{*b^u//d= Latin flo, besides *b'^^/-in Old Irish b/tb, mcymr. M' ([Imperative Future Tense] 
you will be ' = Latin flf); 

gall. PN Vindo-bios {*-b^ulios), compare cymr. gwyn-fyd^\\}c\C ('white world', byd). Old 
Irish su-b(a)e^^\easuKe, joy' {*su-b^y//o-), du-b(a)e{du= gr. bxic,-) "mourning, grief; 

Gothic bauan^siay, dwell, inhabit', aid bauan^ lead a life ', gabauan ^ erect a house' 
{*b^dud, vocalism as in Old Indie bhavayati, bhava-h, Slavic baviti). 

Old Icelandic bua{bjd, buinn) 'stay, dwell, bring in good condition, equip ', Old English 
buan and buw(i)an {bude, gebuen) 'stay, dwell, farm' (besides Old English bogian. Old 
Frisian bog/a ^stay, dwell', phonetic type based on Gothic sfdja irom *sfdw//dan6 das 
initial vowel). Old High German buan{buta, gibOan) 'stay, dwell, farm'. Modern High 
German bauen. Old Icelandic byggja^ live at a place, farm, populate', later ' construct, 
build' (from * buwwjarR *bewwjarR)\ Old Icelandic bun. 'domicile, household ', Old English 
bun. 'dwelling' (PI. byn. of /-stem *buwi-= Old Icelandic byrxw. 'dwelling, residential site, 
court '; similarly Lithuanian buvis^ permanent stay, residence '), Old High German bu. 
Middle High German bu. Gen. buwesTn., seldom n. ' tilling of the field, dwelling, edifice'. 
Modern High German Bau, 

Old Icelandic budi. 'dwelling, tent, cottage'; Old Swedish bot^. Middle Low German 
bode. Middle High German buode an6 bude^ cottage, tent ', Modern High German Bude 
{*b^^u]-ta); Middle Low German boderioriune', i6>d/' estate'. Old English boldan6 botln. 
'dwelling, house', *byldan, engl. to build \o build'. Old Frisian bold an^ boderhouse, 
household utensil, household appliance, property' {* bot^la- irom Indo Germanic *b^^u]tlo- 
and *buNa-, compare Lithuanian bukia an6 westsl. bydio), also Old Icelandic boln. 
'dwelling' [(see above also to bdr den (of animals) ']; 

Old Icelandic burn. ' pantry, zenana (part of a house for women in India)', Old English 
burxw. 'cottage, room'. Old High German burm. 'house, cage'. Modern High German 
(Vogel-)Bauer, whereof Old High German nahgibur. Old English neahgebur. Modern High 
German Nachbar, engl. nelghbouran6 Old High German glbur(o). Middle High German 
gebur(e), then bur. Modern High German Bauer^ farmer, peasant '; 

Old English beo^ I am ' (*bh^//o= Latin ffo. Old Irish -bTu), besides beom. Old High 
German bim etc after *//77from *es- 'be', as Old High German blsft). Old English bis aiter 

Perhaps Gothic bagms, Old High German bourn, Old English beam 'tree' from 
*bhc»i/^e'y)/77c»- "cpuTOv' and Old Icelandic byggn. "barley', Old Saxon Gen. PL bewd^sow\ng, 
seed, yield'. Old English beown. "barley' ( *bewwa-) as " the tilled, the sown '. 

Maybe alb. {*beam) it*//??© "plant', alb. Geg it>5 "ripen, become', bafsh sub. "be! ' 

Lithuanian i6>J// (Latvian but, Old Prussian bout) "be', buti^ Sup'\n. "to be' (Old Prussian 
buton\x\i.), participle butas^ been ', Put. it'Js/^ (Latvian busu), preterit buvo^he was' 
(compare also buv6-ju, -ti^ care to be ' and Old Church Slavic Iter, byvati}. Opt. Old 
Prussian bousa/"\r\e is', preterit be/, be'\r\e was' (from an expanded basis with -e/-); 

Lithuanian buv/sm. "being, life', buvineti^ stay here and there a while ', Old Prussian 

Latvian /?^s5/7a "being, entity, condition ', Old Prussian bousenn/s^ state, condition '; 
(under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), Lithuanian butas. Old Prussian 
(Akk.) buttan^ house'; 

Lithuanian buklas {*bOtla-) " nest, den, hideout, lair of wild animals ', pabOklas^ tool, 
utensil; apparition, ghost', bOkIa, bukle' presence (of mind), dwelling'. East Lithuanian 
bukle^s. (see above; in addition buklus^Wxse, sly, cunning'); 

Old Church Slavic iy//" become, be', lo- participle byli^ " been ' (therefrom bylbje^herb; 
healthy herb ', compare to meaning cpuTOv), Aor. be^was' {*b'^ue-t); 

Imperf. bease. Put participle Church Slavic bysQsteje, bysqsteje^io psAAov', Kondiz. 3. PI. 
bg{*b'^ua-nt), participle za-bbvenb lorgotten' , besides miscellaneous participle *byte.g. in 
russ. zabytyj lorgotten' , compare in addition also Subst. russ. bytb "entity, way of life, 
lifestyle ' , apoln. byto ^nounsbment, food'. Old Church Slavic iz-bytbkb " affluence, 
remnant ' , bytbje " the existence '; 

maybe alb. /r7i6'e^e "residue, leftover', mbetet"\s left', mbeturine 'trasb' [common alb. b- > 
mb- sb\it] 

Old Church Slavic zabytb " oblivion ', pobytb "victory', prebytb "abode, residence', russ. 
bytb "entity, creature; facts (of the case), facts (of the matter), matter of fact '; present Old 
Church Slavic bQdQ^become, yiyvopai', as Put.: "will become' (if Latin Adj. in -bundus?); 

maybe reduced alb. {*bgdg) do Puture: "will become' 

Kaus. Old Church Slavic izbavitriree, release' (: Old Indie bhava-yati, compare to 
vocalism also Gothic bauan and Old Church Slavic zabava^ stay, activity, pastime'); 
Czech bydlo^ whereabouts, dwelling', poln. ifi'yo'/o "cattle' (from *"state, prosperity, 
possessions '). 

Maybe alb. {*zabava) zi^ai/// 'entertain, (*pastime) ' 

Perhaps here (Pedersen Tocharian 228'') Tocharian B pyautk-, A pyotk-, AB pyutk- " 
come into being ', med. ' bring about '. 

From the basis b'^(e)uT-: 

npers. Imp. bhd^beV; Old pers. Opt. br-ya^\s placed by Wackernagel KZ. 46, 270 = Old 
Indie bhu-ya-h, -t, 

gr. cpTiu n. 'germ, sprout, scion, shoot' = cpirOija, cplTuu) ' produce, sow, plant'; 

Old Lithuanian b/t{/)'\r\e was', also Kondit. 1. PI. (suktum-) bime, Latvian biju, bija^\ was, 
he was' (Latvian bija- extended from athemat. *b^uh)\ ablaut. Old Prussian bei, see above; 

maybe alb. bujis^qexxx\, sprout, scion, shoot, bloom' 

Old Church Slavic Kondit. 2. 3. Sg. b/'were, would be' {*b^uhs, *b^uT-t), wherefore 
secondary 1. Sg. bi-mb\N\Vc\ primary ending. 

References: WP. II 140 f., WH. I 375 f., 504 f., 557 f., 865, 867, EM. 812 f., 1004 f., 
Trautmann 40 f.. Feist 83 f. 

Specht will place (KZ. 59, 58 f.) under citation of gr. cpaFoc; 'light, salvation' = Old Indie 
bhava-^ blessing; benediction, boon, salvation', (pa£-ai-|jppoTO(; etc unsere root as *b'^au9- 
, not as *b'^eu9-. see also above S. 91. 

Page(s): 146-150 

Root / lemma: b'^egh- : b^ogh- 

Meaning: to resist 

Material: Gall, bagaudae' insurgent guerilla ' (suffix as in alauda, bascauda). Old Irish 

M^a/io' 'fights, brags, threatens ', bagi. 'fight, struggle', mcymr. bwyo{*bagi-) 'hit', 

kymwy{: Middle Irish combagds.) 'fight', -boawc= Middle Irish bagach^ warlike '; whether 

cymr. /7a/"fault, error', it'e/b 'rebuke' in addition belongs, it must contain Indo Germanic 


Old High German bagan, {bagen?) "squabble, quarrel', Old Icelandic baga, baegja^ 
oppose, resist'. Old High German it'aga "quarrel, fight'. Old Saxon bagm. " vainglory, 
boastfulness ', Middle High German bac, -gesm. " loud yelling, quarrel ', Old Icelandic 
bage, bag/" adversary ', M^r" difficult, hard, sullen, obstructive'; it is presumed whether 
Germanic family is not borrowed from Celtic, ablaut Germanic e: Celtic a(lndo Germanic 


Latvian buozties' be angry ' {*b'^dgh-), Endzelin KZ. 52, 118; 

russ. bazer bawler, crier', it'az^a/a "malicious' (Scheftelowitz KZ. 54, 242); 

perhaps Tocharian B pakware^evW, bad' (Adverb), A pkanV hindrance ' (*bf^a^/7-). Van 
Windekens Lexique 85, 96. 

References: WP. II 130. 
Page(s): 1 1 5 

Root / lemma: b^e^, b^d (*bhe, b^o) 

Meaning: a kind of particle 

Material: Avestan ba, bat, be, i6'd/?(the latter, as Lithuanian beT, probably with 

strengthening particle *id) particles of the protestation and emphasis, bada^ yea, in truth ' 

("if Old Indie ^a^/75/r7?'Bartholomae Wb. 953); 

Maybe emphasizing particle alb. it's/? "absolutely not' [alb. preserved the old laryngeal -/?] 

Armenian ba, i?ayemphasizing particle; 

Gothic it's conditional particle (here i-ba, i-bai" if, because?' Konj. " that not ', ni-ba, 
ni-bar possibly not yet?', Konj. "if not',ya-i6'5/"if'. Old High German ibu, oba. Middle High 
German ob(e)"\i, whether' etc, s. Kluge^^ 422); 

Lithuanian ba'yes, of course; certainly; sure ', ben' at least, not only but also ', East 
Lithuanian be{= Old Prussian bhe), berisee above) "and', be, ba, bes, it'aJ interrogative 
particle. Old Prussian begg/lor'; Old Church Slavic (etc) ,6*0 "for', f-bo'Ka\ yap', ^-i6'c»"also', 
ne-bo-nblor indeed '; changing through ablaut kir. ba'yes, of course; certainly; sure ', 
Czech poln. ba' trusted, yea, in truth'. 

Maybe alb. po"\i, whether, yes' : poln. ba' yea, in truth'. 

References: WP. II 136, Trautmann 22 f. 
Page(s): 1 1 3 

Root / lemma: b^e- : b^d- 

Meaning: to warm, fry, *bath 


From Root/ lemma: b^e-: b^o-: "to warm, fry, *bath' : Root/ lemma: b'^oso-s: "naked' 

derived from Ossetic: basgn^g [ad\] "naked' of Root/ lemma: nog"-, nog^odfhjo- nog^-no- 

: naked' common Indo Iranian m-/n-> bh: gr.-lllyrian payapov xAiapov. 

Material: Old High German baen, bajan. Modern High German bahen {*b^ejd) " warm with 

covers, bake bread ', in addition with Indo Germanic-Zo-suffix Old Icelandic bad^ steam 

bath ', Old Saxon bath. Old English baet^. Old High German bad^S'^a, bath'; in addition 

also Norwegian dial, bara^ clean with warm water ', Swedish bara^warm up '. 


The cognates Old Icelandic bad' steam bath ', Old Saxon bath. Old English bsef^. Old 

High German bad'spa, bath' are created according to alb. phonetic laws -g > -th, -d, 

maybe euphemistic alb. mbatb'get dressed, wear', zbatb 'get naked, get undressed (to 

have a bath?)' 

Root/ lemma: b^e-: b^d-: "to warm, fry, *bath' : Root/ lemma: b^oso-s: "naked' as in: Old 

High German bar'naked, bare' {*baza-). Modern High German bar. Old English bser. Old 

Icelandic i6>e/r"naked, bare'; Lithuanian basas, Latvian bass. Old Church Slavic bosi) " 

barefoot '; Armenian bok' barefoot ' {*b'^oso-gch). 

thereof with ^extension b^og- 

in gr. cpcbyco "roast, fry', Old English bacan, boc. Old High German bahhan. Old Icelandic 
baka, -adads.. Middle High German sich bechein " bask, get warm, lounge in the sun '; 
besides with intensive consonant-sharpening Old High German backan. Modern High 
German back en; 

gr.-lllyrian payapov xAiapov; Aqkwvec; Hes. (v. Blumental IF. 49, 175); 

In addition perhaps (as " burning desire, ardent wish ') russ. bazftb, bazatb " wish, want, 
whereupon starve ', Czech baziti, perf. zabahnouti" ask for something '. 

References: WP. 1 11 87. 
Page(s): 1 1 3 

Root /lemma: b^b^- 
Meaning: vessel, cauldron 

From an early root *b^'e'5!^- [common lllyrian -gh-> -dh-] derived Root / lemma: b'"e6!"-2\ 
"to bow, bend', Root/ lemma: b^aA'^-sko-: "bundle, heap' and in -/grade Root/ lemma: 
bh/dh_: vessel, cauldron (see above). 

Material: gr. -n'xQoq, n. "barrel, vat, cask, wine cask ', niGoKvp, Attic cpiSoKvp ds., Latin fidelia 
{*fides-lia) " earthenware vessel, pot, pan'; presumably Old Icelandic bidai. "milk tub ', 
Norwegian bideu. "butter tub' {*bidjan-), bidneu. "vessel'. 

There from Latin f/scus' a basket; hence a money-bag, purse; the state treasury; under 
the empire, the emperor's privy purse ', fiscina " a small basket ' (from *b^i(ii^-sko-) may be 
reconstructed for its family a basic meaning " twisted vessel ', it belongs probably to a root 
b'^e/dh- "bind, flax, wattle, braid'. 

References: WP. II 185, WH. I 492 f., 506. 
Page(s): 1 53 

Root / lemma: b^ili-, b^ilo- 
Meaning: harmonious, friendly 

Material: Middle Irish b/7{*b^f-/f-) "good', gall. B/7/-\n PN Bili-catus, Bilicius e\.c. Old High 
German bila- "kind, gracious', newer bili-, bit- in 1 . part of people's name; Old English bile- 
M/y/ "simple, just, innocent' = Middle High German bilewiz, bilwiz^iawj demon, ghost' 
(actually "good ghost'); Old High German M-^c/7 "proper'; abstract noun *biliPd\v\ Old 
Saxon unbilithunga^ unconventionality ', Middle High German unbilde, unbiledeu. " 
wrong; injustice, the incomprehensible ', Modern High German Unbilde, to adjective Middle 
High German unbiV unjust; unfair', substantivized Swiss Unbill. About Modern High 
German Bildsee below b^ei(a)-^b\{\ wherefore R. Loewe (KZ. 51, 187 ff.) will place also 
Unbilde . 

Gr. cpiAo(; " dear, friend ' etc places Kretschmer (IF. 45, 267 f.) as pre Greek to Lydian 
bills 'be'; against it Loewe aaO., which explains the stress of the first syllable from the 

References: WP. II 185, Kluge^i under Bild, billig, Unbill, Weichbild. 
Page(s): 153-154 

Root / lemma: b^lagh-men- 

Meaning: priest 


Root / lemma: b^lagh-men-\ "priest' derived from tlie extended Root/ lemma: b^lag-: "to 

hit', meaning Aryan priests assumed they would gain the grace of gods through 


Material: Old Irish brahman-m. "magic priest', brahman-v\. "spell, charm, devotion '; 

Messapic pAapivi "priest'; Latin flamen, -inism. "the priest of some particular god, 

sacrificial priest' (not the old *-en). 

Because of the numerous congruities in the religious terminology between the Italic and 
Indie this is equation of the preferred explanation of flamenirom *b^lad-(s)men, angebl. " 
sacrifice, immolation ' (to Gothic blotan " worship ', Old Norse biota. Old English blotan. 
Old High German /7/i/az5/7 "sacrifice'. Old Norse blotu. "sacrifice, oblation' [-es-stem, 
compare Finnish luote^ chant, incantation ' from proto Germanic *bldtes]. Old High 
German bluostaru. ds., etc), compare also Dumezil REtlE. 1, 377, still compares 
Armenian baijaF strive after '. 

Maybe alb. /^/"chant, pray' : Finnish luote^ chant, incantation ' 

References: WP. II 209, WH. I 512 f., 865 f., Feist 100 f., 580 a. 
Page(s): 1 54 

Root / lemma: b^lag- 
Meaning: to hit 

Material: Latin f/agrum^\Nh\p, scourge', f/age//um ds. "a whip, scourge; the thong of a 
javelin; a young sprout, vine-shoot; plur. the arms of a polypus; fig. "the sting of 
conscience', with lengthened grade probably flagito, -are " to entreat, ask, demand 
earnestly; to demand to know; to summon before a court of justice ' (originally probably 
with blows and threats), flagitium^ a disgraceful action, shameful crime; shame, disgrace; 
meton., scoundrel, rascal ' (originally " public castigation and suppression '; conflages^ 
places exposed to all the winds, place blown by the winds' Paul Fest. 35 a appears a spoil 
for CO nf luges); 
Maybe alb. /7a/r "hurl' 

Old Icelandic and New Norwegian dial, blaka, blakra' strike back and forth, fan, flutter, 
flap ', Old Icelandic blak^bVy^, knock'. Old Icelandic blekkja {*blakjan) "hit' (Norwegian 
"flicker'), Swedish Dialectal blakkta {*blakatjan). Middle Dutch b/akenlan, flutter, shiver' 
(in Germanic phonetic coincidence with the family of Old Icelandic blakra "blink, glitter, 
flash' etc, see below *b'^eleg-^s\\\ue'\ so is e.g. Norwegian b/akralan' as well as "shine'). 

Lithuanian b/askau and bloskiu {-sk-iroxw -g-sq-) ' fling sidelong, travel here and there, 
run around here and there '. 

References: WP. II 209, WH. I 511 f. 
Page(s): 1 54 

Root / lemma: b^leg"- 

Meaning: to swell 

Note: extension v. 'inflate, bloat' 

Material: Gr. cpAsnj, -p6(; f. 'vein', cpA£pa^ovT£(; ppuovTSt; Phot.; Old High German boica, 

bulchunna {*b^Jg"-) ' a round swelling; in water, a bubble '. 

References: WP. II 215, WH. I 519 f. 

Page(s): 1 55 

Root / lemma: b^lei-2 

Meaning: to swell 

Note: extension from b^el- ds. 

Material: Norwegian dial, bleime. Old Swedish blema ' bleb on the skin ' (compare 

Norwegian blaema6s. under b^eA, bh(e)/e-); Danish blegn{e) 'vesicle' {*blajjindn). Old 

English blegeni., engl. blain. Middle Low German bleine. Old Danish blen(e). Old Swedish 

b/ena \es\c\e' {*blajindn). 

That gr. cpATa: ' door pillar, door post ' actually '(* tumid =) thick balk, beam' is required 
only of foreign confirmation (Prellwitz^ and Boisacq s. v.; basic form *b^lT-uao'c -sa)\ ra 
cpAipsAia 'haematoma, effusion of blood' is corrupted from Latin flemina^a bloody swelling 
or congestion of blood about the ankles'. 

b^leis-:0\6 Icelandic b/Isfra 'b\o\N, whistle'? (compare Gothic -b/esan under b^eA, b'^fe)/- 
e-\ new variation with /to the imitation of the bright tone?); perhaps serb. bifham, bifhati 
'flood; spit; have diarrhea'; blfhnem, blfhnuti^ s'Q\asb, spray', Bulgarian blic't, bIfkiTb, 
bifkvam ' pours out of me, flows out ' (if not as proto Slavic *blychajg\.o ^-variant from gr. 
cpAuoj etc). 

b^/eA/- (presumably o'-present *b'^/f-cf-d). 

Gr. cpAiSau) ' overflow of humidity, thereof swell up ', scpAiSsv Sisppssv Hes., 
5ian£(pAoi5£v SiaKSxurai Hes., nscpAoiSsvai cpAuKTavouaGai Hes., cpAoiSau), -sw, -lau) 
'ferment, seethe, boom, blaster', a(pAoia|j6(; 'scum, froth, foam, slobber' (a- = /7'ev'); 
presumably also cpAoTapoc; ' surging of the sea, the tumult of fighting', noAucpAoiapoq 

GaAaaaa (*(pAoi5apO(;, forms after onomatopoeic words as K6vapO(;, apapO(;?); common 
gr.-lllyrian -ks- > -ss- 

perhaps here Middle irisli blaed^ bellowing, braying, roar ' (out of it cymr. bloedd6s.)\ 

engl. bloafio bloat, bulge, swell' {*blaitdn= cpAoiSaoj); 

Latvian bITstu, bITdu, b/fzt and bliezu, -du, -sC grow fat, put on weight '. 

References: WP. II 21 Of. 
Page(s): 1 56 

Root / lemma: b^leiq- (*bh|eik-) 

Meaning: to shine 

Note: extension from bh/e/-(:bhe/-) ds., as b'^leig-. 

Material: Old English bselge {*blaig^idn-) ' gudgeon (type of freshwater fish) '; mnl. Middle 

Low German blei(g)av\6 bleger. Modern High German Bleihe, Blei^i\s\\ names '; besides 

Middle High German blicke^ carp ', Modern High German ^//ic/re (Norwegian dial, blekka. 

Modern High German B/ecke'6ace (*white fish)' from the e-root b^/eg-T); in other meaning 

change ("shine : glance, look') Old Icelandic b//gr^ looking staringly and rigidly ', b//g/a 


In addition russ. i6'/eA/7^/6 "bleach, fade, wither, wilt', b/ek/yj" saWow, paled, faint, languid, 
wilted; faded, flaccid, withered ', b/ekofb " fool's parsley, Aethusa cynapium ', poln. blakn^c 
" fade, expire '. 

References: WP. II 211. 
Page(s): 1 57 

Root/ lemma: b^lenA^-{*bHev\6^-\-) 

Meaning: pale, reddish 

Note: It belongs probably to b^e/-/. 

Material: Old Indie bradhna-h {*b^Jn6'^-no-) "reddish, dun'; 

Germanic *blundaz {*b^Jn6'"-d) in Middle Latin blundus, Italian biondo, French blond, 
from which Middle High German blunt. Modern High German blond, 

Gothic i6'///7o''s "blind'. Old Icelandic blindr^b\\v\6, undistinguishable ', Old Saxon Old 
English blind. Old High German M/?/ "blind', also "dark, cloudy, dull, not obvious'; Gothic 
blandan slk^ mingle, diffuse, intermingle ', Old Icelandic blanda^ruiyC {blendingr^ mixture 

'), Old Saxon Old English blandan, Old High German blantan, Middle High German 
blanden^vciix, tarnish ' (Modern High German Blendling^ hybrid, mongrel, half breed '); to 
Germanic 5 compare the iterative-causative: Old High German blendan {*blandjan) 
"darken, blind'. Old English ^/e/70'5/7' blind' (: blandytis, Old Church Slavic (*bh|ond-iH-tei) 
blqditi'X Old Icelandic b/unda'c\ose the eyes', blundr^ slumber'. Middle English blundren 
"stir, bewilder', nengl. blunder^ be grossly mistaken, wander'; 

Lithuanian blendziu, b/^st/" s\eep; stir flour into soup, talk nonsense, become cloudy ', 
Latvian blendu, blensf have poor eye-sight, be short-sighted '; Lithuanian blandaus, -ytis^ 
low the eyes down, be ashamed ', Latvian bluddWes^6s.\ roam, be ashamed ', 

Maybe alb. Geg {*flenj) fie, Tosc fie "die, sleep'; [rare alb. ph- > f-, found in gr. and Latin] 

Lithuanian i6'/a/7o'as "sleepiness, turbid weather, cloudiness ', blandus^ dim, cloudy, thick 
(soup), murky; dark'; Lithuanian bijsta, bifndo, blfsti^ dim, dusky, cloudy, become dark; 
become cloudy, from water', 

pryblinde {av\6 prieblanda) "dusk, twilight'; here also blinde, blendis, blunde^ sallow '; 

Maybe alb. Geg bit, bllnl, Tosc M/7"linden tree' /7//'stem. 

Old Church Slavic (*bh|end-o-) bl§dg, bigst/'err, wander; rropvEusiv', bigdb "gossip, 
prank', slov. ble-dem, blest/ 'maunder, drivel, fantasize'. Old Czech blesf/{2. Sg. bledes) 
"maunder, drivel '; Old Church Slavic bigd-b' debauchery, depravity, adultery', poln. biqd' 
mistake, delusion ', Old Church Slavic bigzdg, bigditr err, indulge in debauchery ', Serbo- 
Croatian bludTm, bluditrerr, wander, cheat, deceive, spoil, caress ' etc. 

Maybe alb. Geg ble, Tosc blenj'{*cY\edi\), barter, buy' similar shift of the meaning in gr. 
niracpov " cheat, barter, exchange '. 

References: WP. 11216, 218, Trautmann 34 f., Endzelin KZ. 52, 112, Specht Dekl. 58, 117. 
Page(s): 157-158 

Root / lemma: b^les- 

Meaning: to shine 

Note: : up to now only in the Germanic provable extension from b^e/- "shine' 

Material: Middle High German it»/ss "naked, bald, bleak, pallid' (Modern High German bla/S) 

n. "torch, burning candle'. Old English bisese 'iorch, fire', engl. blaze'b\aze, glow; white 

forehead spot ', 

Old High German b/as-ros^ horse with with a bright spot' (with a bright spot on the 
forehead), Middle Low German b/es, blesse {*blasjd) "paleness", Old Icelandic *bles-\y\ 
blesottr^ marked with a white spot ' and in compound on -blesi. 
References: WP. 11217. 
Page(s): 1 58 

Root / lemma: b^leu-(k)-, (s-) 

Meaning: to burn 

Note: extension from b^el- 'shine'. 

Material: *b'^/eu-s- in gr. n£pi-n£(pA£uap£vo(; nupi " blazed by the fire ', £n£(pA£ua£, 

n£pi(pAuu) " sear all around '; Old Icelandic b/ysn. "flame'. Old English b/ysam. "flame, 

torch'. Middle Low German it'/Js "torch'. Old English b/yscon^b\us\r\', engl. b/ush. 

*b'^/eu-k- in Middle High German bliehen^ burning luminously ', Old High German 

The West Slavic forms as Czech it'/ys/e// "shimmer', blyskati^sWiue' (besides Old Church 
Slavic b/bstat/etc, see below *b^leig-) are against it probably reshuffling after *lyskati, poln. 
/ys/rac "flash, shine' etc - meaning not direct accordingly, respectively only from a 
primordial meaning "shine' to justify, Trautmann GGA. 1911, 245 compares with Middle 
High German Me/7e/7.- Lithuanian blunku, bluktT become pale, lose one's color'. 

References: WP. 11214. 
Page(s): 159-160 

Root / lemma: b'^leus- 

Meaning: weak, mild 

Note: Perhaps to b'^eleu-. 

Material: Swedish Dialectal b/os//n 'weak', norweg. b/yr'rc\\\6, lukewarm', b/0yra 'weakWng, 

wimp ', Modern High German schwab. blusche(n) 's\aw, idle': Lithuanian apsi-blausti 

"despond, despair, become sad '. 

References: WP. 11214. 

Page(s): 1 60 

Root / lemma: b'^leu- 

Meaning: to blow; to swell, flow 

Note: extension from b'^el- "(inflate, bloat), swell up' 

Material: Gr. cpA£(F)cji) " to be full of, to abound with, to be bursting with, to be bristling, be 
brimful ', OAsuc; (*OAr|U(;, lengthened grade), ephes. OAswc; (*OAr|Fo(;) epithet of Dionysos 
as a vegetation God; presumably from the lushness of growth also Attic cpAsux;, jon. (pkoOq 
" reed plant '; 

cpAoiu) (*(pAoFiu)) "swell, to be full of, to abound with, to be bursting with, to be bristling, be 
in bloom, blossom', un£p(pAoiO(; ' growing excessively ' or " exceedingly succulent ', 
OAoTo(;, OAoia "epithet of Dionysos and the Kore as vegetation divinities ' probably also 
(pKo\6q, (pKooq "bark, husk'; 

changing through ablaut cpAuoo " surge up, bubble, chat; be fruitful ', arrocpAuEiv 
anEpsuysaGai Hes. (pKijoq m. "gossip', cpAua^ "gossip, prank; buffoon '; 

Lithuanian bliauju, blidviau, bliauti^roar, bellow, bleat', b//uvauf/" roar, bellow', Latvian 
bl'aunu, b/'aut6s.; Old Church Slavic (*b'^leuH-tei) b/'ujg, b/'bvat/" sp\t, vomit' (based on old 
preterite stem, compare Lithuanian b/Zuvoirom Indo Germanic *b^luua-)\ in addition 
perhaps also Old Prussian b/eusky\ee6' (would be correct in the meaning to gr. cpAsux;!). 

With a s-extension Low German b/ustern Wo\er\t blow, storm, pant, sniff, snort', engl. 
b/uster^boom, blaster, rant, roister' and Serbo-Croatian b/Juzgaf/" stream noisily, chat silly 
stuff '; also Serbo-Croatian bifhati eicl (see below b^lei-s-). 

With dental formant: Middle High German blodern^cbai, prate'? (rather new 
onomatopoeic word; compare Kluge'''' ur\6er p/audern); rather Swiss b/oder'b\g bubble 
etc', b/odern 'eiiervesce, surge, boil'. Modern High German Pluderhosen, perhaps Serbo- 
Croatian blutiti^ speak absurd, speak inappropriate ', Berneker 62; about Old High 
German blai{t)ara^bubb\e' {*ble-drd-) s. S. 121; 

with -f/- (originally present forming?): cpAuSau) " flows about, dissolves, become soft', 
cpAu5ap6(; " muddy, sludgy, slushy, squashy, squishy, slobbery, sloppily', £K(pAuv5av£iv " 
break open, from ulcers '. 

fltextension b'^leug"- {compare the root form b'^leg"-): 

gr. oivo-cpAu^ " wine-drunken '; cpAu^u) " to bubble up, boil up, surge up, overflow, also 
with words'; (pAuKTi(;, cpAuKiaiva "bubble'; but nop-cpoAu^ "blister, shield hump ' stays away; 

Latin fluo, -ere, fluxi, fluctum, newer fluxum "to flow; of a solid object, to flow, drip with 
any liquid, stream, pour; of abstr. things, to proceed, issue, spread; of circumstances, to 
tend; of language, to flow; to sink, droop', flOctus, -Js "current, wave, a streaming, flowing. 
Transf., commotion, disturbance', flumen {*fleugsmen) " flowing water; hence a river. 

stream', confluges 0\6 Latin "confluence of two stretches of water', f/uv/us'mer' (from 
present f/uoirom), flustra Nom. PL " calm (at sea) ' ( *flugstrom)\ if here (with nasalization) 
cymr. blyngu^ become angry ', t>/wng^ angry, irate', bret. b/ouh/ ^rebuke'7 

References: WP. II 213 f., WH. I 519 f., Trautmann 35; different EM. 372. 
Page(s): 158-159 

Root / lemma: b^/ed- b\ld- 

Meaning: to boil; to chatter, boast 

Material: Gr. (pAsSwv ' babbler ', cpAsScbv "gossip'; cpAr|5u)VTa AripoOvra Hes.; TracpAa^w 

"bubble, seethe, foam'; moreover also Aor. cpAaSsTv (intrans.) "tear'; compare to meaning 

Latin fragor^a breaking; a noise of breaking, crack, crash'; 

with varying lengthened grade b'^ldd-0\6 Irish /nd/a/d/" brags, boasts ', /nd/adud' 
boasting ' ( *ind-blad- " puff oneself up or make inflated words ') and Latvian bladu, blazt 

zero grade Old High German uz-ar-pulziV boil, bubble out '; 

Modern High German platzen, platschern are probably certainly of new onomatopoeic 
word formation. 

References: WP. II 210, 216, WH. I 515, 518. 
See also: to b^el-3. 
Page(s): 1 55 

Root/ lemma: b'^leig-, b'"ng-{*b^\e\g-) 

Meaning: to shine 

Note: extension from b^/e/'-ds., as b'^/e/q- 

Material: Old English b/Ican 'sh\ne', as, b/fkan ' sh\ne' , Old High German b/Ibhan stem -V. " 

become pallid ', Middle High German bITchen sierw -V. "shine, blush'. Old Icelandic bITkja, 

b/e/k'appear, gleam, shine'; 

Old Icelandic b/e/kr. Old English b/ac. Old High German it'/e//? "pallid, pale, wan'; Old High 

German bleihha^ dace, roach ', Norwegian bleikja ar\6 b//ka ds.; Old Icelandic b//kn. 

"bright lustre, shine; gold, gold plating ', Old High German b/eb'{*s\r\\r\y) thin metal panel ', 

Modern High German Blech, Middle Low German blickds.; Old English blikerr\. {*bliki-) 

"bare place '; Old High German blic, -eches' quick highlight, flash, lightning'. Middle High 

German blic, -e/res "lustre, shine, look, lightning'. Modern High German Blick, Old High 

German blecchazzen {*blekatjan), Middle High German bliczen, Modern Higli German 
blitzen; Old Saxon M/^s/r7c» "lightning', Old Swedish Mxa "blink', New Swedish also "flash'. 

Lithuanian blizgu, -©//"flicker, shine', biyskiu, /^/ys/re//" sparkle, glitter, shimmer, shine', 
biykstu, biyskau, it'/y/rs//" blanch, pale', ablaut, blaikstaus, -y//s "clear up, of the sky'; 
Latvian b/a/skums ^ spot, mark', me/n-b/a/ska/ns ' dark grey' . 

Russ. -Church Slavic (*bh|oig-sko-) b/eskb "lustre, shine' {*b^loig-sko-)\ changing through 
ablaut Old Church Slavic blisk-b "lustre, shine' and *blbsk-b in Czech blesk. Gen. old bisku 
"lightning'. Old Church Slavic (*bh|eig-sk-eh2-tei) bibstg, b/bstat/" sh\ne', Iter. bliscajQ, 
bliscati s§. 

References: WP. II 21 If., EM. 398, Trautmann 34, Meillet Slave commun2 133, Specht 
Dekl. 144. 
Page(s): 156-157 

Root / lemma: b^lei-1 : b^lai- : b^^ 

Meaning: to shine 

Note: extension from b^eA ds. 

Material: Germanic *blJPia- fb^lei-tio- or rather *b^lT-tio-) "light, cheerful, fair (of sky, 

heaven, then of the looks, appearance, the mood:) cheerful ' in Gothic bleiPs^ merciful, 


Old Icelandic blTdr^mM (of weather), friendly, pleasant'. Old English M^t*© "cheerful, 

friendly'. Old High German Mo''/"cheerful, blithe, glad, friendly'. Old Saxon blTthon, Old 

High German blTden^ be glad '. 

Old Saxon M~n. "paint, color'. Adj. " coloured ', Old Frisian M/e^)/? "paint, color', bli 
"beautiful'. Old English bleou. "paint, color, apparition, form' (probably *blTja-). 

On account of Germanic *Mly5"lead' (Old High German bITo, -wes. Old Saxon bIT, Old 
Icelandic bl}) with Lithuanian it'/yi/as "purple, mauve, violet-blue ' corresponding color adj. 
with formants -t/o-of our root (to accept Modern High German /7/5^ congruent, indeed 
unoccupied Celtic *M7/o-from *b^le-uo- as wellspring, was conceivable), would be 
debatable, but the most likely. 

Here (after Specht Dekl. 117) russ. bli-zna " thread break, flaw in fabric ', Czech poln. 
bl'hzna "scar'; because of the parallel forms under b^/ei/-/ barely with WH. I 517 to b'^ITg-. 

Lithuanian b/yvas 'purp\e, mauve, violet-blue '; perhaps Lithuanian b/an/as' sober' (if not 
as *blaid-vas\.o related *b^/a/c/o-s), blaivaus, -ytis " clear up, become sober '; perhaps 
Latvian bITneV lurk, a furtive (glance), blink'. 

Tocharian A. p/yas/re/T? "meditation'?? (Van Windekens Lexique 97). 

References: WP. 11210. 

See also: see also under bh/ei/-/and b'^laido-s. 

Page(s): 155-156 

Root / lemma: b^leu-1: b^lau-: b'^lu-{*b'^\e\^-^) 

Meaning: to shine 

Note: derivatives to b^el-1. 

Material: Russ. b/Ju-sc^'wy' (Specht Dekl. 117); poln. bfysk{*b^lu-sk-) "lightning'; Serbian 

bl'u-zna "scar', wruss. blu-zna " weaving flaw '; Latvian blau-zgas, blau-znas, Lithuanian 

blu-zganos^ dandruff, Latvian blu-zga^ peeling skin ', blu-zga^ small particles, drill dust ' 


Maybe alb. bluanj^ grind, mill ' 

Proto-Slavicform: blizna; blizno 

See also: blizTD(jb); blizTDkTD(jb); blizt; blizb 

Page in Trubacev: II 118-120 

Russian: bifzna {6\a\.) "missing thread in fabric, flaw in home-spun material' [fa]; blizna 

"knot in linen resulting from an incorrect arrangement of the warp' [f a]; blizno "flaw in 

fabric, absence of one or two threads' [n o]; bijuzna "flaw in fabric' {1} 

Old Russian: blizna^ scaf [fa] 

Belorussian: bl/uznal\a\N in fabric' [f a] 

Ukrainian: biyzna' wound, scar' [fa]; biyzna ^ 6eiect in linen' [fa] 

Czech: biizna'st\gma (bot.)' [fa] 

Polish: blizna^scar, gash, seam, cicatrice, trace left by a fallen leaf [f a] 

Old Polish: i6'/i/z/7a "cicatrice, stigma, stamp' [fa] {1} 

Kashubian: bl/'zna ' c\catnce' [fa] 

Upper Serbian: bluzna'scar, birth-mark' [fa] {1} 

Lower Serbian: bluzna'scar, bruise' [fa] {1} 

Bulgarian: blizna "place in fabric where a thread is torn or missing' [f a] 

Serbo-Croatian: bli'zna "two threads put into a reed (instead of one); ruptured thread in 

weft or warp' [f a], Mz/7/"[Nomp]; bITzna "scar' [f a]; bli'zno "gap' [n o] 

Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: bli?z-n- 

Lithuanian: blyze^up in fabric' [f e] 4 

Latvian: b/izn/s^ ' pWe of broken trees in a forest' [f e] 

Indo-European reconstruction: b^iig-n- 

lE meaning: scar 

Page in Pokorny: 160 

Bibliography: S+awski SP I: 264-265 

Notes: {1} The forms that seemingly reflect *t>/'uzna must be secondary. 

References: Specht Dekl. 117. 

See also: compare the parallel formation under b^lei-1. 

Page(s): 1 59 

Root / lemma: b^leu-2: b^lau-. b^lu- 
Meaning: bad 

Note: b^{e)leu- is apparent, manifest, obvious parallel formation to b^eleu- "hit'. 
Material: Gr. (pAaupo(;, (pauAo(; (both dissimil. from *(pAauAo(;) "slight, evil, bad'; 

Gothic i6>/5^jfc'/a/7 'abolish' (actually "make weak'). Old Icelandic i6'/5i/d/'"timorous'. Old 
English blead^ daft, shy', with^/b-suffix Old Saxon blodi^ shamefaced ', Old High German 
blodi. Middle High German blaede^\xd\\, breakable, shy, timid'. Modern High German 

besides Indo Germanic *bh/9:/-/b- stands a {/-extension in Old Icelandic blautr^ mushy, 
softish, delicate, mollycoddle, timorous'. Old English bleat^arm, woeful, wretched, 
miserable ', mndd. blot. Middle High German bldz^bare\ Modern High German bloli{0\6 
High German bloliW\Vc\ strange meaning "stout, proud'); 

lengthened grade b^leu-\v\ Old English un-b/eoh lear\ess' (suffix -ko-), with gramm. 
variation; Old Icelandic b/Jugr^t\r(\\6', b/ygd'tbe genitals' {*bleugiPd), changing through 
ablaut Old High German b/ugo Adv., Middle High German b/uc, bliuc^sby\ Old High 
German blugison, bluchison "doubt'. Old English biycgan {*blugjan) 'frighten' (trans.); 
compare Lithuanian blukstu, -st/" become limp '. 

References: WP. II 208 f., Hirt Indo Germanic Gr. II 150, Feist 99, Specht Dekl. 133. 
Page(s): 1 59 

Root / lemma: b^/e-uo-s 

Meaning: a kind of colour (blue, gold) 

Note: also b'^J-uo-s, b^le-ro-s, b^lo-ro-s, derivatives from the root b^el-1, b^e/a- 

Material: Latin flavus^ golden brown, red-yellow, blond ', Oscan FlaviiesQ. Sg. 'of or 
belonging to the college of priests for the Flavian family' (from Indo Germanic *b']7-), 
besides fulvus^ red-yellow, brown-yellow ' from *b''ll-uo-s, florus^ yellow ', also PN, from 
*bh/o/'c»s= gall. *i6'/a/'c»5(Wartburg), Middle Irish blar^ forehead with white spot, spot, field ', 
cymr. blawr^ i^ray', besides *b^le-ro-\v\ Middle Low German it'/a/'e "paleness, blessige, 
white spotted cow'. 
Maybe alb. bleronj^ blossom, be green' (see below Root / lemma: b'^leido-s: "pale') 

Old High German blao. Modern High German it'/si/ (Middle High German bla a\so "gold, 
yellow'). Old English *b/awor *blsew. Old Icelandic blar^b\ue' from *b^le-uo-s; s. also S. 

Old Irish it>/a "yellowish?' is late Old English loanword? About Germanic *MTy5-"lead' 
see below b^/e/-/. 

Lithuanian blavas, Latvian blavs^ bluish, gold, yellow' are Germanic loanword 

References: WP. II 212, WH. I 513 f., different EM 367. 
Page(s): 1 60 

Root/ lemma: bh/e-(*bh|ehi-) 

Meaning: to howl, weep 

Material: Latin fled, flere {*b'^lejd) " to weep; to drip, trickle; transit., to weep for, lament, 

bewail; flendus, to be lamented '; 

Latvian bleju, it^/e/" bleat'; 

r.-Church Slavic bleju, ble/atrb\ea\.' (besides Serbo-Croatian blejTm, ble/atrb\ea\.' etc, 
with e); Middle High German/7/^ye/7 "bleat' (Germanic *blejan= Latin fled); Old High 
German blazan, nnd. blassen. Old English bisetan, engl. to bleat ^b\ea\!. Old English 
blagettan, bl^gettan^ccy', ndd. blageu. "kid, child'; Middle High German bleren, blerren 
"bleat, cry'; 

Maybe alb. blegerij'b\ea\! : Old English blagettan, blsegettan^cvj\ 

Modern High German plarren, plaren {a\so "weep, cry'), Dutch blaren ^b\eat', engl. to blare 
"roar, bellow'; changing through ablaut Middle High German blurjen, bluelen{*bldljan), 
dissimil. briielen'roar, bellow'; zero grade Middle High German brarsbnek', schwab. 
bralla "cry'. 

References: WP. II 120, WH. I 516. 

See also: compare bheA^and the onomatopoeic words ble-. 

Page(s): 154-155 

Root / lemma: b^laido-s (*bh|eid-(u)o-) 

Meaning: pale 

Note: to b^lei- "shine', from extension root form *b^lei-d- 

Material: Old Church Slavic bredh "pallid, pale, wan' = Old English it>/a/" pallid, livid'; Old 

High German /7/e/zz5 "paleness'. Perhaps Lithuanian /7/5/i/5S "sober' (if from *blaid-vas, or 

from the an extension root b'^lei-, s. d.), blaivaus, -ytis' become sober; clear up, from the 

sky '. Alb. bleronj^ blossom, be green' from adj. *blere from *bled-re{e= Indo Germanic ai 

or oi), b7ehure'pa\e, wan, pallid'. 


The inanimate suffix -ur- : Alb. blehure: UAupioi , oi, lllyrians, UAupia , n, lllyria, also 
UAupi? , n. Adj. UAupiKO? , n, 6v, lllyrian: -ys\, the region or province of lllyria, UAupi^O) , 
speak the lllyrian language, 'IAAupia:--hence Adv. lAAupiaTi. 

In addition probably the lllyrian PN Blaedarus. 

Maybe Lithuanian blinde^ goat-willow, sallow ' : Alb. {* blind) blini^ sturgeon, lime-tree, 
lime, linden '. 


Root/ lemma: b^/d/cfo-s: "pale' : Root/ lemma: b^/e-uo-s: "a kind of colour (blue, gold)'. 
References: WP. II 217, Trautmann 34, Specht Dekl. 197. 
Page(s): 1 60 

Root /lemma: b^/^-{.*b^/e/g-) (*bh|eig-o-) 

Meaning: to hit 

Note: also b'^/^u-igr. Celtic), to indicate from t/o- present *b^/rg-yd. 

Material: Aeolic Ionian cpAlpoj "push, press, squeeze' (about OAipw see below d'^/as- 

"contuse, squeeze '); cymr. b//fvn. "catapult, pallista', b//fa/dd 'qu'\ck, fast'; 

Latin f//gd, -ere'h\t, beat or dash down' {*b^//gd, or at most with through f//x/, fITctum 

assesses u- loss from *fligud)\ 

Maybe alb. {*b'^leTg-) mbledh' squeeze, collect ' [common alb. -g > -dh]. 

Latvian b/alzi't' squeeze, clash, hit', Mez/'hit'; Old Church Slavic Mzb, blizhMv. " nigh, 
near ' (actually " adjacent '). Although puzzling at first, the semantic transition from "to beat' 
to "near' appears to have a few convincing parallels, e.g. Fr. pres^ueaf : Latin pressus 
"squeezed' (Trubacev II: 122, with references). 

References: WP II 217, WH. I 517, EM. 369. 
See also: about russ. bliznasee below b^/e/-/. 
Page(s): 160-161 

Root / lemma: b^los-q-, -g- 

Meaning: expr. 

Material: Irish blosc. Gen. bloisc^(i\y\, fuss, noise' {b^losko-); compare also broscds. under 


Lithuanian bl^zgu, -e//intr. "clatter', b/^zg/nt/" c\atter, rattle, clash'. 

References: WP. 11218. 
Page(s): 161 

Root / lemma: b^/ok- 

Meaning: wool, cloth? 

Material: Latin floccus " a flock of wool ' ( Jlocos) to Old High German blahai. " coarse bed 

linen (esp. to covers or substratums)'. Modern High German Blahe, Blache, Old Danish 

blaa^ oakum ', now it'/aa/' (actually PI.), Swedish blanor, blares.. Old Swedish blan, b/a6s. 

(Germanic *blahwd-). Old Norse blaeja {*blahjdn-) " linen, sheet'. 

Page(s): 161 

Root / lemma: b^og- (*bhog-no-) 

Meaning: running water 

Material: Middle Irish buali. "running water' {*b'^og/a), buarm. "diarrhoea' {*b^ogro-y, proto 

Germanic *bak/-, Old High German bah, Modern High German Bach, besides *bakja- in 

Old Icelandic bekkr. Old English beccm. ds. 

With regard to Old Indie bharjga-h, Lithuanian i6'5/7^a "billow' could be related to the root 
b'^eg- " shatter, break, rupture'. 

References: WP. II 149 f., 187. 
Page(s): 161 

Root / lemma: b^ok- 
Meaning: to bum? 

Material: Latin focus^ a fireplace, hearth; meton., house, family, home; sometimes altar- 
fire or funeral pyre '; presumably to Armenian bosor^xeA' ("*fiery'), it'oc'flame' {*b''^oR-s-o-). 
References: WP. II 186, WH. I 521. 
Page(s): 1 62 

Root / lemma: b^olo- 

Meaning: smoke, steam? 

Material: it is associated perhaps Old Irish bolad, nir. bo/adh and ba/adh' smeW, odor' and 

Latvian bu/s, bula " misty muggy air, height smoke, dryness '; 

it could form the basis Indo Germanic b^oA (Irish): b^el- (Latvian); perhaps is with above 

etymology also Peterssons Etym. Miszellen 34 connection oi buls\N\Vc\ combinable 

Armenian bar fog, mist, darkness ' (if originally "haze, mist')? 

References: WP. II 189. 

Page(s): 1 62 

Root / lemma: b^org^o-s 

Meaning: unfriendly 

Material: Armenian it'a/'/r "violent, angry, irate; herb, bitter, sharp from taste' {*b^rg'^os); Old 

Irish borb, borp^crazY; Middle Irish borb {*burbo-, Indo Germanic *b''^org"'o-) "raw, 

ignorant'; Note: common lllyrian g"- > b-. 

Latvian it's/ys "stern, hard, unfriendly, pitiless '; Swedish Dialectal bark^ willful, unfriendly 

person ', i6'5/'/r^/7 "rough, harsh'. 

References: WP. II 188, Trautmann 27. 

See also: compare also b'^ag-2. 

Page(s): 1 63 

Root / lemma: b^oso-s 

Meaning: naked 


From Root/ lemma: b^e-: b^6-\ "to warm, fry, *bath' derived Root/ lemma: b'^oso-s: 



Old High German bar^uaked, bare' {*baza-), Modern High German bar, Old English b^r, 

Old Icelandic berr'nake6, bare'; Lithuanian basas, Latvian bass. Old Church Slavic bosi^ " 

barefoot '; Armenian bok^ barefoot ' {*b'^oso-go). 

Maybe alb. Geg Cb'^as-) zbath- "barefoot', mbath "wear shoes' [common alb. -s > -th shift] : 
Latvian bass^ barefoot'. 

As gr. i|j-iA6(; probably to b'^es- "abrade, scrape ' (and " grind '), also originally from 
barren, (naked) sharp places, compare Kretschmer KZ. 31, 414. 

References: WP. II 189, Meillet Esquisse 38, Trautmann 28. 
Page(s): 1 63 

Root / lemma: b^ouA'^i- 

Meaning: victory 

Material: Old Irish buaidu. "victory', abrit. FN Boudicca^ the victorious ', cymr. Z^i/ofa'" profit, 

gain', buddig^ victorious ' {^b'^ouA^Tko^ = Old Irish buadach 6s.\ Old Germanic GN Baudi- 

hillia " victory fighter '. 

References: WP. II 186, Gutenbrunner Germanic Gottern. 43. 

Page(s): 1 63 

Root / lemma: b'^ouk^'os 

Meaning: a kind of buzzing insect 

Material: Latin fucus, -/"m. " a drone bee ' = Old English beawxx\. "gadfly, brake', ndd. bau 


References: WP. II 184, WH. I 555 f. 

Page(s): 1 63 

Root / lemma: b^^Jp^-or b'^agh- 

Meaning: lowland, swamp 

Material: Mnl. baggerrw. "slime, mud', out of it Modern High German baggern' drain the 

mud '; russ. bagn6^\o\N, marshy place', Czech bahno'swamp, marsh, morass', poln. 

bagno ds. 

References: WP. II 187, Petersson Heterokl. 123 f. 

Page(s): 161 

Root/ lemma: b'^oi-: b^ai-: bh/-(bh//a-) (*bheiH- > bhoiH(dh)-so-) 

Meaning: to fear, * keep away 

Material: Old Indie bhayate^be afraid ' (from *b'^9ietai= Slavic bojetb), Avestan bayente, 

byente "they are in fear'. Middle Persian besand^ they are in fear ' (Proto-lranian *bai-sR-)\ 

Old Indie bibheti^ be afraid ', sek. to initial Perf. m. Prasensbed. b/bbaya'\ am in fear' 

[bibhTyat, bibhTtana, abibhet, participle bibhTvan = Avestan biwiva' were afraid '); Old Indie 

bhiyana-h' \Nere afraid '; bhT-hi., bhTti-hi. (: Latvian Inf. bfties) "fear', bhTma-h^6rea6M\ 
bhlta-h^ were afraid, horrified ', /7/7/?i/-/7 'timorous, shy, coward' (if /*= Indo Germanic /, 
changing through ablaut with Lithuanian baile, bailus); npers. M/r "fear' (from *b^ayaka-)\ 
with Indo Germanic simplification of a/to a before consonant here Old Indie bhama-h 
perhaps "fierceness, fury', bham/ta-b l\erce, grim'. 

Gr. ni9r|K0(;, iriGoov m. "ape' (from *ni9o(; "ugly', zero grade *bh/dh-). 

Maybe taboo word alb. pidhi^ vagina '. 

Latin foedus (*bhoydhc»s) " foul, filthy, horrible, disgusting '. 

Old High German biben. Old Saxon bibon. Old English beofian. Old Icelandic bifa, -ada 
and bifra (these in ending directed after *titrdn "tremble') to Proto German *bibai-mr, *bibdn 
is probably only after to the other coexistence from -on- and -en- secondary verb besides 
one from the Perfect form developed grade *biben . 

Balto Slavic originally present *b^aid-, preterit-stem *b^lia-. Inf. *b^Tter, Old Prussian 
b/afi/ye/lear, dread', kausat. poba/7nt'pun\s\r\, curse'; Lithuanian bijaus, b/jof/s {a\so not 
reflexive) "be afraid', Latvian bfstuds, bijuos, bft/es and bijajuos, bijaties^be afraid'; 
Lithuanian baijus^6rea6iu\, terrible, hideous'; baidau, -///"frighten', Latvian baTdu, baTdyt 
and it'/ec/e/ "daunt, scare'; 

Maybe alb. Geg mbajVbQ afraid', nuk ma mban^\ am afraid'. 

in addition Lithuanian it'a/sa "fright' {*baid-s-a), it'a/si/s "terrible, horrid', /^a/s/id//" smudge, 
besmear' (and Old Church Slavic besiD "devil', *bed-ST^\ Lithuanian ba/melear'; bailees. 
(it's/Z^s "timorous'). 

Old Church Slavic (*bhoiH-eh2-tei) bojg, bojati sg^be afraid'. 

Further formation *b^li-es-, *bHs-\v\ Old Indie bbyasafe' be afraid ', udbhyasa-h^be 
afraidd', Avestan Perf. biwivarjha (i.e. biwyarjha) " stimulated fright, was dreadful'; Old 
Indie /7/7/s5ya/e "frightens', /7/7^5/7a-/7 "causing fright'; 

Old High German it'/sa "north-east wind', bison^ run around madly ', ber^boaf etc lead 
to a Germanic */?/s-, *b7z- " storm ahead jumpily '; compare Wiftmann Nom. postverb. 78. 

References: WP. II 124 f., 186, WH. I 522 f., Trautmann 24, Kluge^^ under Biese. 
Page(s): 161-162 

Root / lemma: boras'- (better b'^ra-g-) 
Meaning: to smell, scent 

Material: Latin fragro, -are ^to emit a smell, esp. a sweet smell', denominative *b^r9g-ro-s' 
smelling '; Old High German bracko {Modern High German Bracke), Middle Low German 
mnl. bracke^ beagle, sleuth, harrier, track hound' (out of it Italian braccoeic), in addition 
Middle Latin barm-braccus lap dog'; compare Middle High German brseben ^ smeW {*bre- 
J6); also anything for root b^/ie, above S. 133. 

It remains remote gall, braca' trouser '; see below b'^reg-l^ break, rupture'. 

References: WP. II 192, WH. I 540, Kluge^^ under Bracke. 
Page(s): 1 63 

Root / lemma: b^ra-ter-{*sue-lou6'^a-ter- ' member of clan, brother ') 

Meaning: brother 

Root/ lemma: b^ra-ter-{*sue-/ou6'"a-ter- ' member of clan, brother '): brother, derived 

from Root / lemma: b^ra-ter- ( *sue-lotA^a-ter- " member of clan, brother '): brother [Root / 

lemma: leuA'^-1 {* leugh-): to grow up; people; free]. 

Material: Old Indie bhratar-, Avestan Old pers. bratar-^broiber'; osset. a/'i/ao'" brother, 

kinsman, relative'; Armenian eibair. Gen. eibaurds.; {^b'^rater, *b^ratrdsy, 

Maybe truncated gr. zKevQepoq "free man' : ( *sue-lou6'^a " member of clan, brother ') vela " 

brother' : osset. arvad {* alvad) : Armenian eibair{*elvaii). Gen. elbaur^broiber, kinsman, 

relative' : Etruscan {*aruvad) mi/a "brother' from Eurasiatic: *?arV 

Meaning: member of the clan 

Uralic: *arV (*arwa) 

Number: 1745 

Proto: *arV (*arwa) 

> Nostra tic: 

English meaning: relative on mother's side; (younger) brother of mother 

Khanty (Ostyak): oli (V Vj.), orti (O), wgrtT (Kaz.) ' Nephew, son of the brother (od. of the 

sister), younger brother of the mother etc. ', olisaken (Vj.) ' Mother's brother and child of his 

older sister together ', olisat ' Mother's brother and children of his older sister together ', jitj 

(Vj.), aii't (Trj.), or"ne (Kaz.) ' Daughter of the older sister (father), daughter of the older 

brother of the man etc. ', ar"s9x (O) ' Child of the older sister, child of the sister of the 

fathers', ortTwer) (Kaz.) ' Man of the daughter of the older sister etc. ' 

Mansi (Vogul): oar (LM), ar (N) ' related to the mother's side ', or ' relatives on a parent 

line, ancestors on mother ', jaynor or-nor (K) ' parental disappointment ' 

Hungarian: ara ' Bride; (altung.) brother of the mother od. of the sister; daughter-in-law ' 


lllyrian it'/'a 'brother! (vocative)' > alb. i^/ie 'brother! (vocative)' 

maybe Kurdish t>/ra' brother' : turk. b/rader' brother'. 

New Phrygian ppaiEps ' brother '; mys. -Phrygian braterais= cpparpaK;?, gr. (ppnirip 
(Ionian) abzK(^6c, Hes., Attic cpparrip, cpparcop 'member of a cpparpia (family, fraternity, 

Venetic vhraterei^ brother '; 

Maybe alb. Tosc v(e)lla^ brother' intervocalic {-e-) [influenced by Latin order consonant + 
vowel + consonant], older alb. Geg i///a' brother', {*vhraterei) i///aze/7"memberof a 
cpparpia (family, fraternity, brotherhood)'; 

Latin frater^ brother', Oscan fratrum, Umbrian fratrum, fratrom^ brothers ' etc around 
Late Latin fratrueHss. WH. I 542); 

Old Irish brath(a)ir^brother , member of a big family', cymr. sg. brawd, brodyr, acorn. 
broder. Middle Breton breuzr, nbret. breur, PI. breudeur6s.\ 

Gothic brdl=>ar. Old Icelandic brodir. Old High German bruoder. Old English brother 

Short forms in addition Old High German MN Buobo, Middle High German buobe'boy', 
Old English MN Bofa, Bdja{> engl. boy), Norwegian dial. ,6*05 'brother' etc; further Old 
High German MN Buole, Middle High German it'^o/e 'kinsman, relative, lover'. Middle Low 
German M/e 'kinsman, relative, brother' etc (see Kluge'''' under Bube, Buhle), Old 
Prussian bratnyok. brote) 'brother', Lithuanian broterelis, short form brozis, batis, brolis, 
Latvian b(r)alis ' baby brother ', bratantis ' dear brother!'; 

Old Church Slavic bratrb, bratt^ brother', short form serb. baca, acech. bat'a6s., russ. 
batja, backa 'father, priest'. 

Also alb. Geg bace^iather, leader' : serb. baca lather, priest'. 

compare noch Old Indie bhratra-m' brotherhood '; gr. cpparpa, jon. cppnipri ds.; Old 
Indie bhratrya-m: gr. cpparpia. Old Church Slavic bratrtja, bratbja6s., Latin fratria^W\ie, 
woman of brothers'. 

Tocharian A pracar{Du3\ pratri), B procer. 

References: WP. II 193, WH. I 541 f., 866, Specht KZ 62, 249, Fraenkel REtlE 2, 6 f., 
Risch Mus. Helv. 1, 118. 
Page(s): 163-164 

Root / lemma: b^red(h?)- 

Meaning: to wade, wander 

Material: Thrak. PN Bp£5ai; Ligurian VN Brodiontr, compare gall. FIN Bredanna, French La 

Brenne, (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), PN BpoSsviia (Bayern). 

Alb. breth, Aor. brodha " wander, roam '. 

Lithuanian bredu{Eas\. Lithuanian brendu), bridau, br/st/"\Na6e', Iter, bradau, -yt/"\Nade', 
brasta, brastva lord (miry)', brada^sWme, mud', bradasm. 'fishing' (= Slavic brodt), with 
sek. ablaut brydisvn. " wading, way in the water ', Iter, braidau, -yti^ wade around 
continuously '; Latvian it'/v'e/?^ (Dialectal briedu= East Lithuanian brendu), bridu, brist. Iter. 
bradat^\Na6e\ tread with feet; speak foolishly ', braslism. "ford', brid/sm. " while, short 
time'; Old Prussian Chucunbrast^ through the devil's way '; zero grade ir= Vnoch in 
Lithuanian b/rda^wet ordure'. Old Prussian Birdaw, sea name. 

Russ. -Church Slavic bredu, brestT wade through a ford ' (zero grade present *brbdQ\x\ 
neprebrbdom-b ' not wading through water ', Aor. pribrbde, compare Old Czech pfebrde " 
will wade ', poln. brn^'c^\Na6e' from *brbdngti), russ. bredu, brestf^ go slowly, fish with the 
train net ', breditb " chat nonsense, fantasize', bred, bredfna^ willow ' ('standing there often 
in the water '), r.-Church Slavic, russ. (etc) brodb 'ford', iter. r.-Church Slavic brod/f/^ wade', 
russ. brodftb ' go slowly, slink, wander around; ferment, seethe', Serbo-Croatian broditi 

References: WP. II 201 f., Trautmann 37, MiJhlenbach-Endzelin 332 f. 
Page(s): 1 64 

Root / lemma: b'^reg-l 

Meaning: to break 

Material: Old Indie giri-bhraj- ' bursting out from the mountains '; 

Latin frango, -ere, fregi{: Gothic *brekum), fractum ' break in pieces, dash to pieces, 
shiver, shatter, fracture ', fragilis^ frail, breakable, easily broken, brittle, fragile ' etc {*b^reg- 
), fragorrw. ' a breaking; a crashing, a noise of breaking, crack, crash, noise, din '; with a 
(after fractus etc): suffrag/um' a voting tablet, a vote, noisy applause, approval; the right to 
vote, franchise; in gen. judgment; approval, support'; suffraginesi. ' the hollows of the 

knee (suffragines, are so called because they are broken underneath = subtus franguntur, 
that is, they bend downwards and not upwards like the arm) ', actually "bend, kink '; 

Middle Irish braigid^ farts ', verbal noun braimm, cymr. corn, bramm. "breaking wind, 
fart'. Middle Irish t-air-brech^ crash, blast'; but gall, braca ^breeches' (compare ppaKKai 
aiyEiai SicpGspai napa KeAtoTc; Hes.) is Germanic loanword. Old Irish broc^ trouser ' is Old 
English loanword 

Maybe alb. i&/-e/re "underwear' = gall, braca^ breeches'; 

Gothic brikan. Old Saxon brekan. Old English brecan. Old High German brehhan 
"break, rupture' (Latin fregimus= Gothic *brekum. Modern High German brachen), ablaut. 
Gothic brakja^ wrestling match '; lengthened grade Middle High German brachei. " 
breaking in the ground, unbroken recumbent unsowed land after the harvest ', Old English 
a-brac/an ^ press in'. Old High German prahhen, brahhen. Middle High German braechen. 
Modern High German pragen ( *brekjan). Causative to brechen, zero grade Gothic gabruka 
f. "piece, fragment, gobbet ' (*bh/-e^-) == Old English brycerr\. " the break, lump ', Old High 
German bruh 'break, cracked '; Old English broc/an ' press' , broc' woefulness '; with 
gemination Old High German brocco " broken ', Modern High German Bracken, 

here perhaps Norwegian brakeru. " juniper' (as br/skds. to b^res-'break, crack, 
cracking '), Middle High German brake m. f. "twig, branch', engl. brake' brushwood, thorn 
bushes, fern ', ablaut. Norwegian burkne rr\. " fern ', compare also Norwegian brukr\. 
"shrubbery, bush'; 

a nasal, form in Norwegian dial. brankr\. " affliction , defect', branka' injure, break, 
rupture'; with the meaning "din, fuss, noise' here Old Icelandic braka' crack, creak', brakr\. 
"row, din, fuss, noise'. Middle High German Old English brachrw. ds.. Old High German 
Middle High German Old Saxon braM'd\n, fuss, noise, clamor', with changed meaning 
Modern High German Pracht, Old English breahtm rr\. "argument, quarrel'. Old Saxon 
brabtum'd\n, fuss, noise, clamorous mass'; 

Germanic *brdk-' rump', newer "trouser' in Old English brecP\. " buttocks ', engl. breech 
ds.. Old Icelandic brok, PI. br0kr't\r\\g\r\, trouser'. Old English broc. Old High German 
bruoh. Modern High German Bruchds., Swiss bruech' pubic region '; geminated Old 
English etc braccas' britches '; 

here (rather to b'^res-) belong Lithuanian brasku, brasket/" crack, creak' {*b^reg-s/(d), 
Latvian braksRet, brakstetds. 

A parallel root *b^ reCnJgh- seeks Wood (KZ. 45, 61) in Old Indie brhat/"\Nrenches, tears 
from ', Old Icelandic branga ^ damage' . 

Old Indie t>rga/a-m' piece, gobbet, lump ' is not Indo Germanic (Kuiper Proto-Munda 49). 

References: WP. II 200, WH. I 113 f, 539 f., 541, Feist 1 04 ff., 176, Wiftmann Nom. 
postverb. 11, 58, 123, 181. 
Page(s): 1 65 

Root / lemma: b^reg-2 

Meaning: to stick (?) 

Note: extension from b^er-' stand up, edge, bristle' etc, seeks Persson Beitr. 22 f. A. 2 in: 

Material: Old Indie it'^ray- 'stiffness (of the member), rigor(?)'; isl. Norwegian brok^st\ff 

grass, grass bristles '; quite dubious also in Old Icelandic bQrkr{*b^orgu-s), Middle Low 

German borke. 

Modern High German (actually ndd.) ^OA/re "rough, outer bark' (from the rough angularity? 

Similar is gr. cpoplvr) 'hard, rough skin, esp. pig's skin ' to un extension to place root b^er-). 

An analoge ^-extension from of a /-basis bh/e/- could at most exist in Norwegian brikja ' 
stick up high, to show off, shine', brikja tall woman keeping her head high ', i6'/7/re/7 'fresh, 
agile, lively; showy, gleaming, pleasant', bnkna^g\ory, magnificence, lustre, shine, 
pleasure, joy' (Wood KZ. 45, 66), if not perhaps 'shine, shine out' is the basis of this 

A bhrez-Ar- presumably in gr. cppl^, -koc, ' shuddering, quiver, stare', cpplaau), -ttoj, 
nscpplKQ ' stare up; shiver (*flicker?)' common gr.-lllyrian -ks- > -ss-\ cymr. bret. brig^ 
acme, apex ' {*b'^nko-). 

Maybe alb. (*cppl^, cppiKot;) frike^ shuddering, fear', older (*cppiK6(;) frikesq/'^make shiver, 

References: WP. 11201. 
Page(s): 1 66 

Root / lemma: b^rend'^- 

Meaning: to swell, sprout 

Note: Only for Celtic to cover Tocharian and Balto-Slavic 

Material: Old Irish probably in brenn- {*b'^rend'^-ua-) 'spring up, bubble, effervesce', e.g. 

bebarnatarZ PI. preterit, with to-ess-: do-n-eprinn^ gushes forth ', Middle Irish to-oss-: 

toiphnniV interior flow, flow into ', Kaus. Middle Irish bruinnid^ allows to gush forth, 

streams out ' etc; (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), compare also Thurneysen Grammar 


Maybe alb. brenda, perbrenda"\ns\6e, inward, (*inward inflow)'. 

Lithuanian br^stu, brendau, br^st/'sweW, ripen', participle /?/'(9/7o'^s 'ripening', br/'stu, 
brindau, br/st/'gush, well up (e.g. from peas)', branda' ripeness, rich harvest ', brandus' 
grainy '; Latvian briestu, briezu, briest^gush, well up, to swell, ripen', brudzs^\h\ck, strong'; 
Old Prussian pobrendints' weighted ', sen brendekermnen^'^regv\av\{\ i.e. ' with body fruit 

Slavic *brQd'b in Old Czech ja-bradek, a^o\u. ja-brz^d^W\g, branch of grapevine ' 
(besides one verschied. Slavic *bred'b in kasub. brod^ fruit-tree '); relationship to b^er- 
[b'^ren-) "overhang, protrude ' is absolutely agreeable; 

Tocharian A pratsak, B pratsak-^breasW 

References: WP. II 205, Trautmann 35 f.. Van Windekens Lexique 99. 
Page(s): 167-168 

Root / lemma: b^renk-, b'^ronk- 

Meaning: to bring 

Material: Cymr. he-brwng 'bnng, glide, slide, guide, lead' {*sem-bronk-), hebryngiad 

"guide, leader', acorn, hebrench/atleader' , mcorn. hem-bronk'\N\\\ guide, lead', bem- 

brynkys, bom-bronkys ^ gu\6e6' , Middle Breton ham-brouc, nbr. am-brouk'gu\6e, lead'; 

Gothic briggan, brahta. Old High German bringan, brahta, also Old Saxon (wo also 
brengian). Old English bringan av\6 brengfejan pretent brohte {ixoxw *branhta) "bring'; 

Tocharian B prank-, AB prank- "depart'. 

Angebl. contaminated from root b'^er- and enek-\ finally E. Fraenkel KZ. 58, 286'' f.; 63, 

Maybe alb. geg me pru, aor. prura^io bring' 

References: WP. II 204, Lewis-Pedersen 40, Feist 105, Van Windekens Lexique 99. 
Page(s): 1 68 

Root / lemma: b^re(n)R- 

Meaning: to err 

Material: Old Indie bhrarhsate, bhrasyate^ falls, overthrows ', participle bhrasta-h, 
bhramsa-hlaW, loss', but in RV. only from nasal basis bbrasayan (Kaus.), ma bhrasat 
(Aor.), ani-bhrsta-h' not succumbing '; also bhramsa-W\\h originally only present, then 
further grown exuberantly nasalization? or old double forms? Old Irish brec^\\e, falsity' 
{*b^renka) is the half meaning not so certain to compare with Old Indie bhramsa-h, that it 
would decide the latter sense. 

Kuiper (Nasalpras. 141 f.) builds *b^reR-miv\ex{ to *b^re-n-Rd\ nevertheless, his 
etymological comparisons are not persuasive. 

References: WP. II 204. 
See also: To b^reg-f7 
Page(s): 1 68 

Root / lemma: bhren-to-s 

Meaning: herdsman, *wanderer, horn 


Messapic pp£v5ov (from *pp£VTOv) "sAacpov' Hes., ppsvTiov "deer head' Hes., brunda^s., 

short form (besides Brenda) to PN Brundisium, older BpsvTsaiov "Brindisi', lllyrian VN 

BpsvTioi; Venetic FIN fir//7/a"Brenta'; still today in Italian mountain names and plant names 

(BertoldilF. 52, 206f.); 

compare in addition alb. br?, brm/^born, antler' {*b^r-no-), Plur. Geg bnena, raetorom. 

brenta' pannier'; 

maybe alb. br/nje'nb, bone' 


Clearly alb. is an lllyrian Dialect; alb. bredb ^wander' suggests that there is a link between 

Root/ lemma: b^redfhj-: "to wade, wander' and Root/ lemma: b^ren-to-s: "herdsman, 


New Swedish dial, brind(e), Norwegian (with ^from d) br/nge^ma\e elk ' {*b'^rent6s), 
ablaut. Norwegian brund^baby male reindeer ' (*bh/77/ds); 

Latvian briedis' deer, deer stag ', whether from of a Indo Germanic additional form 
*b'^rendis, must be the origin of Lithuanian brfedis. Old Prussian brayd/sm. "elk'; if 
Germanic loanword? 


Baltic lang. were created before Slavic lang. hence the vocabulary shared by Baltic and 
alb. is of lllyrian origin. 

Perhaps to b^re/?- "overhang, edge'; different Specht Dekl. 120. 

References: WP. II 205, WH. I 116 f., 551, 852, A. Mayer KZ 66, 79 ff., Krahe Festgabe 
Bulle 191 f. 
Page(s): 168-169 

Root / lemma: b^ren- 

Meaning: to stick out; edge 

Note: as b^er-ds. 

Material: Ir. bra/ne' front part of the ship; guide, leader; edge, border', corn, brenn/atds. 

(common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-). 

With formants t. Latin frons, -tis m., new f. " the forehead, brow, front '; Old Icelandic 
brandr^ sword ' {*b^ron-t6-)\ in wider meaning 'stick, board; sword' against it probably from 
*bh/-c'/xJhc»-to b^e/dh- 'cut, clip'. 

With formants d: Old English brant. Old Icelandic brattr^\\\Q\\, sharp' {*b^rondos), Latvian 
brudc///js'n6ge of the roof. 

b^ren-q-. Germanic *branha- in Old Swedish bra-. New Swedish bra- 'sharp' in PN; Old 
Icelandic br/nga^ breast, thorax, breastbone of birds', nisi. br/ngr^smaW hill'; 

maybe alb. {*b'^ren) br/nje'ub, chest bone, hillside' 


Alb. proves that from Root/ lemma: b'^ren-to-s: 'herdsman, *wanderer, *horn' derived from 
an extended Root/ lemma: b^ren-: 'to stick out; edge'. 

Lithuanian branka^tbe swelling', branksoti, branksoti^ jut out stiffly (of bones, laths)'; 
ablaut, brinkstu, brlnkti'to swell'; Slavic *br§kng, *brgkngti\v\ russ. nabrjaknutb'to bloat, 
bulge, swell' etc. 

bh/'e/7-5'- perhaps in Old Icelandic brekka {*brinkdn) ' steep hill'. Old Danish brink, brank^ 
upright ', Middle English nengl. br/nk'edge, border, bank, shore'. Middle Low German 
br/nk'e6ge of afield, field margin, meadow'. Middle Dutch br/nc. Modern Dutch brink 
'edge, grass strip, border of grass, grass field '. 

References: WP. II 203 f., WH. I 551, Trautmann 36. 
Page(s): 1 67 

Root / lemma: b^res- 

Meaning: to break 

Material: Middle Irish brosc, broscarxx\. "din, fuss, noise'; compare also bloscux\6ex b^/os- 

Old High German brestan 'break, crack, break, rupture', unpers. 'lack, defect ', Old 
English bersfands., Old Icelandic bersfa 'break, crack, creak'; Old High German brest(o)' 
disability, defect ', 

Modern High German Gebresten; Old High German brust'break, defect ', Old English 
byrstm. 'damage'; Old High German braston' crackle ', Old Icelandic brasta'xax^X, roister, 
brag, boast'; without -/- Norwegian brasn. 'clatter, brushwood '; 

with -k-: Norwegian brisk' juniper'; Middle High German brasch en 'cxack, creak, cry, brag, 

Lithuanian brasket/ etc, see below b^reg-1. 

References: WP. I 206. 
Page(s): 1 69 

Root / lemma: b^reu-R- {-!(■) 

Meaning: to strike; to throw 

Note: only Balto-Slavic, probably extension from b'^reu-l. For -/r- compare above S. 18 


Material: Lithuanian brauk/u brauk/au braukt/"\N\r\\sk, stroke; move slowly '; Latvian braucu 

braucu braukt 'move'; 

ablaut. Lithuanian bruku brukau brukti" wave flax, wedge ', Latvian brukV crumble ', 

brucinafabxade, stroke the scythe'; 

Iterat. Lithuanian braukyti, Latvian braucuV s\xoke' (with unoriginal intonation) and 

Lithuanian brukism. 'stripe, line', Latvian brucei. ' scratch, scar', in addition Lithuanian 

brukne, bruknisi., Latvian bruklenei. ' cranberry '; 

Slavic *brusg It'ms/// (originally iterative) in Bulgarian brusja {brusich) 'shake off, get rid 
of, beat off, chop, cut, reject', Serbo-Croatian brus/m brus/t/'wbet', Czech brous/t/6s., in 
addition Old Church Slavic ubrusb ' veronica (the impression of the face of Jesus believed 

by some to be miraculously made on a head - cloth with which St Veronica wiped his face 
as he went to his crucifixion; the cloth used for this) ', Serbo-Croatian brus (Gen. brusa), 
russ. brus{Qev\. brusa; mostly brusok) "grindstone, whetstone'; russ. etc brusnfka^ 
cranberry ' ("lightly strippable '); ablaut. r.-Church Slavic brbsnut/^ scrape, shave', russ. 
brosatb (dial, brokatb), brositb "throw', brosnutb "peel flax', bros "offal' etc in ablaut to 
Bulgarian brbSb "rub off. With Jthe iterative grade: Old Church Slavic sb-brysati' scrape 
', brysalo^a painter's brush or pencil; style '. 

Perhaps here Serbo-Croatian-Church Slavic brutb "nail', Bulgarian brutes, as *bruktb, 
compare to meaning Lithuanian brukti^ put by force ', to form Latvian braukts "knife for 
cleaning the flax'. 

Maybe alb. {*breuks) pres'cut, peel', mpreh^^hei, sharpen', mbreh^haxuess, yoke, put by 
force ' [common alb. p- > mp-, b- > mb- shift], mbres "bruise, beat'. 

Perhaps here the lllyrian VN Breuci, PN Breucus an6 the gall. PN Bp£UK6-|jaY0(;, today 
Brumath {f\\sace)\ in addition places Krahe (Gl. 17, 159) lllyrian VN BpEuvoi: Breones 
(from * Breuones). 


lllyrian VN Bpsuvoi: ^/'ec»/7e'5 (from * Breuones) evolved according to alb. phonetic laws -/> 
-nt > -n hence * Breuones < * Breuontes. But only alb. displays the common -k > -th, -/shift 
found in lllyrian VN Breuci: lllyrian VN Bpsuvoi (from * Breuones), hence alb. is a dialect of 
lllyrian Both alb. and older lllyrian display centum and satem characteristics. 

Finally gall. PN BpsuKO-nayoq, today Brumatb {A\sace); has evolved according to lllyrian 
alb. phonetic laws -g > -th as alb. {mag-) matb'b\g'. 

About russ. brykatb "kick, reject' etc s. Berneker 93. 

References: WP. II 197, Trautmann 36 f., Pokorny Urillyrier 119. 
Page(s): 1 70 

Root / lemma: b^reu-s-1 

Meaning: to swell 

Note: (compare above b'^reu-) 

Material: Old Irish brui.. Gen. bronn'beWy, body' (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), {*b'^rus- 

d[/7]: -n-os), bruach^ big-bellied ' {*brusakos), cymr. brum. " venter, uterus ' (^b'" reuse-); 

Old Irish bru/nne ^breast' {*b^rusn/o-), acymr. ncymr. bronni. "breast', bret. bronn, bron6s. 

{*b^rusna) in place names also "round hill', mcymr. brynn, ncymr. brynxw. {*b'^rusn/o-) "hill' 

(from Celtic derives Gothic brunjdi. "(breast)-armor', Old High German brunja, brunna^ 

coat of mail '); 

Maybe alb. {*bryn) brinje'nb, side' : alb. Geg {*bryn) brini, PI. brina, alb. Tosc brire^ horn' : 

Gothic brunjoi. "(breast)-armor'. 

Old Irish bro//acb^ bosom' {*b'^rus-/o-\N\t\r\ formants-a/ro-); Middle Irish bruasach^\N\Vc\ large, 

wide breast' (from b^reus-to- = Old Saxon br/'ost). 

Middle High German br/usfern ^ s\Ne\\ up'. Old Icelandic a-brysturi. PI. " beestings ' (also 
broddr diS. from *bruz-da-2), Swiss brieschtAs. (besides br/escb ds. from *b'^reus-ko-); Old 
Saxon briostU. PI., Old English breost. Old Icelandic it'/'/ios/" breast', zero grade Gothic 
brusfst PI., Old High German brust, Modern High German Brust, Old Saxon brust/an^bu6' 
(Slavic *brbstb "bud'). Modern High German Bros-chen {irom md.) "mammary gland of 
cows', Schwab. Bruste, Bavarian Brusel, Briesel, Briesds., Danish brissel, Swedish 
kalfbrass, with /r-suffix Danish bryske, engl. brisket^ breast of the animals '. 

Old Icelandic i&/7io5/r "gristle'. Middle High German brusche. Modern High German 
^/"a^sc/?© "swelling, blister'. Modern High German dial, brausche, brauschig^ swollen; of 
style, turgid, bombastic, torose ', brauschen 'sweW up'. 

Russ. i7/7i/c/7c» "lower abdomen, belly, paunch', dial, brjuchnutb' yield, gush, well up, to 
bloat, bulge, swell', Czech alt. bruch, brucho, nowadays bfich, bficho^beWy' etc {*b^reuso- 
s, -m)\ 

here also kir. brost f. dial, brostm. "bud', Bulgarian brhsffjm. ' young sprouts', Serbo- 
Croatian brstm. ds., i&/'s///7a "foliage, leaves'. 

here kIr. brost' f. dial, brost m. " bud ', Bulgarian Brbs (t) m. " younger shoots ', Serbo- 
Croatian br ^ s/m. ds., b'rstina " foliage '. 

References: WP. 1 11 97 f.. Feist 107 f., 108 f. 
Page(s): 170-171 

Root / lemma: b^reu-s-2 

Meaning: to break 

Note: extension from b'^reu-1. 

Material: Alb. breshen, bresher'baW, if actually "granule, mica' {e= Indo Germanic eu); 

Latin frustum " a bit, piece, morsel, gobbet ' (from *b^rus-to-); 

Old Irish bruu'shatter, smash' {*b^rus/o, gall, brus-, French bruisei), Middle Irish bruire, 
bru/7e 'p\ece, fragment', bruan ds., bruar fragment, broken piece', brosna {*brus-tonio-) " 
faggot, brushwood bundle ', gall. *bruskja^ undergrowth, brushwood ', Old French broce 
ds.. Middle Irish brusc'K\xy^ bit' etc; Old Irish i6>/'c»/7/7a//77 'damage' (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- 
> -nn-), {*b'^rusnam/) (subjunctive robr/airom *bris- 'break, rupture' borrows, see below 
b^rei-); mcymr. breu, ncymr. brau^ frail, easily broken ', mcorn. brew^ broken ' {*b''^rduso-)\ 
Middle Breton brusun^Wuy bit' {* brous-t-)\ 

Old English briesan {*brausjan), brysan {*brusjan) 'break, rupture trans., shatter', engl. 
it'/zz/se 'injure', probably also Old High German brosma. Middle High German brosem, 
broseme, brdsme'b\t, flake, crumb'; Old English brosn/an' molder '. 

References: WP. II 198 f., WH. I 553. 
Page(s): 171 

Root / lemma: b^reus-3, b^/vs- 
Meaning: to boil; to sound, etc. 

Note: esp. in Germanic words; perhaps to b^reu-s-1; also a new onomatopoeic word could 
have helped (similarly akr. brujTm, brujiti^buzz, hum from an swarm of bees', Berneker 89). 
Material: Middle High German brusen^ boom, blaster, roar', brus^ibe boom', ndd. brusen 
'boom, blaster, simmer, seethe, boil; be hasty (from people); spread out, grow new shoot 
(from plants); sprinkle, besprinkle ' (compare Modern High German Brause) (out of it 
Danish bruse ds.), Dutch bruisen, previous bru/scben loam, froth, bubble, roar, boom, 
blaster', ndd. brOsken ds.. Middle High German brusche^ douche, shower, spray, sprinkler 
', Old Swedish brOsa ' storm ahead ', Norwegian Dialectal brosa ' storm gust ', Old 
Icelandic it'/'i/s/' he-goat, billy goat ', isl. bruskr^ tussock, besom ', engl. Z^/y/s/? 'bristle 
brush, paintbrush, brush, tail (of foxes)', i6'/'i/5/7M/c»c»o' 'shrubbery, bush, shrubbery ', Middle 
English bruschen, engl. to brush^ comb with a brush', Norwegian dial, brauska, bruska and 
brausta, brusta' make room, rush out forcefully '; Swedish bruska'xwsWo, rant, roister'. 

With Germanic *bruska-z^ brushwood ', *bruskan^ crackle, rustle ' (-s/r- could be Indo 
Germanic z^ one compares the Balto-Slavic groups Lithuanian bruzgaiP\. ' brushwood ', 
briauzga^ babbler', bruzgu, -e// "rustle', russ. brjuzgaju, -^/6 'mumble, murmur', brjuzzatb 
"drone, grumble, murmur, growl ' etc; yet are the verb perhaps are only Balto-Slavic 
onomatopoeic word formation. Because of the Germanic meaning 'spray' is perhaps on 
the other hand to be compared with russ. bryzgaju, -atb 'spray, sprinkle, bubble ' etc. 

References: WP. II 199 f., Trautmann 38. 

Page(s): 171-172 

Root / lemma: b^reu- b'^reu-d- 

Meaning: to swell, sprout 

Material: Latin frutex, -icism. ' a shrub, bush; as a term of reproach, blockhead ' based on 

probably on a participle *b''^r0t6s^ sprouted out'; Old Irish broth^a\NV\, hair'; here o'-present: 

Middle High German briezen, broz^bud, swell'. Old High German Middle High German 

broz'bud, sprout '. 

References: WP. II 195, WH. I 554. 

See also: compare b'^reu-s-1'to swell', b^rughno- "twig, branch'. 

Page(s): 1 69 

Root / lemma: b^rei-, b'^n- 

Meaning: to pierce, cut with smth. sharp 

Note: extension from b^er-. 

Material: Old Indie bhnnanti^be hurt' (Pf. bibhraya Dhatup.), Avestan pairibrmentT be cut 

all around ', brdi&ro-taeza-' dashing sharply ', Middle Persian bnn^ determined, fixed'. 

Maybe alb. Geg pre- " pierce, cut' 

Thrak. (?) ppiAwv 'barber'. 

Latin frio, -are 'rub, grind, crumb, spall, crumble', fried, -a/ie'to rub, rub down, rub off' 
(from "/^/-co-s 'rubbing, scraping'), refrJva faba^ ground bean', /^/Vo/c/s (from *frT-vo-s^ 
triturated '), ' breakable, trifling, worthless; n. pi. as subst. sticks of furniture '. 

Maybe alb. {**frico-) ferkonj^ rub' possible Latin loanword. 

With frJvolusio be compared cymr. /?/7m/' broke; wound'; br/wo'break, rupture, injure'; 

with s-extension here gall. -Latin brTsare^ break, shatter', French it'A/se/'etc gallorom. 
*briscare^ curdle, coagulate, harden ', Swiss bretschids. (Wartburg), Old Irish brissid 
'breaks' (from participle Pert. *bristo). Middle Irish bressi. 'din, fuss, noise, fight, struggle', 
breissem ds.. Old Irish PN Bres-(u)al {*bristo-ualos), corn. Middle Breton breseri\Qb{\ 
bret. it'/'esa 'quarrel'. Middle Irish brise^ixaW, breakable', br. breskds.; compare the parallel 
formation under b'^reus-2. 

Hereupon probably also cymr. brwydrl\g\r\t, struggle'. Old Irish br/atbar^ word, 
*argument' as *b'^re/-tra' quarrel, argument ' (to cymr. brwyd'torn, perforates '), compare 

Lithuanian bart/"sco\d, cliide', refl. "be quarrelsome', Old Church Slavic brat/"i'\ghV, s. b^e/-- 

Maybe alb. Geg bht, Tosc bertas\o scold, chide, quarrel, yell' : Lithuanian i&a/t/" scold, 

Here presumably Middle Dutch bnne. Modern Dutch brijn. Middle English brJne, 
nengl. brine^ salted water, salt brine ' (from the sharp taste like partly Slavic bridt). 

Maybe alb. brinje^ rib', alb. Geg brini, Tosc briri^ sharp horn '. 

Old Church Slavic britva^ razor', russ. -Church Slavic briju, br/t/'s\r\ave, shear', br/cb 
"razor'; Old Church Slavic bric/b " 5pipu(; ', russ. -Dialectal br/dkq/" sharp, cold', Serbo- 
Croatian br/dak' sharp, sour'; Old Church Slavic it'/^se/^e "shards', russ. -Church Slavic 
brbselije, brbselb "shard' (proto Slavic, also probably *i6'/^se/b) as *b^ri-d-selo-. 

Maybe alb. brisk^ razor' a Slavic loanword. 

g-extension bhre/^- presumably in Lithuanian breziu, bresti' sora\.o\\, scrape'. Iter, braiz-, 
-y//ds., and Old Icelandic bnki. "board, low wooden wall, low bar'; compare with *b''^rei-g- 
parallel ^^extension the einf. root bheA-in Latvian beriu, berzu, berzt'rub, scour, clean' and 
gr. cpopyavn napaiorri^ Hes. and auf a A'-extension *b^'re/-Ar- traceable gr. cppiKEc; xapoKsq 
Hes.; bresf/ not better with Indo Germanic i6>-to Old English pr/ca ^ po\r\t' , Middle Low 
German pricken. Middle High German pfrecken ' pr\ck' etc, besides that with other root 
auslaut Norwegian Dialectal yO/7S5 "prick, stir, tease, irritate', pre/ma, pre/na^ banter, stir, 
tease, irritate' etc (about age and origin Germanic words nothing is certain). 

References: WP. II 194 f., WH. 116, 549, Vendryes RC 29, 206. 
Page(s): 166-167 

Root / lemma: b^reu-1, b'^ru- 

Meaning: to pierce, break 

Note: extension from b'^er- 

Material: Old Indie bhruna-m^ embryo' (named after the burst caul); 

Middle High German briune, Z^/t//?© "lower abdomen, vulva'; Old High German brodi 
"frail, breakable' {*b^rou-tio-). Old Icelandic broma^p\ece, fragment' {*b^rumdn); a /-present 
in Old English breodan^ break, rupture'; probably o'- present based on Germanic family of 
Old English breotan 'break, rupture'. Old Icelandic br/dfa'break, rupture', brotirw. " heap of 
felled trees, barrier ', brauti. "way, alley' (compare Modern High German Bahn brechen. 

French routeirom rupta), breyta {*brautjan) " alter, change, modify ', breyskr^iraW, 
breakable, brittle '; Old High German bruzT, bruzzV fragileness '; Old Icelandic brytia = Old 
English bfytt/an'6W\6e, share, allot, distribute'; Old Icelandic bryt/'m. ' colter, plough 
coulter, pre-pruner, i.e. the most distinguished of the farmhands; kind of estate manager, 
land agent ' = agsl. brytta m. ' dispenser, distributer '. 

To Germanic l^reutan perhaps also Old Irish fris-brudi^ reject '. 

Latvian brauna, brauna'scud, dandruff, flake, scale, abandoned skin or shell, caul, 
entrails' (basic meaning " scrapings ', compare Slavic brbsngt/" scrape, stripe ' under b'^reu- 

Czech br-n-ka{*b^run-) " placenta, afterbirth '. 

References: WP. 11195 f., W. Schuize KZ. 50, 259 = Kl. Schr. 216. 
See also: S. the extension b'^reu-R-, b^reu-s-2. 
Page(s): 1 69 

Root / lemma: b^reu-2, b'^nu- 

Meaning: edge 

Note: The group is extended from b^er- "stand up; edge'. 

Material: Old Irish bru 'edge, bank, border, shore', bruach ds. {*bru-ako-); 

Old Icelandic brun'edge', whereof it'/yna 'whet', it*/]?/?/ "whetstone'; Old English Middle 
High German brun'sbarp' (from weapons). 

Lithuanian br/auna'edge, border, cornice ' {*b^reuna), ablaut, with Old Icelandic brun. 

Maybe alb. brini' horn ', brinje' side, rib, edge '. 

References: WP. II 196 f., W. Schuize KZ. 50, 259 = Kl. Schr. 216. 
Page(s): 1 70 

Root / lemma: b^roisgo- b^risqo- 

Meaning: bitter 

Material: Russ.-Church Slavic obrezgnuti, obrtzgnuti' become sauer', Czech bfesk' 

sharp taste', poln. brzazg' unpleasant, sharp taste; bad mood', 

russ. brezgatb (old brezgati) " nauseate, feel disgust '; 

Maybe alb. Geg {prezi-) perzi' to nauseate, feel disgust ' 

at first to Norwegian itr/is/r" bitter taste', it'/'/s/re/? 'bitter, sliarp'; probably to b'^rei- 'cut, clip' 

(as Middle Dutch i7/777e'salt water, brine'). 

Maybe alb. brisk, brisqeP\. 'sharp, bitter; razor', brisqeP\. 'razors' 

References: WP. II 206. 

Page(s): 1 72 

Root / lemma: b^rugh-no- 

Meaning: twig 

Note: perhaps in relationship to b'^reu- ' sprout' 

Material: Cymr. brwyn-eni. ' bulrush', acorn. brunnenq\. 'juncus, bulrush', bret. broenn- 

enn6s. (common Celtic -/75-, -/?/- > -nn-), (from Proto Celtic *i6'/'i/^/7c»-); Old English brogn(e) 

f. 'twig, branch, bush', Norwegian dial, brogn(e)^ tree branch, clover stalk, raspberry bush 

References: WP. II 208. 
Page(s): 1 74 

Root / lemma: b^rug- 

Meaning: fruit 

Note: perhaps oldest ' to cut off or peel off fruit for eating ' and then to *b'^reu- 'cut, clip' 

(compare there to meaning Old Indie bharvat/ 'cbews, consumes', also Balto Slavic *b'^reu- 

q-, -^- 'graze over, chip') 

Material: Latin frux, -g/'si. 'fruit' = Umbrian Akk PI. fr/f, fn" fruits ', Latin frugT{Da\.. *' useful, 

honest, discreet, moderate' =) ' fruitful ', fruor, -i, fructusan6 fruitus sum ' relish ' (from 

*frOg"or, which has entered for *frugorl), fruniscor^ relish ' {*frug-nTscor), frumentum' 

corn, grain ', Oscan fruktatiuf{*frugetatidns) 'frOctus'. 

Maybe alb. {*frug-) fruth 'meas\es, breaking of the skin (disease of fruit and humans?)', frut 

'fruit' [common alb. -k, -g > -th, -oT? shift] 

Gothic brukjan. Old High German bruhhan. Old Saxon brukan. Old English brucan 
'need, lack', Gothic bruks. Old High German bruhhi. Old English it'/yce 'usable'. 

References: WP. II 208, WH. I 552 f. 
Page(s): 1 73 

Root / lemma: b^ru-1{*h^'^ru-f) 
Meaning: brow 


Root / lemma: b^ru-1{*h^'"ru-f)\ brow, derived from the animate suffixed -ruoi Root/ 

lemma: ok"-: to see; eye. According to gr.s -k'^> -p, -g'"> -b. 

Note: partly with initial vowel, Indo Germanic o- or a- (full root form?); after Persson Beitr. 

17 lies a dark composition part *o/r"'-"eye' (with. consonant-Assimilation) before. 


In e- grade: 

npers. ebru, bru6s. (HiJbschmann lA. 10, 24); {*\\^ebru-) 

In zero grade: 

Old Indie bhru-hi., Akk. bhruv- am ^ brow', Avestan brvat-i. (Du.) ' brows '. 

Maybe zero grade alb. vrenjt {* vrenk-) "frown' common alb. -kh > t. : Khotanese: brrauka-la 

"brow' : Sogdian: (Buddh.) jSr'wkb' eyebrow' {*bru-ka-) : Other Iranian cognates: Khwar. 

(^^/?/'M/c[pl.tantum] "eyebrow'; San. ur/c "eyebrow'. 

In o- grade: 

gr. ocppuq, -uo(; f. "brow', figurative " raised edge, hill edge ' (after Meillet BSL 27, 129 f. 
with gr. vocal prosthesis?); maked. dppouTsc; " on the brow or edge of a steep rock, 
beetling ' (changed from Kretschmer Einl. 287 in appouF£(;; held on from Meillet, s.Boisacq 
733 Anm. 3, because of the otherwise stated form a(3poT£(; and because of Avestan brvat- 


Serbo-Croatian-Church Slavic obrbVb, Serbo-Croatian obrva etc "brow'. 

In ze/o grade: 

Old English bru, Old Icelandic brun, PI. brynn^brow' (under the influence of common 
Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), (conservative stem, from *bruwOn-). 

Lithuanian bruv/'sm. "brow', zem. also brunesP\., Old Prussian wubrii. "eyelash' 
(seems a metathesis from *bruwi)\ 

Old Bulgarian it'/^i/B (originally Nom. *bry, as kry: krbv-b). 

An e-Abl. b^/i/e-with syllabic become /"regards Trautmann KZ. 44, 223 in Lithuanian 
birwe = bru vis. 

In a- grade: 

unclear are Middle Irish PI. abrait {*abrant-es or *abrantT) " eyelids, brows ', likewise mbr. 
abranVbrow' , cymr. amrant'eye\\6' 

In zero grade: 

Middle Irish bruadGen. Du., bra/, bro/Hom. Du. f. ' brows ' (to diphthong s. Thurneysen 
Grammar 199), Old Irish forbru Akk. PI. {*b^runs: Akk. ocppuc;), forbruGen. PI. " eyebrows 
'; Specht (Dekl. 83, 162) would like to put to Latin frons^ the forehead, brow, front '; but 
vocalism and meaning deviate; 

Tocharian A parwan-, B parwane {D\}a\) " eyebrows ' 

References: WP. II 206 f., Trautmann 38. 
Page(s): 172-173 

Root / lemma: b^ru-2, b'^reu- 
Meaning: beam, bridge 

Material: Old Icelandic bruf. 'bridge'; Old Icelandic brygg/a' wharf, pier' ndd. brugge ds., 
Old High German brucca. Old Saxon -bruggia. Old English /7/yc^ 'bridge'. Bavarian Bruck^ 
Bretterbank am Ofen ', Old English brycgian ' pave ' (originally with thrashed wood), Swiss 
brugi{0\6 High German *brugf) ' wood scaffolding ', Z^m^e/ 'wooden log'. Middle High 
German brugeF Q,wd<^Q\, club'. Modern High German Prugel {^bx\d<^€ is also 'balk, rod; 
track made of beams '); 

gall. it'/Tl/a 'bridge' (*bVe^a); 

Old Bulgarian i6'/^i/b/7c»'balk, beam', Serbo-Croatian bh/^. 'balk, beam, bridge made of 
beams ' (etc, s. about Slavic forms Berneker 92). 

Unclear is the guttural in the Germanic forms: *brugT-\xoxx\ *bruuh, or k- suffix? S. 
Kluge'''' under ^ Brucke= bridge' and Specht Dekl. 2113f., accepts the connection with 

References: WP. II 207. 
Page(s): 1 73 

Root / lemma: b'^uA'^-mfeJn 

Meaning: bottom 

Note: single-linguistic in part to *b'^u&^-mo-, partly to *b'^u&^-no-, besides with already Indo 

Germanic metathesis *b'^un6'^o-> *b'^undo-7 

Material: Old Indie budhna-h 'ground, bottom'; Avestan bund 6s. {*b'"un6!"no-), out of it 
borrows Armenian bunds., during Armenian an-dund-k' ^ abyss' from *b'^i//7dh- seems 
assimilated. From proto Iran. I^^/Td^as derives tscherem. yC>i//7o'5S "bottom, ground '. 

Gr. nuGpnv (*(pu9-) m. "bottom, sole, base of a vessel', nuv5a^ m. ds. (for cpuvSa^ after 
nue^nv Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 71 , 333). 

Maked. PN nu5va Cb^ud'^na), dissimil. Ku5va? 

Latin fundus, -/~m. " ground; the bottom or base of anything; a farm, estate' {*b^un6^os), 
profundus ' deep' = Middle Irish bond, bonnm. 'sole, foundation, groundwork, basis, pad, 
prop '. (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-). 

Maybe alb. (^fundus), fund^boWom, end', fundos^s\v\k ' Latin loanwords. 

Old High German bodam. Modern High German Boden, Old Saxon bodom. Old English 
*bodm> Middle English bothemm. besides Old English botmm. > eng\. bottom and Old 
English bodan ^bottom, ground'. 

Maybe alb. {bod-) bote' bottom, ground, earth, world' 

Old Norse botn 'bottom'. Old English bydme' bilge, floor, bottom ' besides bytme, bytne 
ds.. Old Icelandic bytna' to come to the bottom ', with unclear dental change; it seems to 
lie a basic proto Germanic *bul=>ma- , probably is to be explained analogically; compare 
Petersson Heterokl. 18, Sievers-Brunner 167, Kluge''"' under siedeln. About Modern High 
German Buhne, originally ' wooden floor (made from floorboards) ', angebl. from Germanic 
*bunT, Indo Germanic *bu6!^nia, s. Kluge''"' under Buhne. 

References: WP. II 190, WH. I 564 f., 867, Porzig WuS. 15, 112 ff. (against it Kretschmer 
Gl. 22, 1 1 6); compare also Vendryes MSL. 1 8, 305 ff. 
Page(s): 1 74 

Root / lemma: b'^ugo-s, nickname b'^ukko-s 

Meaning: goat 

Grammatical information: (fem. In -a goat, nanny goat ') 

Material: Zigeun. buzn/'goat'; Avestan buzam. "he-goaf, npers. buz'goat, he-goat; billy 


Armenian buzlamb'; 

Middle Irish bocc, pocc, nir. boc, poc, cymr. bwch, corn, boch, bret. bouc'h^ he-goat; 
billy goat ', in addition Middle Irish boccanach^ <^\\os\., bogeyman '; 

Germanic *bukka- (after Pedersen Litteris 7, 23 f. borrowed from Celtic?) in Old 
Icelandic bukkr, bokkr, bokki. Old English bucca, nengl. buck. Old High German Middle 
High German boc, -ekes. Modern High German Bock. 

The aberrant consonant in Old Indie bukka-h 'he-goat' (uncovered) is probably from 
bukkati^ barks ' (see below beu-1, bu-) influenced hypocoristic reshuffling *b^uja- = 
Avestan buza-. Also npers. dial, boca^youuq goat', pam. buc, bucseevn to be a result of 
similar reorganization. 

References: WP. 1 11 89 f., Pedersen Litteris 7, 23 f., Martinet Gemination 182. 
Page(s): 1 74 

Root / lemma: b^gfug- b^rug- b^org- 

Meaning: throat 

Material: Armenian erbuc^breasi, brisket of killed animals ' {*b^rugo-); gr. cpapu^, -uyoq, 

later (after Aapuy^) cpapuy^, -uyyo(; " windpipe, gullet'; Latin frumenu. '(a gruel or porridge 

made of corn, and used in sacrifices) larynx, gullet' {*frug-smen); without ^Old Icelandic 

barki^ neck ' {b'^or-g-, formally closer to cpapay^ 'cleft, gap, abyss ') 

Similar to Lithuanian burna, Armenian beran^ruouib' (actually " orifice ') to b^er-'cut, 
clip' under conception 'cleft, gap = gullet'. 

References: WP. 11171, WH. I 482, 551 f., 866, Liden Mel. Pedersen 92, Specht Dekl. 


Page(s): 145 

Root / lemma: bis-(t)li- 

Meaning: gall 

Material: Latin bTlis {* bislis, o\der * b/st//s) f. 'gall, bile'; cymr. bust/m., acorn, b/ste/, bret. 

besti {*bis-tlo-, -tli-) 'gall'; gallo-rom. *i6'/s//c»s (Wartburg). 

References: WP. II 1 1 1 , WH. I 105 f. 

Page(s): 1 02 

Root / lemma: blat- 
Meaning: to chat 

Material: Latin blatero, -are^ chatter, babble, empty gossip; also from shout of the camel, 
ram, frog', blatio, -/?e "babble, prattle '; 

mndd. plad{d)eren^ c\\a\, prate', nndd. yO/ao'ofe/T? "splash, besprinkle ', Swedish pladder^ 
loose gossip', Danish bladre "spread lose gossip ', older also "splash', lacking of consonant 
shift in onomatopoeic word. 

Similar to onomatopoeic words are ndd. plapperen (Modern High German plappern). 
Middle High German plappen av\6 blappen. Old High German blabizon ^babb\e' and mndd. 
pluderen ^babb\e' (Middle High German pludern. Modern High German plaudern). 

compare with partly similar meaning b^led-^ to bubble up, chat', b^el- "sound' and bal-, 
bal-bal- under baba- (e.g. Lithuanian blebenti\N\Vc\ Modern High German plappern swnWar 

References: WP. II 120, WH. I 109. 
Page(s): 1 02 

Root / lemma: ble- {*b^\eb^- > b^\e- > bh|ek-o-; bh|ek-ot-o-) 

Meaning: to bleat 

Root/ lemma: b^/e-: " to howl, weep' > Root/ lemma: b/e-: " to bleat'; hence the support 

for the glottal theory b^- > b-. 

Note: imitation of the sheep sound with different guttural extensions; in the Germanic with 

consonant shift omitted as a result of continual new imitation. 

Material: Gr. pAnxaoijai "bleat', pAnxH the bleating '; russ. (etc) b/ekat/{o\6), blekotatb 

"bleat'; mndd. bleken, it'/o/re/? "bleat, bark, bay' (out of it Modern High German bloken), 

Norwegian Dialectal blaekta {*blekatjan) "bleat'; alb. bl'egeras 6s. 


in -m- formant: 

alb. blegerime^ the bleating ' : Gr. pAnxaoMai "bleat' [common gr. x > alb. g-]. 

Proto-Slavicform: blekt; blekott; blekota 

Page in Trubacev: II 108-109 

Russian: i6'/e/rc»/(dial.) "henbane' [m o]; blekota {6\a\.) "chatterbox' [m/f o] 

Belorussian: blekat^beubaue, hemlock' [m o] 

Ukrainian: i?/e/r// "poison hemlock' [m o]; it'/e/ro/" henbane' [m o]; i6>/e/rc»/a "poison hemlock, 

henbane' [f a] 

Czech: it'/e/r "bleating' [m o]; i6'/e/rc»/"sh outer, babbler' [m o]; /7/e/ro/5 "grumbler' [fa] 

Old Czech: it'/e/ro/" chatter, grumbling, chatterbox, grumbler' [m o] 

Slovak: b/'akot'b\ea\.\ng, bellowing' [m o] 

Polish: b/ekotlooVs parsley, henbane, (arch.) stammerer, chatterbox' [m o] 

Upper Serbian: it'/e/r "henbane' [m o]; M/r'henbane' [m o]; /7/e/rc/' muttering, babble' [m o] 

Bulgarian: b/ek{6\a\.) "henbane' [m o] 

Serbo-Croatian: /?/e/r "bleating' [m o]; i6'/e'/re/"bleating' [m o] 

Slovene: t)/^kl\ock (sheep)' [m o] 

References: WP. II 120 f., WH. I 95. 

See also: compare also b^/e- "howl' etc 

Page(s): 1 02 

Root / lemma: b/ou-{b^/ou-7), /7/of/-(*bNou-ks-eh2) 

Meaning: flea 

Note: With /r-and 5-suffixes and taboo metathesis and aniaut alteration. 

Material: With p:0\d Indie p/us/-, Armenian lu{*plus-), alb. plesht, Latin pulex, Indo 

Germanic */0/c»^/r- in Old High German floh. Old English fleah. 


Common Armenian Celtic (often alb.) initial pi- > A, see Root/ lemma: plab-\ to babble, 

etc.. Old Irish {*plabai) labar^ talkative '. 

Notes: In Polish dialects, we find a large variety of forms, e.g. pcha, pia, piecha, biecha, 


Formations in e- grade: 

alb. plesht: Polish plecha^ flea'. 

With i&(or b^?): afgh. vraza, gr. ijJuAAa {*blusja), Balto-Slavic *blusa\n Lithuanian blusa, 
Latvian blusa, Prussian PN Blus-kaym, russ. -Church Slavic bltcha, Serbo-Croatian buha, 
russ. blocha. 

References: Meillet MSL. 22, 142, 539 f., Trautmann 35, Specht Dekl. 42 f., 203, 235. 
Page(s): 1 02 

Root / lemma: bol- 

Meaning: tuber 

Material: Armenian bolk^ radish ', gr. poAp6(; "onion, bulb' (also p6ApiT0(;, dissimilated 

Attic poAiToq "crap, muck, dung ', , if possibly originally from nanny goats or horses?), 

(3wAo(;, poJAa^ "clod of earth'; Old Indie i6'5/6'a-ya-/7"E leu sine indica, a type of grass', if " 

nodules coming out from the root '?, Latin bulbus^ ov\\ov\, bulb, tuber ' is borrowed from 


Redukt.-grade or with Assimil. in Vok. tlie 2. syllable Armenian palar^ pustule, bubble '. 

References: WP. 11111 f., WH. I 122. 
Page(s): 1 03 

Root / lemma: brangh-, brongh-? 

Meaning: hoarse? 

Material: Gr. ppaYXO<; " hoarseness ', ppayxaw 'be hoarse', Old Irish brong(a)ide^\\oarse'\ 

but gr. Aor. £ppax£ 'cracks' probably stays away. 

References: WP. I 683 f., II 1 19. 

Page(s): 1 03 

Root / lemma: breuq- 

Meaning: to jump, *throw, thrust, poke, touch, run 

Material: Perhaps combined so gr. ppouKO(;, (3p£UK0(; (ppauKO(;), ppuKO(; ' locust, 

grasshopper '(ppoOxot; probably after ppuxw ' crunches with the teeth ', and sloven. 

brknem, bfkniti, brkam, bfkati, bfcati^ bump with the feet, kick, shoot the way up with the 

fingers, touch '; 

Maybe lllyrian TN Breuci: so gr. ppsOKOc; ' locust, grasshopper (mythological monster?)'; 

alb. {*breuk) prek^ touch, frisk, violate ', pres^ crunches with the teeth, cut ' [taboo word] 

Slovene: brsat/"\ead, touch' : Lithuanian: brukt/'poke, thrust, press, scutch (flax)' [verb]; 

Russian: brosaf throw, (dial.) scutch flax' [verb]; brokat' {d'\a\.) 'throw' [verb]; Seri30- 

Croatian: brcat/"\hro\N' [verb]; 

russ. brykatb ' kick with the back leg ', kir. brykaty^ frisk mischievously, run ' etc 


Maybe the original cognate was of Baltic - lllyrian origin: Lithuanian: brauktas 'wooden 

knife for cleaning flax' [m o], braukt/" erase, scutch (flax)', bri/kt/'poke, thrust, press, 

scutch (flax)' [verb] 

References: WP. 11119, Specht Indo Germanic Dekl. 251 f. 

Page(s): 1 03 

Root / lemma: bronk- 

Meaning: to lock 

Material: Gothic anapraggan^ press' to *pranga-^ restriction, constriction ' in Old Swedish 

prang 'narrow alley'. Middle English yO/'5/7^e 'narrowness', engl. dial, proug' menu fork ', 

Maybe alb. pranga' restriction, fetter, chain, handcuff : germ Pranger' pillory ' 

mndd. prangen^ 'press', pranger''Qo\e\ Middle High German pfrengen' wedge ', Old High 
German pfragina^bar, gate, barrier', to Lithuanian branktasm. " pole for hanging 
(*gallows)', Latvian i6'/'5/7/r//(Lithuanian loanword) ' fitting tightly '. 
References: WP. 11119, 677 f.. Feist 43, Kluge^^ under Pranger. 
Page(s): 1 03 

Root / lemma: bu- 
Meaning: lip, kiss 

Note: as an imitation of the kiss sound, bursting of the sucking lip fastener from inside, 
thus actually differently from bu-, b^^^-' inflate ' with normal spraying after outside. 
Root/ lemma: bu-\ "lip, kiss' derived from Root/ lemma: ku-, kus-{*k"uk'"h-)\ "to kiss' 
common Celtic - Greek k"- > p-. 
Material: Npers. bosTdan ^V\ss'\ alb. buzel'\p'; 

Maybe alb. {*pus) putb'k\ss' [common alb. -s > -//? shift] : Swedish p^ss "kiss'. 
Middle Irish bus, pus^\\p', busoc, pus6c^V\ss' (in addition presumably gall. PN 
Bussumaros and buddutton^ mouth, kiss'); 

Modern High German ^^ss "kiss', i6'^sse/7"kiss', Busser/ 'k\ss', engl. buss, Swedish (with 
regular consonant shift) puss'k\ss'; Lithuanian buc/uot/ 'k\ss', bucthe onomatopoeic word, 
sound of the kiss dental interjection, poln. buz/a ^ mouth, face; kiss'. 

The same phonetic construction for poln. buz/a 'mouth, face; kiss' : alb. buze, buza'Wp' : 
Rumanian buza'Wp'. 
References: WP. I 1 13 f., WH. II 98. 
Page(s): 1 03 

Root / lemma: daRru- 
Meaning: tears 
Grammatical information: n. 

Gr. 5aKpu, 5aKpuov, SoKpupa "tears'; out of it borrows Old Latin dacruma, Latin 
lacruma, lacrimals, (with sabin. R); 


Common Latin dh- > II-, d- > /-. 

Maybe alb. {*lok-) lot'tear' [common alb. -k > -th, -/similar to alb. {*mag-) matb'b\g'. 

Old Irish deru., cymr. o'e/gr (could go back to PI. *dakrT\he o-Dekl.), PI. dagrau, abret. 
dacr-(lon)^ moist, damp, wet', corn, dagr^iears' (Island-Celtic *dakrom^see, look' 
Thurneysen KZ. 48, 66 f); Germanic *tahr- and tagr-: Gothic tagru. 'tears'. Old Norse tar 
n. (from *tahr-). Old English taehher, tear, teagorm.. Old High German zaharm. (Modern 
High German Zahreirom dem PI.; whether in Germanic still from old ^stem or it has 
changed out of it? ostem has gone out, is doubtful). 

Indo Germanic *daRru\s probably from *o'/'5/^/'i/dissimilated because of Old High 
German trahan. Old Saxon PI. trahni^ {ears'. Middle Low German tran6s. and "( from fat of 
squeezed out drops through cooking:) fish oil'. Middle High German traherds. {-er 
probably after zaherhas changed) and Armenian artasuk'^ tears ', Sg. artausrirom 

On the other hand one searches connection with Old Indie asru, asra-m' tears', Avestan 
asruazan-^ pouring tears ', Lithuanian asara, asara^ tears', Latvian asara ds.; probably 
sheer rhyme word, so *a/(ro- ' acer, sharp, bitter ' as epithet of the tears ('bitter tears ') 
partially used in place of dakru, whereby it took over its ^/-inflection? compare also 
MiJhlenbach-Endzelin I 142 f. 


From early Italic, lllyrian people the cognate for tears passed to Altaic languages: 

Protoform: *rrga ( ~ *(-) 
Meaning: to weep, cry 
Turkic protofomn: *]+g-(la-) 

Tungus protoform: *ligi- 

References: WP. I 769, WH. I 746 f. 
See also: see above S. 23 under akru. 
Page(s): 1 79 

Root / lemma: daiuer. Gen. daiures 

Meaning: brother-in-law 

Material: Old Indie devar-, Armenian taigr, gr. 5anp (*5aiFr|p), Latin /ev/r{\n ending 

reshaped after v/'r, the /for o' probably Sabine), Old High German zeihhur. Old English 

/acc»/'(presumably through hybridization with an equivalent from Lithuanian laigonas 

'brother of wife'), Lithuanian diever'is {ior * dieve = Old Indie devar-; older conservative 

Gen. dievers), Latvian dieveris. Old Church Slavic devert (/-,yc»-and conservative stem). 


The Baltic cognate Lithuanian /a/igo/755 "brother of the wife' proves the Balkan origin of 

Baltic languages inheriting Latin d- > /-. 

References: WP. I 767, WH. I 787, Specht KZ 62, 249 f., Trautmann 43. 

Page(s): 1 79 

Root / lemma: dau-, dau- du- 

Meaning: to burn 

Note: uncertainly, whether in both meaning originally identical (possibly partly as ' burning 

pain ', partly " destroy by fire, burn down hostile settlements '?) 

Material: Old Indie dunoti^buxus (trans), afflicts', o'J/75- "burnt, afflicted ', Pass, duyate 

'burns' (intr.), kaus. davayati ^burus' (trans), dava-h {\n\Vc\ ablaut change dava-h) "blaze', du 

f. "affliction, pain', doman-^b\&ze, agony' {-au-as in 5£5au|j£vo(;); 


Old Indie and alb. prove that Root/ lemma: dau-, dau-, du-\ "to burn' derived from Root/ 

lemma: ^^eu-4, di^et/a- (presumably: d^t/e- compare the extension (S^ue-k-, d^t/e-s-) : "to 

reel, dissipate, blow, *smoke etc.'. 

Armenian erkn (to 5ur|) "throes of childbirth'; 

Note: common Baltic-lllyrian d- > ze/c reflected in Armenian 

gr. 5aiu) (*5aF-i(jo) "set on fire, inflame', Perf. 5£5r|£ "be in flames, be on fire' (: Old 
Indie dudava), participle 5£5au|j£vo(; (5auaai £KKauaai Hes., £K5apn £KKau9n AaKU)V£(; 
Hes.), bdoq, n., bdio,, Aboc, f. "torch' (to g: von Attic baq, baboc, s. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 266), 
5av6c; " easily ignitable = to dry' (*5a£iv6c; from *5aF£a-v6(;), bakoo, " burning piece of 
wood' (*5aF£A6(; = lakon. 5ap£A6(;); br\\oc, "hostile', Doric (Trag.) baioc,, bqoq "afflicted, 
woeful, wretched, miserable'; hom. 5r|'i'ou) "slay, kill, murder' (Attic Spou) "ds., devastate'), 
5r|iOTn(;, -Tf|TO(; "tumult of war, fight, struggle', hom. 5ai' Lok. "in the battle' (to Nom. *5aO(;, 
Indo Germanic *o''a^5 Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 578), 5ai-KTaiJ£V0(; " killed in the fight'; probably 
5ur| "affliction', Suowai "fall in the misfortune' (av9p(ji)nou(;, Od.), 5u£p6(; " unlucky '. 

About 65uvr| (mostly PI.), Aeolic £5uva(; Akk. PI. "pain', 65uvav " cause pain, afflict, 
sadden' see below ed- "eat'; perhaps here 5auKoq 6 Gpaauc; ("stormy, hot tempered') Hes. 

Alb. dhune{*dus-n-) "affliction, pain, force, violence, horrible action; disgrace, insult' 
{dhunon^ revWe, violate'; oT?^/? "bitter', originally "unpleasant'? or as Slavic gortk-b "bitter': 
^c»/'e//"burn'?) with *o'^-s- (presumably as zero grade of -es-stem = or as gr. 5a(F)o(;); 
Tosc c/e/ie "bitter' {*deu-no-)\ 

Latin presumably duellum, bellum^^ax, fight' (WH. I 100 f.), with unclear suffix. 

Note: common Latin dw- > b- 

Old Irish o'd/Tr? "singe, burn' (about Old Irish do/im^get, exert' see below deu(9)-), 
Verbalnom. ddud= Old Indie davathu-h ^b\aze, fire '; a/Jo'"kindle, inflame' from *ad-douth, 
cymr. cy/7/7e^ "kindle, inflame' , (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), also bret. devi, cymr. 
o'e///c»"burn' (with i/from M/before„/) here (Thurneysen KZ. 61, 253, Loth RC. 42, 58); Old 
Irish Gen. condid. Middle Irish connad, condud l\re\NOo6' , cymr. cynnud' firing', corn. 
kunys, bret. keuneud l\re\NOod' (Pedersen KG. I 108, II 39, basic form perhaps */rc»/77- 
dauto-); cymr. etewyn^ firebrand ' {*ate-dau-ino-), bret. collective eteo6s. 

Old High German z^sce/7"burn'; after cppuvr) : braunhere also Old English /c»sc5"frog', 
Swedish Dialectal /os/rds.; perhaps (with *eu, see below) Old Norse tjdnu. "damage, 
wrong; injustice, derision, ridicule'. Old English teonam., teonei. "damage'. Old Saxon 
t/ono'evW, harm, wrong; injustice, enmity', whereof Old Norse /j?/7a "destroy, lose'. Old 
English //e/75/7 "plague, anger, slander'. Old Saxon gitiunean^ act wrong against 
somebody '.* 

*) In spite of Osthoff lA. 1 , 82 has kept away the family of Modern High German zunden, 
Gothic tundnan"\s ignited', /5/7qya/7 "ignite, set on fire'. Middle High German zinden, 
because of that /and a would not be probably first ablaut neologism in u, after Thurneysen 
lA. 83, 32 as t-andjanio Old Irish ao'-a/7o'- "kindle, inflame'. 

Berneker IF. 10, 158 places here also Lithuanian dziauti^ place down in order to dry ', 
Latvian z5^/"dry, burn incense, smoke ' as *deu-ti, as also alb. and Germanic e^- forms 
can contain Indo Germanic eu; the relationship of this *deu- to *dau-\s unclear; or to d/'eu- 
"sky, heaven'? 

References: WP. I 767 ff., WH. I 100 f. 
Page(s): 179-181 

Root / lemma: da- 

Meaning: to flow; river 

Material: Old Indie da-na-v\. " liquid flowing from the temples of the elephant for the rutting 

', da-nu-u. f. ' every dripping liquid, drop, dew', Avestan da-nu-i. 'river, stream', osset. 

don'\j\/ater, river'; russ. FIN Don, (Greek) skyth. FIN Tavai(;; 

Also typical intensive reduplication lllyrian {* don-don) DodonaE'^'nus 

russ. FIN Dnieprav\6 Dniestr, old Danapn's and Danastius irorw skyth. *Danu apara^ back 

river' and *Danu nazdya-^ front river'; Avestan VN Danav6P\. " river inhabitant ' (become 

in Rgveda water demons, fem. GN Danu-), skyth. nomadic people, also in Greece, hence 

(?) gr. VN Aavaoi, agypt. Danuna; with formants -/770- Armenian /a/77i//r" humid, wet, moist', 

tamkanam^ wet, mositen; of water, collect in pools, and of solids, to be liquefied; wet, 

moistened, soaked ' and presumably gr. 5r|M0<; (proto gr.a or n?) "fat of animals and 

people', wherewith alb. dhjame^iai, bacon, tallow, suet' is not connected in a cleared way 

yet; the fat can be named as with the roast liquidly growing ones (compare Old Church 

Slavic /oy" soft fat, lard, grease ' : /ya//"pour'). Here also Celtic Danuvius^ Danube river', 

gall. ON Condate^ the confluence of two rivers; as a place-name Confluentes '; six engl. Fl 

Don {* danu-), cymr. FIN Donwy {* danuuia). 

Benveniste places to Armenian tam-ukye\. Hittite dame{n)k-la\\ like rain' (BSL 33, 143). 

References: WP. I 763, M. Forster Themse 145 f., Kretschmer Gl. 24, 1 ff., 15 ff., Mel. 
Pedersen 76 ff., Benveniste BSL 33, 143. 
Page(s): 1 75 

Root /lemma: da. ds-and dai-. dei-. di- 

Meaning: to share, divide 

Grammatical information: originally athemat. Wurzelprasens. 

Material: Old Indie dati, oy^//"clips, cuts, mows, separates, divides', participle dina-h, dita- 

h, composes ava-ttah^ cropped, truncated, cut off', dfti-h^Vc\e distributing', 

danam^the abscission, trimming', danamn. "distribution, deal, portion', datun. 'deal, 

portion', datar-m. (= Sairpoc;) 'reaper, mower', datram^ allotted share ', datramu. 'sickle', 

npers. dara^ remuneration ', o^as 'sickle'; Old Indie daya^ communion, concern, 

commiseration ' = dayate {*dai-etai) 'divides, possess lot, has pity; destructs '. 

Maybe nasalized form in alb. {*dayate) ndanj^cui, separate, allot, share'. 

gr. 5aio|jai med. "divide, allot, share' with probably after Fut. Saiaw and and the 
following words preserved i (phonetic laws 5ar|Tai Konj. O 375 " is destroyed '); 5aic;, -toc;, 

horn, also 5aiTU(;, -uo(; "share, meal, sacrifice, oblation' (: Old Indie datu); 5aiTU|j(l)v "guest' 
(as "serving the meal'), 5aiTp6(; " colter, plough coulter, pre-pruner. ' (: Old Indie datar-), 
5aiTp6v "share' (: Old Indie datram, this ai of these gr. words is partly according to phonetic 
laws - ai, ai- partly analogical, as in Cretan Perf. SsSaiapai to 5aT£0|jai, compare also 
Cretan 5aTai(; "division', KapnoSaiarai " distributor of fruit '), 5aivupi "host', probably also 
Saipoov m. "god, goddess; fate, destiny, person's lot in life' (actually " prorating; or "god of 
the dead as a corpse eater', Porzig IF. 41, 169 ff., Kretschmer Gl. 14, 228 f.; about of 
Archilochos Saipoov "Sanpwv' see below *dens- " high mental power '); Sa'i'^u), Fut. -^co, 
Aor. -^a "divide, carve, slit, destroy' (due to *5aF6-q " sliced, destructed'), a-Saroq 
c(5iaip£T0(; Hes., 5avo(; n. "interest, usury' (due to a participle *da-n6-s= Old Indie dina-ii, 
compare 5avac; p£pi5a(;); 

gall, arcanto-danos' minting ' as "distributing silver'. 

With formants -mo-, damosi. "people': gr. 5r|[jO(;, Doric ba\xoq, m. '( people's division) 
people, area; the single region in Athens ', Old Irish dami. " retinue, troop, multitude, 
crowd', acymr. dauu^ boy, serf, servant ', ncymr. daw, o'5M//'"son-in-law'; apparently older 
fem. o-stem; in addition Hittite da-ma-a-is {damaTs?) "an other, foreigner, stranger', from 
"*foreign people', originally "*people', Pedersen Hittite 51 ff. 

With formants -/o- perhaps Old Church Slavic deit "deal, portion' {*d9i-io-) (see below 
*afe/- "split'); about Old Irish fo-daiimeic s. just there. Here belongs probably also Gothic 
daiis'6ea\, portion', runeninschr. dafijiif^un ' 6W\6e' , Old Icelandic deiii, Old English dsei, 
Old High German teiim. "deal, portion'; 

Maybe alb. daiionj" separate, distinguish' 

Old Icelandic deiiat "division, disunion'. Old High German teiiai. 'division'; Old Icelandic 
deiia. Old English d^ian. Old High German /e//a/7 "divide' etc It could hardly derive from 
Slavic, probably it derives from Venetic-lllyrian, because the root form *d9i-\s attested in 
South lllyrian PN Dae-tor. An additional form Indo Germanic d^'a/- besides o'a/- would be 

With zero grade o^.- Armenian //; Gen. //by "age, years, days, time' (* < dT-t(i)-ox *dT-to-, 
*dT-ta), Old High German zTtf. (n. Isidor), Old Saxon Old English tid. Old Norse tidi. "time. 

hour' (*//^- Indo Germanic *o'/-/- ursprgi "period of time'), in addition Old Norse tTdr^ usual, 
ordinary, frequent, often'. Old English t/ic/an' occur', Old Norse t/da' aspire, strive'; Old 
Norse tf-na^ to pick to pieces, take apart, weed, take out, remove, clean'; 

About Gothic ///" fitting' etc see below ac/-2, but Gothic cfa/7s under de/-S, here against it 
Old High German z/7a' sequence, row, line', westfal. //7e' sheaf row'. Modern High 
German Ze/7e, probably from *tTd-la-. 

>D- extension dap-, dap-; dap-no-, -ni-^ sacrificial meal ': 

Old Indie dapayati^ 6\y\6es'\ Armenian taun{*dap-ni-) "festival'; gr. Sanru) (*5aniu)) "tear, 
rend, mangle, lacerate, disassemble ', with intensive reduplication 5ap5anTU) "tear, rend, 
(KTripara) squander, dissipate in luxury', SaiTavri f. "expenditure, esp. arising from 
hospitality (: daps) ', 

bimayoQ, " lavish, wasteful ', Sairavaoi) " consume' (out of it Latin dap/no^ serve up (as 
food), provide for'), 5ai|jiA6c; (Empedokles), SaijJiAnq "(* wasteful) exuberant, rich, generous 
'; Latin daps\*s}r\are) a sacrificial feast, religious banquet; in gen., meal, feast, banquet ', 
damnum'\oss, damage, defect, fine', damnosus' ruinous ' {*dap-no-: 5aTTavr|, different 
Pedersen Hitt 42); 

maybe lllyrian Ep/damnos {Eppi- '*horse' + *c/a/0-/7o'*sacrifice'), also alb. Geg dam (yap- 
no) "damage': Latin damnum. 

Old Norse tafn (*dap-no-)' sacrificial animal, sacrificial meal ', compare den Germanic GN 
7a/7/&/7a (Tacit.), if from *tafnana, Marstrander NTS. 1, 159. 

From Germanic one still adds a lot, what was a meaning-development from "split up, cut 
up, divide' to "tear, pluck, shortly touch, make short clumsy movement ' would assume; in 
following the meaning from 5anavav, damnum derWes aschw. tappaar\6 tapa' put an end 
to, lose'. Old Icelandic tapads.; Old Frisian tap/a'p\uck\ Old English taeppei. " cloth 
stripes ', Middle English tappen {er\g\. tap) "hit lightly'. Middle Low German tappen, tapen 
(lengthening in open syllable?) " pick, pluck'; Old Norse taepr^ barely touching ', isl. tsepta 
{*tapatjan) " just touch ', Norwegian Dialectal taepla ^iowch lightly, tread quietly'; but 
Norwegian Dialectal taap{e) m., Danish taabe^ioo\, rogue, awkward; clumsy person', 
Norwegian faapen^\Neak, feeble, ineligible ', tgeper\. " insignificant; unimportant thing'. Old 
Norse taepiligr^ cor\c\se\ with other labial grades Swedish Dialectal tabb, tabbe^ gawk ', 
tabbeV oafish ', are probably onomatopoeic words, also as ndd. tappe, Swiss tape. 

Modern High German Tappe' paw ', as well as tappen, tappisch eic; s. also under d^ab^- 

Likewise are to be kept away Old High German zabalon. Modern High German zappein, 
as well as Old High German zapfo. Modern High German Zapfen, Old English /^ppads. 
(Germanic *tappon-)\ also only Germanic words with /and i/ (compare Specht Dekl. 152 
f.):Middle English tippen, engl. tip^ touch quietly, bump quietly ', Modern High German 
tippen. Middle High German zipfen^(\v\ swift movement) trip, scurry ', Old Norse tifask^ 
walk on tiptoe; trip ', Middle High German z/p/'tip, cusp, peak', nasalized Middle Low 
German ///77yC>ef. 'tip, end'. Old English a-f/mp//an'\r\o\6 with nails'; on the other hand 
Norwegian Dialectal tuppa. Modern High German zupfen. Old Norse toppr^ tuft of hair, 
summit, acme, apex ', Old English toppm. "cusp, peak, crest, summit, tip ', toppam. " 
filament ', Old High German zopf pigtail, braid, plait, end of a thing '; Middle Low German 
tubbe, tobbe ' spigot ', tobben 'pluck, rend ', South German zofeln ' waver ' (as zapfein); 
perhaps here also Old High German z^/77yOO 'penis'. Middle High German zumpf(e). 
Modern High German Zumpt, whereat under dumb-. 

Here Tocharian A tap^ ate ', Van Windekens Lexique 187. 

^extension i/9-/'- (compare but das participle da-to-s): 

gr. 5aT£0fjai 'divide, tear, rend, consume' (Put. 5aoa£o9ai, Aor. hom. 5aaaao9ai, Attic 
5aaao9ai), wherefore baa\y6c, 'division', 5aapa 'lot', common gr.-lllyrian -ks- > -ss- 

5aTr|pioc; 'dividing, splitting' (this certainly from *5a-Tr|p: Old Indie o's-Za/'- 'reaper, mower'), 
a5aaT0(; ' undivided '; SaTSopai is gr. neologism (Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 676) and not Indo 
Germanic *da-t-\ 

Gothic ungatass^ disarrayed, disorderly ' (compare cx-baaio<^). Middle Dutch getes'be 
submitting, suitable '; Old High German ze//e/7 '(distributing) strew, outspread ', Modern 
High German verzette(l)n, probably also Old Norse tedja^ outspread dung ', tadu. '(* 
outstretched) dung'; Old High German zota, zatat ' tuft of wool, hair hanging down 
together, filament or wool ' (therefrom zaturra^ a harlot, prostitute '), Old English tsettec 
(expressives tt) 'scrap, shred, tatter, rag ', Old Norse tgturr'scrap, shred'; Old Danish 
tothae. Old Danish and Danish Dialectal t0de, taade\ retard, delay, hinder'. 

Besides with u-Vok. Old Norse todd/'smaW piece', holl. /oofafe 'scrap, shred'. Old High 
German zota, zotta' topknot ', Modern High German Zotte, Zote\ Middle High German 

zoten'go slowly', Modern High German zottein, East Frisian /oofa'e/7'pull, tear, drag ' ; 
about Modern High German zauderns. Kluge'''' 704. 

Tocharian A /a/-/r "divide, carve, slit'. 

5-extension d-es-: 

Old Indie dasyati^ suffers lack, swelters, languishes ', upadasyati^ goes out, is 
exhausted '; 

Norwegian dial. /5S5 "wear out', Swedish dial, tasa^ pluck wool, outspread hay ', ndd. 
/ase/7 "pluck'. Modern High German Zaser, older Zase/" fibre, filament ', Norwegian dial. 
tasev(\. "weak person', /a5/77a "languish', /asa" become feeble '; ablaut. Danish Dialectal 
taese' work slowly ', ndd./ase/?" work heavily', identical with Norwegian Danish taese^ 
disentangle, wear out, pull out'; compare in similar meaning Norwegian tasse " go quietly ', 
taspa^ go slowly and sluggishly'. Middle High German zaspe/7 "scratch, go sluggishly ', 
Old High German zascon^ seize, snatch, tear away ' (actually "drag') = Modern High 
German dial, zaschen, zaschen^ drag, pull, tear, work slowly ', zascheni. ' a train in the 
dress '; about Old High German /asca "pouch, pocket' s. Kluge'''' 612. 

Maybe truncated alb. Geg {*zascdn) me zane^ to seize, snatch, tear away ' 

Hittite /es/7a-"keep oneself away from' (3. Sg. preterit ti-es-ha-as). 

Maybe alb. Geg {*tesha) teshaP\. "clothes, belongings, rags', /es/7e "speck of dust, little 
splinter, torn piece' 

Besides with /-vocalism (Indo Germanic *d/-s as extension to dT-?Ox only Germanic 

Swedish dial, teisa, tesa' pull to pieces ', Danish dial, /ese "pluck (e.g. wool)'. Old 
English taesan^ pull to pieces ', Old High German zeisan, zias^ ruffle; tousle, pluck wool '; 
East Frisian holl. teisteren^ rend ', Old English t^sel. Old High German zeisala^ teasel ', 
Norwegian Dialectal /es/ "willow fibre, ringlet, hair lock ', with /"Norwegian //5/" fibre, 
filament ', //s/" shrubbery ', with /"Middle High German zispen^go sluggishly' (as zaspen), 
probably also (?) Old English /eosi^/a/7 "plague, disparage ', /eoso "insult, deceit, malice'. 

Finally with i/-vocalism: Norwegian dial. /c»sa"rub, wear out, pluck', also "flub, work 
slowly ', /ose "frail person', /cs" fibers, ragged rigging ', /ossa "strew, distribute, outspread 
', Middle English /d/Jse/7 "tousle, ruffle'. Middle Low German tosen^ rend, pull'. Old High 

German z/rzuson 'tous\e, ruffle', Middle High German zusach' brushwood ', zusef. " 
brushwood, hair lock ' ; perhaps to Latin dumus' a thorn bush, bramble brushwood, shrub' 
{*dus-mo-s) and Old Irish doss^bush'. 

From PIE this root passed to Altaic: 

Protoform: *dama 

Meaning: ill, sick, bad 

Turkic protofomn: *jAman 

Tungus protoform: *dam- 

Japanese protoform: *dam- 

Note: Despite SKE 75 there is no reason at all to suppose a Chinese origin of the Turkic 

form (MC ja-man 'savage, barbarian' is too distant semantically; the usage of PT *jaman 

for a bad disease, sickness is very close to Japanese and may suggest that the original 

meaning of the root was 'ill(ness), sick(ness)'). 

References: WP. I 763 ff., WH. I 322, 323 f., 859; Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 676. 
See also: out at least basically as extensions from o'a-'cut, split' agreeable root cfe/- 'split', 
flfe/-' whereupon it is split apart ', cfer- 'split, flay' see below see below its own headwords. 
Page(s): 175-179 

Root / lemma: deigh- 
Meaning: to prick; tick 
Material: Armenian //'tick'; 

Middle Irish dega, Akk. degaid {*digat-) ' stag-beetle '; 

Germanic *tTkan-, with intensive sharpening *tikkan-, in Old English ticiavn. (lies tiicaor 
ticca), engl. ///re and //ic/r'wood tick, sheep louse ', Middle Low German Zeckevn. f. 'wood 
tick'. Modern High German Zecke; besides a mediation form *tTkan- in Middle Low German 
teke. Middle High German Zeche, engl. teke6s.\ 

Norwegian dial, tikka, ndd. ticken^ stumble lightly ', Middle High German zicken6s.\ Old 
High German zechon^ pulsate, banter, skirmish'; engl. tickle^ titillate '; nasalized Old 
English tindianAs. 

A connection with 6!^eig- 'prick' is not provable. 

References: WP. I 777. 
Page(s): 187-188 

Root / lemma: deiR- 

Meaning: to show 

Note: from which Latin and Germanic partly ' point to something with words, say', 

developed plural also ' show the right, point to the culprit, accuse ' 

Material: Old Indie dfdesti, disati, desayati^ shows, point at', Avestan daes- Aor. dois- 

"show' {daesayeiti, disyeiti, daedoist) 'show; assign something to somebody, adjudge ', 

participle Old Indie dista- (= Latin dictus); dist'hh^ instruction, regulation ', Avestan adisti-s 

"directive, doctrine' (= Latin dicti-o. Old English ///?/' accusation ', Old High German in-, b'h 

ziht6s.. Modern High German Verzicht), Old Indie dis-\. 'instruction, direction', disa 

"direction' (= 5iKr| "right, justice', from which probably Latin dicis causa " for form's sake, for 

the sake of appearances '), o'esa-/? "(direction), region' = Old Norse teigrsee below; 

gr. 5£iKvOpi, secondary Seikvuoo "points, shows, evinces', Cretan irpo-SiKvuTi 
"sniSsiKvuGi', bz\%\c, " the display ' (with secondary lengthened grade), 5iKr| see above, 
5iKaioc;, 5iKa^u), aSiKog the Perf. Med. 5£5£iyMai, and SsTytja " averment, proof, example' 
not with Indo Germanic g, but gr. innovation; 

Latin dTcere\o indicate; to appoint; most commonly, to say, speak, tell, mention; in 
pass, with infin., to be said to; to mention, speak of, tell of, relate; to name, call; to mean, 
refer to', dJcare^ announce solemnly, award, consecrate, dedicate, set apart, devote, offer 
', Oscan defkum^saY, Umbrian teitu, de/tu'{Fut. Imper.) you will say, declare', changing 
through ablaut Oscan d/cust' will have said ', Umbrian ders/custds., Oscan da-d/katted' 
to dedicate, consecrate, set apart ', Latin d/c/'d^ power, sovereignty, authority ', indTcare 
"indicate, display, show, offer', index^ an informer; a sign, token; the forefinger; a title; a 
touchstone ' (as also Old Indie desinf forefinger '), iudex^ a judge; in plur., a panel of 
jurors', vindex {vindicare = vim dicere), causidicus, about proto Irish *Ekuo-decas, 
Lugudec(c)as {Qeu. Sg.) see below deR-1. 

Gothic gateihan' indicate, promulgate ', Old Norse tea, newer //a "show, depict, 
represent, explain, announce ', Old English teon' indicate, promulgate ', Old High German 
z/han' accuse, blame', zeiherl; 

Maybe alb. Tosc z//7e/77 "quarrel, argue', truncated Geg {*zThan) zane^ to quarrel '. 

wherefore Old Norse tfgenn'{*s\r\o\N, point out, reveal, advise, teach) noble', (under the 
influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), f/gni. "rank; noble man, husband'; Old High 

German zeigdn's\\o\N\ whereof ze/iga" instruction'; inziht eic see above; furtlierOld Norse 
te/grm. " linear part of meadow ' ("*direction' = Old Indie o'esa-/? 'region, place, land'), 
changing through ablaut Old English tig, //T? 'meadow, pasture ', Middle Low German tffgj 
m. public collective place of a village ', Old High German z/c/7 'forum'. 

Here presumably with the meaning 'finger' (= '*pointer') and secondary, but already old 
'toe'. Old High German zeha, Old English tahe, fa, Old Norse /a 'toe' {*d6iRua), Middle 
Low German tewe. Modern High German and sudd. zewe6s. {*doiR-ua), and that probably 
from *o'/ic//^s through dissimilation against the toneless /resulted Latin d/g/tus l\nger, toe'. 

Hittite tek-kus-sa-nu-mi^ makes recognizable, points, shows, evinces' here after 
Sturtevant Lang. 6, 27 f., 227 ff.; doubts the formation because of E. Forrer by Feist 204. 

Hittite: tekkussa'h (I) ' indicate, show, present, display ' (Friedrich 220) 

Besides Indo Germanic doig-w^ Gothic taiknst 'mark, token, sign, wonder, miracle', 
taiknu. ds.. Old High German (etc) zeihhanu. 'mark, token, sign'. Old English taecan, 
engl. /eac/? 'instruct'. Old Norse te/kna^s\r\o\N, signify, designate'. Old High German 
ze/hhonon' draw, depict, sign ', Gothic ta/knjan ' show' , Old High German zeihinen 6s. 

From Germanic */a//^/7a derives Finnish /a//ra-'omen, sign'. 

Whether deik- and deig- from del- 'bright shine' (also 'see') are extended as ' allow to 
see, allow to shine '? 

References: WP. I 776 f., WH. I 348 f., 351 , 860, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 696 f.. Feist 204, 472. 
Page(s): 188-189 

Root / lemma: dei-1, deia-, di-, dia-{*sthei- : zdhei-) 
l\^eaning: to shine; day; sun; sky god, god 
Note: (older '*dart rays'?) 

Old Indie cff-de-ti' seems, shines', 3. PI. dJdyati, Impf. 3. Sg. adJdet, Imper. 2. Sg. didlhi, 
su-dT-tf-h) ' having nice brilliance ', Kaus. dTpayati^ ignites, illuminates', o^ya/e' blazes, 
shines, seems ' (about dTvyatisee below), dTdi- 'shining, seeming' (due to from df-de-ti); 
similar *o'c»/-o'-c»- (broken Redupl.) in Old Norse /e///" 'cheerful, blithe, glad' (actually 
'radiating'). Old English /^/a/7 'caress', tat- (in names) 'blithe, glad'. Old High German zeiz 
'tender, graceful' (compare he/teran6 'clear, bright' as 'blithe, glad'; Uhlenbeck Old Indie 
Wb. 126); perhaps here also Lithuanian d/d/s'b\g, large' as ' handsome, considerable '; 

gr. horn, biaio (Imperfect) "he saw, discerned, perceived ', 5£apr|v £5oKi[ja^ov, 
£56^a^ov Hes., Arcadian Konj. Seotoi, horn. Aor. 5oaaaaTO 'to appear', Konj. SoaaasTai, 
compared with Arcadian Aor. 5£a[a£]T0i with o after £5o^£, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 681 S; 
common gr.-lllyrian -ks- > -ss- 

hom. 5££Aoc; 'visible' (*5£i£Ao(;; with metr. lengthening £u5£i£Ao(;), bv\Koc, ds. (from *5£iaAoc;, 
from which also Hesychs 5iaAoq; hom. api^n^oc; 'very distinct, clear, bright' (from *5jr|-A6(;); 

*flto/7o- presumably in Old English sweo-tol {iroxw *tal) 'apparent, manifest, obvious, 
distinct, clear, bright' and in Middle Irish doerbeeWe, chafer' ('shining black insect') as well 
as in Irish river names Daol {* doila) as 'the shining'. Here probably also Lithuanian dailus 
'dainty, pretty', o'a////?// "smooth, adorn'. 

With formants -tlo- presumably here being found only in the compound Germanic *tT^la- 
: zTdal-, Modern High German Zeidel-, Low German //7- 'honey '(' clearness, shine - clear 
honey '). 

Against Pedersens raising from Hittite {*sfhe-)te-es-ha-' dream' (Mursilis 69) s. 
Couvreur H 53 and above S. 178. 

^/-extension: deieu-{. dieu-, diu-, diu-) 'bright, divine revered sky and bright day: 

Diphth. stem Nom. dieus{dlieus), Akk. dieum, Vok. dieu, Lok. dieu/and dieu, Dat. diuei. 
Gen. diu-es, -6s, d/eus-pater' sky ia\her, heavenly father'. 

Old Indie dyauh {diyauh) 'sky, heaven', Akk. dyam, Lok. dyavf, divf, Dat. dive. Gen. 
divali {and dyoh), Instr. PI. dyu-biiilr, 

gr. Zz\jc, (= dyau-h), Akk. Zpv (= dyam), Vok. Z£u ( *djeu). Gen. Ai(F)6^, Dat. (Lok.) Ai(F)i 
(Zr|v lengthened Zr|va, Zv\ybc„ Zr|vi; about Zat; by Pherekydes of Syros s. Schwyzer Gr. 
Gr. I 577^); the Gen. *d/ues\n Thessalian Ai£c;-K0upia5£U), prion. Ai£c;-KOupi5ou (Schwyzer 
Gr. Gr. I 547); 

Maybe Rumanian ze^'god' : alb. zot, PI. zota 'god' : Rumanian ze/ta, zeitate, zana 
'goddess' : alb. zanai. 'nymph, goddess' : gr. Zr|va [common alb. n > nt > t[. 

in Latin the old paradigm has split in two names which designate the name of the 
uppermost God and the 'day'; similarly in the Oscan and Umbrian: 

Note: common Latin lllyrian d- > I-. 

Latin /upp/terirom lu-piter, Umbrian JupaterMok. = Zsu nargp, to Norn. Old Indie 
dyausp/ta lather oi the sky, heavenly father', Z£U(; narrip, Dat. Umbrian luvepatre, lllyrian 
(Hes.) A£i-naTupO(;; 


The inanimate suffix -ur- . lllyrian (Hes.) Aei-narupo^ : UAupioi , oi, lllyrians, 'lAAupia , n, 
lllyria, also'lAAupi? , n. Adj. 'lAAupiKO^ , n, 6v, lllyrian: -ys\, the region or province of lllyria, 
UAupi^U) , speak the lllyrian language, 'IAAupia:-hence Adv. 'lAAupiaii. 

In lllyrian and Albanian the attribute noun or adjective comes after the noun. 

Latin Gen. /ou/s {0\d Latin also Diovis, also as Nom.), Oscan Diuvef^ Jove ', fuvilam, older 
diuvilam '* iovilam ', iuvilas "* iovilae ' etc, compare GentilN Latin lulius ( *lovilios)\ 

Maybe -/-suffix, (typical in Old Indie and lllyrian): alb. die-IIT sun ' : Latin Z?/a//s 'relating to 
Jupiter; '(flamen) dialis'. 

Maybe alb. {*Jove-di, *Jeudi) e/T/fe Thursday' : French yet/oV' Thursday ', \ta\'\anjoved/' 

Latin Diespiter {\NV\exeoi £?/a//s 'relating to Jupiter; '(flamen) dialis', the priest of Jupiter') 
with Akk. c^iliemhas changed after Nom. dies, otherwise would prevail in the meaning 
'day', while to the name of ' sky God ' the ablaut grade *dJou- from *(y/e^- would be 
accomplished under the pressure of Vok. *djeu- (up to Diespiter, also Umbrian Di, Dei 
'[masc ace. sing.] god, [neut voc. sing.] god', contracted from die-, so that D{m) = *diem); 
the old Nom. "y/^s from *of/e^s still standing in addition to l/eoVioK/s, Veiovis, Ve-dius ^ o\6- 
rom. Underworld God '; 

in the meaning 'day' Latin dies see above (m.; as f. in the meaning 'date, day month 
year (according to the calendar), period, time' presumably after nox), yet besides the older 
Nom. d/'eus st\\\ in nu-dius tertius 'now is the 3. day', further diu^ by day' (Lok. *dJeuor 
*djdu), ' for a long time ', ' a long time ago' out of it 'long'. 

Maybe in -e- grade Latin Greek Albanian: Latin perendie {* peren-dies) " on the day after 
tomorrow ' : Albanian {* peren-diem) perendim m. ' sunset, end of the day ', perendimi^ 
west ', {* peren-destia) perendestia^ upper goddess ' {*peren-dea) perendia^ divinity '. 
Albanian {-dea, -desiia^ goddess ' : Latin dea: Italian dea: Spanish diosa: French 
deesse : Portuguese deusa ' goddess '. [see Root / lemma: per-2\ to go over; over]. 

diminutive Latin diecula^ a little day, a short time ', Oscan [d]ifkulus^6ays\ zicolo rw. 'day'; 

Old Irish dTe, proclitic dTa^6aY (from after the Akk. *dliem\\as changed *d//es), cymr. 
dydd, corn, deth, dyth, bret. o'e/z'day' (also); Old Irish /n-dfu 'today', cymr. etc he-ddyw 
"today' (at first from *-dliO, probably = Latin diu). 

Maybe Root / lemma: Ro-, ^e-(with particle ^ehere'), R(e)i-, R(i)io-\ this + Root/ lemma: 
dei-1, deia-, dh, dja-\ to shine, day = , cymr. etc he-ddyw. alb. {*sodiena) 50/7/e 'today' : 
Latin hodie, Latvian sodiena, Lithuanian siandien "this day, today'. 

Maybe Latvian diena : Lithuanian diena : cymr. dydd : Wallon djou : alb. dita : Spanish dia 
: Asturian dia : Catalan dia : Piemontese di : Leonese dia : Valencian dia : Venetian di : 
Bergamasco de : Bolognese de : Bresciano de : Breton deiz : Frisian dei : Galician dia : 
Ladin de : Lombardo Occidentale di : Mantuan di : Portuguese dia : Romagnolo de : 
Romanian zi : Romansh di : Sardinian Campidanesu di > Italian {*diornd) giorno : Furlan 
di; zornade : French {*diour) jour : Calabrese 'iornu; juarnu : Catanese jornu : Caterisano 
jornu : Sicilian iornu : Triestino giorno : Mudnes de; gioren : Napulitano juorno : Occitan 
jorn; dia : Parmigiano gioren : Reggiano giouren; de : Viestano jurn' : Zeneize giorno < 
Latin dies "day'. 

From the ablaut grade diu-\v\ the meaning "day'; 

Old Indie o'/Va "during the day', divedive'day by day' {divam Nom. otherwise "sky, 
heaven'), nakfamd/vam ' n\g\r\t and day', sud/vam'a nice day', sudiva-h' having a nice day 
', Armenian //V"day', gr. £v5Toc; " in the middle of the day (appearing)' (due to *£v 5iFi, 
compare £vvuxiO(;); Latin dius, /nterd/us ' oi the day, in the daytime, by day ' (with Latin 
syncope from Gen. *diu6s)\ bi-, tri-duum{*diuom) " period of two, three days '; 

e5-stem cfe/es- presumed from Old Indie divasa-h'6ay\ formal to dak. 5i£a£fja " 
common mullein, high taper', probably from *o'/^eSe/775 "luminous plant' (Detschev, Dak. 
Pflanzenn. 14 ff.); butgr. £u5To(; (*£u-5iFo(;) "clear, cheerful', older £u5ia "clear weather', to 
Old Indie su-d/vam (above); compare Sommer Nominalkomp. 73 ff. 

*d/u/os\n Old Indie divya-, divia-' celestial ', divyani' the heavenly space', gr. 5To(; (from 
*5iFioc;, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 472a) "divine, heavenly ', Latin dTus' divine, god-like; hence 
fine, noble; also (apparently) out of doors, in the open air ' (different from dTvu^), dTum 
"open space of heaven', sub dJo; ZP/a/?^ deriving from *Diviana, " the virgin goddess of the 
moon and hunting' *D/v/a{7); compare etr. 7/V"moon', //Ves" months ', after Kretschmer 

Gl. 13, 111 f. from Italian *clivia, and orph. DavSTa 'Selene (goddess of the moon)' from 
*TTav-5iFia " all kinds of illuminators '. 

ablaut grade af/t/-in Old Indie dyu-mnam^ splendor of the sky ', oy£/-/77a/7/- "bright, light', 
verbal dyut- "gleam, shine' in dyotate, Aor. ved. 5oya^/ "shines' (with /probably after svit- 
"be bright'); compare also Old Church Slavic dtzdh "rain', russ. dozd'. Old Czech desc, 
etc, from *dus-dju- "bad weather', Trubetzkoj Z. si. Ph. 4, 62 ff. 

o-stem deiuo-sqo(i, the divine': 

Old Indie deva-h ^god' (o'ei/7'"goddess'), Avestan daeva-' demon'; 

Latin deus and dTvus, by of from the paradigm *deiuos{> deos). Gen. *deiuT{> dJvT); 
Oscanofe/Va/^goddess' (Oscan deivinais= Latin dMnis; Umbrian deueia^ [fem. Ace. sing.] 
of a deity, goddess '; 

Maybe alb. o'/rgiant' a Latin loanword. 

Oscan deiuatud^ to swear an oath ' = Latvian d/evat/es' swear, vow'; Latin dTves^ rich, 
wealthy; with abl. or genit., rich in ', actually "standing under the protection of the Gods', as 
Slavic bogatb, s. Schuize KZ. 45, 190); 

gall. GN Devona, PN Devo-gnata, Old Irish dia. Gen. de^god\ acymr. duiu-{tit) 
"goddess, deity', mcymr. ncymr. duw, acorn, duy, bret doue^ god'\ 

Old Norse tTvarP\. "gods' {*deiuds) as well as Old Norse Tyr{0\d Germanic teiwaz) "the 
god of war'. Old English Tfg, Gen. 77M/es "Mars', Old High German ZFo, Zio; 

Maybe alb. za/7a "goddess, ghost', zo/a "gods' > zc>/"god'. 

Old Prussian deiw(a)s, Lithuanian dievas^god' (ofe/Ve "goddess, ghost' from *deiuia, 
dievo suneliai^ sons of the sky', Finnish loanword ta/was'sky, heaven'), Latvian d/'evs 
(verbal derivative lies before in Lithuanian f/e/VdZ/s "say farewell ', Latvian dievatiessee 
above), compare Trautmann 50, Muhlenbach-Endzelin I 484, 485 f. Against it are Old 
Church Slavic div-b m. "wonder, miracle', divo, -esen. ds. (-es-stem probably previously 
after cudo, -eseds), divbiTb " wonderful ', didn't derive from concept "god, deity ', but (as 
Oaupa from Gsaopai) position itself to kir. dyvl'u, dyvyty sja^see, look, show', Czech dfvam 
se"look, see, observe', which behaves to Old Indie df-de-ti^ s\\\nes' in the meaning as e.g. 
Middle High German Mic/r "lustre, shine, lightning' and "look of the eyes'. Modern High 
German glanzen: Slavic gl^dati^see, show'. 

en-stem 'ofe/e/?- (thematic deino-, dino-) only in tlie meaning "day": 


The extension e/7-stem *flfe/e/7- (thematic deino-, dino-) is of lllyhan origin. The attribute 
nouns that derived from adjectives in lllyrian alb. take -ta, -/7/a suffix which was then 
reduced to common alb. n > nt > t. (see alb. numbers) 

originally conservative still in Old Church Slavic dbnb. Gen. dbne'6ay'; Old Indie dfna-m 
(esp. in compounds "day', Latin nundinae^ the market-day held during every ninth day ', 

Maybe alb. {*dfna) dita^6aY : Old Indie dina-m {esp. in compounds "day' : < Lithuanian 
d/ena, Latvian diena. Old Prussian Akk. f. deinan^6aY [common alb. n > nt > t[. 

Old Irish denus^a period of time', tredenus^ three days' time, three days '; alb. gdhinj 
"make day' from *-di-n-Jd\ 

maybe alb. gedhinfShe day breaks' is a compound of zero grade *ego^\ + dfna^\ make 
the day'. 

zero grade Lithuanian diena, Latvian diena. Old Prussian Akk. f. deinan^^ay' 
(MiJhlenbach-Endzelin I 432 f., Buga Kalba ir. S. 227 f.); Gothic sinteins ^daWy, perpetual, 
everlasting'; perhaps here Old High German /e/7(^^/^z//7 "springtime' from * langat-tin as " 
having long days '. 

Kretschmer leads back to gr. Tiv-5api5ai "sons of Zeus', etr. Tin, Tinia "Juppiter' of a 
pre-Greek Tin- "Diespiter (Zeus father)', respectively Italian * Dinus {\v\6o Germanic *din- 
"day, sky, heaven') (Gl. 13, 111; 14, 303 ff., 19,207; s. also Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 65); but the 
older form is Tuv5api5ai! 

r-extension dei-ro-, dhro-\x\. 

Germanic *tera- ( *dei-ro-) and *tira- ( *diro-) in Old High German zen, z/a/y" precious, 
lovely, delightful, nice, superb, pretty, splendid, beautiful', z/a/7"beauty, ornament, 
adornment', z/ard/? "adorn, embellish'. Middle Low German /©/""lustre, shine, fame, 
prospering; flourishing, good constitution ', tereav\6 tJre^ habit, kind and way ', Old English 
Old Saxon //?"honour, fame'. Old Norse tTrr6s.\ Norwegian dial. //? "alertness, lookout, 
peering, light, lustre, shine', //?5"peek, sparkle, glitter'; 

in addition Litliuanian dyreti, dyrotr <^a\Nk, lurk', dairytis, Latvian dafrft/es ^ stare about', 
Old Prussian endyntwei {, see Buga Kalba ir. s. 227 f., Muhlenbach-Endzelin I 432 f.) 
"watch, see' (but Bulgarian dfrb "search, seek' absents, s. Berneker201); 

Tocharian A ///y" kind and way '. 

About Hittite siwat- "day', s/wann/-'go6' (from *d/eu-7), Hieroglyphic-Hittite t/na- "god', 
si/an ^ appears' {*d/a-7) s. Pedersen Hittite 57, 175 f. 

Hittite: ? siu-, siun-, siuni-, siwann-, siwanni- c. 'god', siwatt- c./n. 'day' (Friedrich 194, 1950 
[perhaps to 'sun'?] 

Maybe Etruscan T/na'go6'. -a- feminine ending proves it meant " goddess '. 


(Just like Albanian masculine t-/j" his', feminine s-aj" her' Hittite verb masculine ending -t/ 
" you', feminine ending -s/" you') 

Hence Hittite s/wann/- mear\t " goddess ' not "god' because Hittie differentiation s- means 
feminine, /-masculine. 

To Old Indie dTvyat/" p\aYS, shows, throws dice ' (supposedly " throws the eye ') compare 
with other ablaut dyutam'6'\ce game', further devanam'\he game, dice game', and above 
dyotate 'sh\r\es', dyut/hlustre, shine', dyumant-^br\g\r\t, light'. Whether here also Avestan 
a-dfvye/nt/" bestir oneself, strive for ' as " whereupon it is split apart '? compare 
Wackernagel, Berl. Sbb. 1918, 396 f. 

The fact that our root as " vibrating light' originally one has been from ofe/a- "hurry, 
whirl', seems conceivable. 

References: WP. I 772 f., WH. I 345 f., 347, 349 f., 355, 357 f., 727, 732, 860, Schwyzer 
Gr. Gr. I 576 f. 
Page(s): 183-187 

Root / lemma: deia-2{dia- dia- dh) 

Meaning: to swing, move 

l\1aterial: Old Indie oTj/a// "flies, hovers'; gr. 5Tvo(; m. "whirl, whirlpool; round vessel, round 

threshing floor ', 51vr| (Hom.), Aeolic 5ivva (compare Aivvo|j£vr|<;, Hoffmann Gr. D. II 484) 

"whirl, whirlpool'. 

5iv£U), 5Tv£U(jo, Aeolic 5ivvr|Mi "spin in wliiri or circle, swing, brandisli'; intr. " turn me by 
dancing in circles'; pass. " roam around, reel around, roll (the eyes) whirl (from river), spin 
dancing around', 5ivu) Aeolic 5ivvu) "thresh'; hom. 5iuj "flee', 5io|jai " chase away' (with 
ostentatious distribution the intr. and tr. meaning in active and Medium), hom. 5i£VTai "to 
hurry', 5i£a0ai "flee', £v5i£aav "rush', 5i£p6(; (nouc;) " fleeting ' (after T£T£, krai: kviai to 
thematic 5i£Tai analogical 5i£VTai instead of *5iovTai neologism?), 

5idjKU) "pursue' (contaminated from FicbKU) and 5i£pai, Meillet MSL. 23, 50 f., Schwyzer Gr. 
Gr. I 702); hom. 5i^r|MC(' (Fut. hom. 5i^r|aopai) " strive for, be troubled about, search, seek', 
nachhom. also " investigate ' (*5i-5ja-[jai), next to which due to *5ia-T0- Attic ^r|T£w " strive 
for, let me be concerned with '; here with originally *dja-: ^aAr| "storm, violent movement, 
particularly of the sea', l^aKoo, "whirlpool, violent movement of water'? 

compare about gr. words containing the ^ Schwyzer Gr. Or. I 330, 833. 

Old Irish oVa/? "quick, fast', dene^ quickness '; Latvian deju, d/et^dance', d/ede/et^go 
idly'. About Lithuanian da/nalo\k song' (to deja' lamentation?') compare MiJhlenbach- 
Endzelin I 432 with Lithuanian 

Ouite doubtful cymr. d/g^mad, wicked, evil', russ. dfkij^\N\\d\ Lithuanian o'j7/ras"minxish, 
wanton, bratty, unengaged, leisured, unemployed, idle, lazy', Latvian dlkslree of work'. 
Old Church Slavic divbjb^WM (Berneker203 f., MiJhlenbach-Endzelin I 478, Trautmann 

Not here gr. 56va^ "reed' (new Ionian 5ouva^ and occasional Doric 5u)va^ metr. 
lengthening? Schuize Qunder ep. 205, Boisacq 196), 5ov£U) "shake', aAi5ovo(; " rove about 
in the sea' and Latvian duonis, duo/i/'reed, bulrushes '. 

References: WP. I 774 ff. 
Page(s): 1 87 

Root / lemma: de/c-l 

Meaning: to take, *offer a sacrifice, observe a custom 

Material: Old Indie dasasyat/" proves honour, venerates a god, is gracious' (Denomin. of 

*dasas- = Latin decus), dasai. "state, status, fate, destiny'; Avestan dasamn. "property, 

belongings piece '; Old Indie Desiderat. dJksate^\s consecrated', f/zTtsa "consecration' {*di- 

dR-s-\N\Vc\ secondary /), daksati^\s proficient, makes it right, is compliant', daksa-h 

"proficient, skilful' (but Avestan daxs- "instruct, teach, instruct', npers. daxs^ business, toil' 

stay away because of the Gutturals), lengthened grade Old Indie dasnoti, dasti, dasati 

'offer a sacrifice, give, proves lionour, grants', dasvas- 'hononng the Gods, godly, pious'; 
Avestan ^yas/a- 'receive, obtains, attains ' (participle); 

after Frisk Etyma Armen. 25 f. here Armenian a/7cay'gift' from *and-tisati- (proto- 
Armenian -//is- from *deR-)\ whether tesanem'\ behold '? (compare under 5ok£uu)); 
different Meillet Esquisse 135; 

gr. (Ionian Aeolic Cretan) SsKopai 'take in, accept', Attic 5£xo|jai, athemat. hom. 3. PI. 
5£xaTai (x after *5£x6u), Infin. 5£x6ai), Aor. 5£kto, participle 5£YM£voq, compare 
npoTi5£Y|jai npoa5£xofjai Hes. (yp instead of kjj); k is preserved in 5ok6(; '[absorption] 
beam ', 5oKav Ghkhv Hes. (out of it Latin doga 'a sort of vessel (perhaps a measure)'), 
5oKavai ai aTaAiK£c; Hes., 5£^a^u) ' to captivate, fascinate, be impressive ', 5u)po-56KO(; 
'the take of presents', 5£^a|j£vri (participle Aor.) 'water container, water carrier ', api- 
5£iK£T0(; ' distinguished ' (£i metr. lengthening); nasal present *5£iKvv|jai (: Old Indie 
dasnoti) in participle 5£iKvup£V0(; 'rendering homage, honoring, greeting ', to 5£iKav6(ji)VTO 
"to greet'; intensive 5£i5£xaTai ds., 5£i-5iaKO[jai 'greet' (for *5r|-5£(K)-aKO|jai after the 
present auf -ioKU)); 5£i- could be read 5r|- (Indo Germanic e), 5£ikv- also 5£kv-, and 5£iKa- 
could be metr. lengthening for 5£Ka- (Schwyzer Gr Gr. I 648, 697); causative 5ok£(jo (= 
Latin doceo'to teach, instruct (with ace. of person or thing); with clause, to inform that or 
how; 'docere fabulam', to teach a play to the actors, to bring out, exhibit', 5ok£T poi 'it 
seems to me' ('is suitable to me'); 56^a f. 'opinion, fame' (*5oK-aa), Soyija n. 'decision', 
56ki[jo(; ' respectable, approved '; 5ok£uu) ' to see, discern, perceive, observe; to think, 
suppose, imagine, expect ', Trpoa-SoKau) ' anticipate, expect'; about 5i5aaKU) see below 

Maybe alb. Geg o'o/re 'custom, ritual, tradition (observed)', {*deuk-) dukem ^appear, seem'. 

Alb. shows that from Root / lemma: cfeR-1 : 'to take' derived the nasalized Root / lemma: 
tong-1 ( *teng^ : 'to think, feel'. 

alb. ndieh\o feel' {*deR-skd-?)\ ndeshl\n6, encounter' probably Slavic loanword? S. 
under des-, 

Latin decet, -ere 'it is proper, it is fitting (physically or morally)', decus, -oris n. 
"distinction, honor, glory, grace; moral dignity, virtue; of persons, pride, glory ', dignus^ 
worthy, deserving; esp. of persons, usually with abl. or genit. of things, worth having, 
deserved, suitable, fitting ' (from *dec-nos, actually ' adorned with'); Umbrian tigit decet 
(see in addition EM. 257); causative doceo, -e/ie' instruct' ('lets accept something '); disco, 
-ere, didTci^ to learn, get to know; 'discere fidibus', to learn to play on the lyre; in gen., to 

receive information, find out; to become acquainted witli, learn to recognize ' (from *di-elR- 

Old Irish dech'the best ' (= Latin decus); also in PN Echuid {* eRvo-deR-s), Gen. 
Echdach, Luguid, Gen. L u/gdech {proto Irish Lugu-deccasW\\h cc= R), whether does not 
stand for efor older r, then to de/R-'po\nt', in the meaning "order'. 

Perhaps here Germanic *teh-udn\n Old English teohhian, t/ohh/an' mean, decide, 
define, ordain, determine', feohh, //b/?/? "troop, multitude, crowd, group of people ', feon 
{*tehdn) "decide, define, ordain, determine'. Old High German g/zehon' bring in order'. 
Middle High German zeche^ alignment, guild, brotherhood, colliery, association ', Modern 
High German Zeche, Middle High German zesem {* teksma-) "uninterrupted row', 
wherefore perhaps with lengthened grade ( *fej-ud) Gothic fewa "order', gatewjan 
"dispose'; s. above also under deua-^ move spatially forward '. 

Doubtful Old Church Slavic desg, des/t/"i\n6', Serbo-Croatian desTm des/t/"meet', refl. " 
meet somebody ', Czech po-des/t/an6 u-des/f/" catch up, catch'; changing through ablaut 
russ. -Church Slavic o'c»s///"find, meet'; s. also under des- 

Tocharian A faR- "adjudicate, decide, determine'; dubious A tasRmam {* taRsR-mam) 
"similar'. Van Windekens Lexique 137; Pisani Re. R. 1st. Lomb. 76, 2, 30. 

For e5-stem Old Indie dasas(yati), Latin decus\he words stand for "right' (Specht KZ. 

deRs- with variant suffixes: 

common Old Indie gh- > Rs- 

Old Indie daRsina-, daRsina- "on the right, to the south, skilful', Avestan o'as//7a- "right', 
Lithuanian des/nas6s., des/ne't\r\e right hand'. Old Church Slavic o'es/7b "right'; gr. 
5£^iT£p6(; = Latin dexter, -tra, -/m/r? (compounds dexterior, Superl. dextimus), Oscan 
o'es/rs/ (abbreviated from *destrust) "it is on the right ', Umbrian destrame' on the right 
side '; gr. 5£^i6(; "right, heralding luck, skilful, adroit' (from 5£^i- with formants -Fo-, 
compare gall. Dexsiva dea)\ (the suffix -i/o- probably aiter* /a f-uos, sRaZ-uos 'Wnks') Old 
Irish dess ^on the right, to the south', cymr. deheu {*deksovo-) ds., Gothic tafhswa. Old 
High German zeso "right', Gothic tafhswd-0\6 High German zes(a)wa^\he right hand'; alb. 
djathte ' ng\r\t' (that from G. Meyer identical with it Church Slavic destb is probably 
corruption for desnb, s. Berneker 187). 


The etymology of G. Meyer seems erroneous because of the common alb. -R- > -//?- similar 
as Latin dexter, -tra, -trum is a suffixed form of old PIE Root / lemma: deR-1 : "to take'. The 
-ter,-tra s\x^\x has been attested in Avestan lllyrian alb. and Latin Hence before -tra, -ter 
suffix the -k- becomes usually -ks- in all the above mentioned languages. Hence alb. 
{*dek-) djath-te 'nght' evolved from the common alb. -k- > -//7-like in alb. {mag-) math'b\g' 
while -Zeis the common alb. suffix as in alb. maj-te'\eit' from Latin ma/e'ba6\Y, ill, wrongly, 
wickedly, unfortunately, extremely'. 

References: WP. I 782 f., WH. I 330 f., 346 f„ Trautmann 53, 54, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 648, 
678, 684, 697, Wistrand Instrumentalis 14 ff. 
Page(s): 189-191 

Root /lemma: deR-2{\ doR-, deR-) 

Meaning: to tear 

Material: Old Indie da'sa^ protruding sheet filaments at the end of fabric, fringes '; Irish dual 

"lock, curl of \\a\r\* doRlo); Gothic taglu. "single hair'. Old Norse taglu. "the hair in the 

horse's tail'. Old English tgegl{ev\Q\. tail) m. "tail'. Old High German zageridW, sting, prick, 

male member, rod'; 

Gothic tahjan^ rend, pull, tear, tug ', d/stahjan ^ scaiier' , isl. t^eja, taa^ teasels ', 

Norwegian dial, taeja {*tahjan) and taa{*tahdn) "fray, tear'; 

Old Norse tag, PI. t^gerav\6 tagart " fibre, filament ', Middle High German zach, zahei. 

"wick, slow match (wick) '; in other meaning ("tugging - lugging, pulling out ') Norwegian 

Dialectal taag^s\o\N and enduring', 

maybe alb. /e^e/"sewing' 

Middle Low German tege, East Frisian /5^e "stringy, tenacious' and Old High German zag 

" hesitating, undecided, shy, timid' wherefore zagen' be desperate and undecided '; 

perhaps here as " from which one tears himself ' or " ragged, rimose piece'. Middle High 
German zackem. f.. Modern High German Zacke, Middle English takke' fibula, clasp, a 
large nail ', engl. tack^peg, small nail', with other final sound tagg, taggem. " jutting cusp, 
peak, prong, spike'; or belongs Zackeio Latvian d^gums 'nose, shoe point'? 

Maybe alb. take 'shoe heel (spike?)' 

perhaps here as " in which one tears himself ' or " ragged, cracked piece ', Middle High 
German zackem. f.. Modern High German Zacke, Middle English /a/r/re "fibula', engl. tack 

' pencil, small nail ', with other final sound tagg, taggevn. " excellent point, point '; or Zacke 
to Latvian d^gumshear "nose, shoe point '? 

References: WP. I 785. 

See also: see also under denR-. 

Page(s): 191 

Root / lemma: cfeRrp, deRrp-t, deRu-{*due-Rii^-t^ 
Meaning: ten 


Root/ lemma: deRn^, deRrp-t, deRu- {* due-RrQ-tj\ ten' is an extended Root/ lemma: dud(u) 
{*duei-): "two". The subsequent roots * uT-Rn[it-T\ "twenty' and ^/?7/'d/77 "hundred' are mutated 
forms of the root *due-Rnff-t\ "ten'. They both reflect the common lllyrian- bait d- > zero. 


The root number {*Rem-t-d) for 10, 20, 30, 40, 100 derived from the name of deer counted 

by PIE hunters, see Root/ lemma: Rem-2\ hornless, young deer. 

Material: Old Indie dasa, Avestan dasa, Armenian /5S/7 (after Meillet Esquisse 42 from 

*o'e^-, as russ. (tri)dcatb "30' from (tri-)dbseti), gr. 5£Ka, Latin decern {denf per ten' from 

*dek-nor, PN Decius= Oscan Dekis, Gen. Dekkieis), Oscan deketasiuf, Nom. PI. 

degetasius " manager of the tithes ' ( *deken-tasio-), 

Umbrian desen-{duf) " twelve ', Old Irish deich, cymr. deg, corn. bret. dek Gothic tafhun{- 

nas in s/'bun, niun). Old Norse tiu. Old English tien, tyn. Old Saxon tehan. Old High 

German ze/75/7 (a probably from den compounds, Brugmann II 2, 18), 

Tocharian A sak, B sak, Finnish deksan^\^' is after Jokl Pr. ling. Baudouin de Courtenay 

104 borrows from Indo Germanic). 

In the substantive number deRrp-tO), actually "decade', go back: 

Old Indie dasat-, dasati-i. "decade', alb. djete, gr. bzKdc,, -dboq, (to a s. Schwyzer Gr. 
Gr. I 498, 597), Gothic ta/hun-tehund ^\r\ur\6re6' (actually "ten decades '), Old Norse t/undt 
6s., Old Prussian dess/mpts ^ter\', Lithuanian desimt, old desimtis, Latvian old desimt, 
metath. desmit, old 0^5/777/5 (compare desmiterr\. f. " ten '); Old Church Slavic des^tb 
(conservative stem in -/, Meillet Slave comm.2 428); 

ofe^:/- probably in Latin decuria^ a body often men; a class, division, esp. of jurors; a 
party, club' (out of it borrows Modern High German Decheru.. "ten pieces'; late Latin 

*teguria\s assumed through Swiss Ziger^ ten pounds of milk'; probably identical with 
Middle High German z/ge^'curd') = Umbrian dequrier, tekuries^ decuries, feast of 
decuries '; compare Oscan-Umbrian dekv/a-\n Oscan (v/a) Dekkviarim^{ a way) 
appropriate to a decury ', Umbrian tekvias "a way to a decury'; in addition probably 
Germanic *tigu- 'decade' in Gothic fidwor-tigjus "40', Old Icelandic fjdrer-tiger. Old English 
feower-tig. Old High German fior-zug6s. Older explanations by WH. I 327 f. and Feist 150. 
see also under under centur/a under Kluge''"' under Decher. 

Maybe alb. /e/r"odd number' 

Changing through ablaut {d)Rixit- (Dual), (d)R6mt-{P\wr.) in figures often (only 
formations up to 50 are provable as Indo Germanic), e.g. Old Indie trimsaVZ^\ Avestan 
^risqs, Armenian ere-sun, gr. ipiaKovra (from *-K(jL)VTa; further details by Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 
I 592), Latin tri-ginta {\N\\h unexplained g), gallo-Latin Abl. PI. TRICONTIS, Old Irish tncho 
(with /"after frr3'), bret. tregont {* tri-komt-es), acymr. trimuceint(\v\ the ending after uceint 
'20'); s. also under u7-kmff^2Q\ 

ordinals dekemo-s and deRrp-to-s: 

dekemo-s\n Old Indie dasama-h, Avestan dasama-, osset. dasam, Latin decimus, 
therefrom decumanus^ of the tenth. (1) relating to the provincial tax of a tenth; m. as subst. 
the farmer of such a tax. (2) belonging to the tenth legion; m. pi. as subst. its members. (3) 
belonging to the tenth cohort ', later "considerable ', Oscan Dekm-anniufs " *Decumanii^ , 
compare also EN Decumius, out of it entl. etr. tecumnal, latinized back Decumenus, gall. 
decametos. Old Irish dechmad, mcymr. decvet, corn, degves. 

deRrp-to-sxn gr. Sekqtoc; (see also Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 595); Gothic tafhunda. Old Norse 
tTunda, Old High German zehanto, zehendo. Old English teogeda. Old Prussian dessTmts, 
Lithuanian desimtas, Latvian desmitais, older desimtais. Old Church Slavic des§tb\ 
Tocharian A skant, B skante, 5/r5/7ce (linguistic singles Armenian tasn-erord, alb. i-dhjet^\ 


Anatolian languages show a pattern similar to alb. So Lycian aitata {* oktd(u)ta) "eight' : alb. 
/e/s "eight'; Lycian nuntata ' n\ne' : alb. nanda'n\ne'. Therefore alb. 5/7/3/5 "seven' derived 
from a truncated *sa{p)tata^ seven' later Old Indie saptathah, Avestan hapta&a-. Old 
Saxon sivotho. Old English seofoda, Lithuanian septintas, also Old Indie saptatf-, Avestan 
haptaiti-lQ\ in alb. -ta, -teare attribute endings that were solidified in Anatolian and Indie 
cognates. The attribute /a (used in the genitive and adjectives) is unique to alb. language 

Therefore alb. teta "eight' is a zero grade of Lycian aitata {*oRtd(u)ta) "eight'. It was initially 
an ordinal number used as an attribute [compare Latin octuag/nta '80']. 

Alb. Tosc nanta, Geg nanda' nine ' derived from Lycian nuntata 'n\ne'. 

Alb. gjashta {seRs-ta) "six' [common alb. s- > gj-] : Old Indie 5^/"six', sastha- "sixth' was 
initially an ordinal number. 

Hence alb. d/e-ta'ten' derived from a proto Romance cognate *d/e+ common alb. -ta 
suffix used in attribute nouns; similarly in: Portuguese dez, Ga//c/an dez, Spanish diez, 
Lad/no d\es, Astur/an d\ez, Aragonese d\ez, Auvergnat6\e, L/mos/n6\e, Rumantsch 
Grischund'\esdr\, Surs/7vand'\esdr\, Vallader desch, Ladin diesc, Italian died, Venetian 
diese etc. 

Here ^/?7/'d/77 "hundred' from *(djkrptdm{\.er\) dekades': 

Old Indie satam, Avestan satem (out of it Finnish sata, Crimean Gothic sada); 

gr. EKarov, Arcadian ekotov (from dissimil. *sem Rmtom'a hundred'? compare Schwyzer 
Gr. Gr. I 592 f.), abbreviated *KaTOv in *T£Tpa-KaTOv etc (in TSTpaKOTioi TSipaKoaioi, 400', " 
four hundred '); 


Gr. eKQTOv {*heRaton) < * (d)kn^t6m{\.ex\) dekades' is crucial to crucial for tracing the cause 
of old laryngeal /? appearance in IE. Hence laryngeals were created after the loss of initial 
o'-in IE. Gr. and Anatolian tongues reflect the common lllyrian- bait d- > zero. 

Latin centum {\n addition ducentum, ducentflOO', compare Old Indie dv/-satam from 
* dui-Rmtom, trecentrZOO', quadn'ngentr 400' , etc; centes/mus'the hundredth' after 
vTcesimus, tr/ces/musiro{r\*ue/-, *tn-Rmt-temo-s)\ 

Old Irish cet, cymr. cant, bret. Rant, corn, cans, 

Gothic Old Saxon Old English hund. Old High German hund' ^00' (in compounds from 
200), but Old Norse tiund-rad {io Gothic /-5^/a/7 "count') " 120 pieces (10 dozens) ' ("120'), 
out of it Old English hundred. Middle High German Modern High German hundertirom Old 
Saxon hunderod, 

Lithuanian simtas, Latvian s'imts. 

Old Church Slavic etc shfo\s barely Iran, loanword (Meillet Slave commun.2 63); 

Tocharian A kant, B kante. 

Alb. Geg du, Tosc oV'two' hence alb. {*hunt) alb. nje-qind^oue- hundred' [common alb. ij > 
/], hence alb. displays centum characteristics while Rumanian suta'a hundred' displays 
the satem nature of Rumanian 

In addition a /^derivative in Latin centur/at " a division of 100; a company of soldiers; a 
century, a part of the Roman people, as divided by Servius Tullius ' (as decuria). Old 
Norse hundari. Old High German huntariu. 'a division of 100, administrative district'. Old 
Bulgarian sbtor/cads., Lithuanian 5//77/e/7O/0as 'characterized by a hundred', s/mfer-g/s' 
hundred-year-old '. 

References: WP. I 785 f., WH. I 200 f., 327 ff., 859, Feist 150, 471 f., Trautmann 53, 305. 
Page(s): 191-192 

Root / lemma: de/-1 

Meaning: to put by; to count, tell 

Material: Perhaps Armenian to/ "line, row', toiem^ line up '; 

gr. boKoc, "artifice, bait', 5oA6u) " outwit, circumvent ', 56Au)v " small dagger of the 
assassinator ' (about 56Au)v "sprit' see below del-3), 

from Gr. have been borrowed Latin dolus^a device, artifice; fraud, deceit, guile; a trap 
artifice, deception ', dolo^ a pike, sword-stick, a small foresail ', Oscan Akk. dolom, Abl. 
dolud^ a device, artifice; fraud, deceit, guile; a trap '; 

maybe alb. {*tal) /a//"tease, trick': Old Norse tali, "deceit, guilefulness'. 

Old Norse talu. "bill, account, invoice, calculus, reckoning, calculation, number, speech' 
(Old English /^/n. "calculation, row', ^//a/"number'), therefrom Old Norse /e^a "recount, 
narrate, relate'. Old English tellan. Old High German ze//e/7(Fem. Old Norse /o/a "speech, 
number, bill, account, invoice, calculus, reckoning, calculation '), Old English talu 
"narration, row'. Old High German za/5 "number, report, account' (therefrom Old Norse tala 
"talk'. Old English ta//an' reckon, consider, think, tell'. Old High German zalon^ calculate, 
count, pay'); ^-extension in engl. /a//r"talk'; from s-stem *talaz-v\.: Gothic /5/z/a/7 "instruct', 
un-tals^ indocile, disobedient ', in addition Old English ^e/^/"rash, hasty, quick, fast'. Old 
Saxon g/fa/0\6 High German ^/z5/"quick, fast'; with the in do/us^a device, artifice; fraud, 
deceit, guile; a trap' present coloring of meaning lengthened grade Old Norse ta/i. "deceit. 

guilefulness ', Old English taeli. "reprimand, slander, derision ', Old High German zaia' 
pestering, temptation; snare, danger', za/d/? "tear away, rob'; zero grade Old English tyllan 
"allure, entice' ( *djn-). 

Original resemblance with del- "split' is doubtful; perhaps from the hatchet being aimed 
at the wood to be split or from the technique of runes (number marks as incision)? 

About *dil- in Gothic ga-tils^ fitting', etc, see below ad-2, probably barely from of an 
additional form *dai-l- here. An association with *del- Persson attempted root extension 
115, Pedersen KZ. 39, 372, while they, deriving from da-, da'h " divide ', *de-l- and *dai-l-, 
oT"-/- grasped as parallel extensions. 

References: WP. I 808 f. 
Page(s): 1 93 

Root / lemma: del-2 

Meaning: to shake 

Material: Old Indie dulai. "the wavering ', with secondary lengthened grade a dolayate^ 

swings, sways ', -//" swings, whirls up ', dolita-^ fluctuating, moves by oscillating '; 

Lithuanian delstT tarry, hesitate', dulineti^a'(r\b\e, bum'; 

with fltextension doubtful (?) Old Indie dudi-i. "a small turtle, tortoise' ("waddling'), rather 
Old English/ea// "doubtful, uncertain, wavering', tealt(r)ian^\Nayer, wobble, sway, be 
doubtful, uncertain', engl. ////" incline ', Middle Dutch touteren^\Nayer, wobble, sway, 
swing', Norwegian Dialectal tylta^ tread quietly, like on toes ', Swedish tulta^ walk with 
small, insecure steps, like children '; 

with ^-extension Old High German zeltari. Middle High German zelter, md. zelder^ 
pacesetter, going on a trot, trotting ', Modern High German Zelter, Old Norse tJaldarlAs. 
(influence of Latin tolutarlus " pacesetter, going on a trot, trotting '; compare isl. tolta " 
march in step, match in tempo ' from *talutdn, the relationship to that mentioned by Plinius 
span, words thleldones^ pacesetter, going on a trot, trotting ' is unclear). Old Norse tjaldr 
"Haematopus ostralegus, Eurasian oystercatcher' (" the trudger '); but rather with -//- from - 
In- Old Norse /c»//a"hang loose', tyllast^ toddle, walk on tiptoe; trip', compare Falk-Torp 
under kjeld, tulle. 

Maybe alb. /^/"boneless meat, pulp, leg meat (also meat hanging lose)' 

References: WP. I. 809. 

Page(s): 193-194 

Root / lemma: del-3{dol^, dela- 

Meaning: to split, divide 

Material: Old Indie dalayati^ s^\\\.s, makes break, crack', o'a/a//' cracks' (meaning influenced 

by phalati^ broken in two ', Guntert Reimw. 48), da//ta-h ' spWt, pull apart, blossomed, 

flourished ', 

da/a-mn. 'deal, portion, piece, half, leaf, dalf-ht "clod of earth'; but Prakr. dala, -/""bough', 

probably also danda-h, -m "stick, bludgeon, beating, punishment' are after Kuiper Proto- 

Munda 65, 75 not Indo Germanic; 

Armenian probably /a/ "imprinting, impression, mark, token, sign, stave', /a/e/77 "stamps, 
brands' (Scheftelowitz BB. 29, 27; *del-); 

gr. 5ai5aAo(;, bmbaKzoc, " wrought artificially ', Intens. 5ai-5aAAu) "work skillfully, 
decorate' (dissimil. from *5aA-5aA-, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 647); SeAto^ (changing through 
ablaut Cypriot SqAtoc;) "(*writing board) a writing-tablet ' ("wood fissure, smoothly slammed 
wood board ', s. Boisacq 174 m. Lithuanian and to meaning esp. Schuize KZ. 45, 235; 
compare to the form under Modern High German tent); perhaps here 56Au)v "sprit, small 
sail' (out of it Latin dolom. " a pike, sword-stick; a small foresail '); quite doubtful whereas 
5av-5aA-iq, 5£v5aAiq " cakes of the flour of roasted barley ' 5£v-5aA-i5£c; ispai KpiGai as " 
crushed, coarsely ground ' (= "*split'?? Prellwitz^ 104 between); lengthened grade 
5r|A£opai "destroy, smash, damage' (not to Latin deled\o blot out, efface; in gen., to 
destroy, annihilate'); reduced grade Ionian nav5aAr|T0(; " annihilated ', cpp£vo-5aAn(; " 
disturbed senses ' Aisch.; el. Ka-5aAn|j£voi with el. a from n (see Boisacq 182; against it 
Wackernagel Gl. 14, 51); with the meaning change "( the heart?) tear, maltreat, cause pain 
' gr. 5aAA£i KaKoupy£T Hes. ( *delid), 5aAn KaKOupyn (5aAriaaa9ai AupnvaaGai. a5iKr|aai, 
5aAav Au|jr|v); compare also Latvian o'e//? "torment, smite, agonize' and Latin doleo^ to 
suffer pain, physical or mental, to be pained, to grieve; of things, to cause pain ', dolor^ 
pain, physical or mental; esp. disappointment, resentment. Transf., cause of sorrow; rhet., 
pathos '; 

alb. dallof separate, distinguish, divide', qy^/"kid, child, offspring (*offshoot)' {*delno-\ 
compare Middle Irish de/^rod'); 

Latin do/o, -are " to hew with an axe, to work roughly ', dolabra^ a pick-axe, mattock, 
hoe', lengthened grade dolium^a wine-jar, cask, barrel, vat' (as proto Slavic Ic^/y" barrel. 

vat, cask' see below); doleo, dolorsee above (but deleo\s because of Perf. delevi 
probably new formation from de-levi^ has erased, effaced, obliterated, blotted out '); 

Old Irish delbt "shape, form', acymr. delu, ncymr. delw^ image, figure, effigy ', corn. 
del, as with causative ablaut Old Irish dolb(a)id^ s\\a'Qe6\ doilbthid^ a worker in clay, potter 
' (to Celtic *delua, *dolu-, compare J-stem Slavic dbl}/)\ perhaps Old Irish fo-da//m ^d'\scem, 
separate, exclude' (etc, s. Pedersen KG. II 502 f.), acorn. d/dau/^\r\av\ng no part in, not 
sharing in; wanting in, destitute of ' (compare Old Indie and Baltic-slav, words for 'deal, 
portion'), perhaps Old Irish fo-dalim^ discerno, sejungo ' (etc., see Pedersen KG. II 502 f.), 
acorn, didaur expers' (compare Old Indie and Baltic-slav, words for ' part '), cymr. gwa- 
ddora portion or dowry' as o-forms besides 5r|A£0fjai (just as well but as *da-l- correlate to 
"o'a//^ 'divide'); probably Middle Irish ofe/'staff, rod' (as 'split piece wood'), corn, dele 
'antenna' (or to OaAAw Indo Germanic tlhj/- whose certain attachments indeed point only 
a-vocalism?; with meaning- transfer alb. dja/e^k\6, child, youth, youngling ' ? see below 

Middle Low German to/, /c»//e 'point of twig, branch', holl. /o/'spinning top' ('*peg, plug'). 
Middle High German zo/{/) m., zollei. ' cylindric bit of wood, clot, chunk, block, toggle', zol 
as measurement of length 'inch', /s-zo/te 'icicle'. Old Norwegian horntylla^ yoke, wood 
piece connecting the horns of two oxen going in the bottom plate ' {*dJ-n-)\ but Middle High 
German zulle, zulle. Modern High German Zulle ' riverboat, barge' is probably in spite of 
Persson Beitr. 174 not genuine Germanic, but loanword from Slavic, s. Kluge'''' under ZJ/Ze 
' riverboat, barge'; other formations holl. /c»//r 'stick, rod, chopstick', Swedish /c»//r 'wedge'. 
Middle High German zo/c/7 'clot, chunk, block, (*blockhead), lubber' (whether Old Norse 
talknu. ' gill offish' as 'the split'? Falk-Torp under tokn); with -o'ndd. fa/fer^ag, scrap, 
shred' (Holthausen Afneuere Spr. 121, 292); 

with /-suffix Germanic *telda- '* stretched tent pole ' (: gr. btkxoc;) in Old Norse tiald 
'curtain, cover, rug, tent'. Old English teldu. 'tent'. Old High German Modern High German 
zelt, actually ' stretched cover'; in addition Old High German zelto. Modern High German 
Zelten, Zeltkuchen; or better as ' shredded, ground ' (see above 5£v5aAic;) to Tocharian B 
tselt-, tsa/f-'c\r\e\N'; from Germanic Liden aaO. still ranks Old Swedish tialdra, tiseldra^ 
cairn ' in {*tel-l=>rdn- or -dron^* shaft, pole, peg, plug as as a boundary marker '?); 

Lithuanian dylu, dilti{deru, dilti), Latvian d§lu, dilstu, dUV wear out, polish ' (from '*to 
plane'), o'e//7 'wear out, torment, smite'; Lithuanian pus-dylis {menud) ' moon in the last 
quarter', o'e/c/a 'decreasing moon', causative Latvian o'e/o'e/ 'wear out, liquidate, rub off, 
destroy', d/7uot^skwe, abrade, polish'; 

out of it derived the concept of smoothness justified probably the transference there of 
Lithuanian o'e/aa (by Juszkiewicz also dai-na), Latvian delna^\v\v\eri\dX hand', Old Church 
Slavic dianb 'palm', russ. old dolont, nowadays reconverted with metathesis ladont 'palm; 
flat place on the threshing floor, threshing floor ' (Berneker 208, Trautmann 51 , different 
MiJhlenbach-Endzelin I 454); 

Lithuanian dal'is. East Lithuanian o's/za'deal, portion, inheritance; alms' (= Old Indie dali- 
/7'clod of earth'), daliju, dalyti^6\y\6e\ Latvian dala^6ea\, portion, lot', o'a//7 'divide'. Old 
Prussian de///e/s^6'w\6e, share!', ofe/Z/Trs 'deal, portion' (efrom a, Trautmann Old Prussian 
100), russ. (etc) dd//a^dea\, portion, lot' (in addition Old Church Slavic oo'c/e//' defeat, 
conquer' = '*have, obtain the best part', Berneker 206). compare MiJhlenbach-Endzelin I 

Doubtful Old Church Slavic de/b 'deal, portion': either as *delo-s here, or rather with 
Indo Germanic 5/as *dai-lo-\.o root o'a//^- 'divide'; about Gothic dails. Modern High 
German Teilsee above under da-, dai-. 

Proto Slavic J-stem *dbly. Gen. *dblbve(;. Old Irish o'e/6>from *delua) in russ. -Church 
Slavic delvi {*dblbvl) Lok. Sg., N. PI. 'barrel, vat, cask'. Middle Bulgarian dbli{*dbl}/}, Lok. 
Sg. ofe/i.!//' barrel, vat, cask'. New Bulgarian delva {* dblbva) ' big clay vessel with two 
handles '; 

Tocharian A talo, B /a//5M/c» 'unlucky'. Van Windekens Lexique 136 (?); rather B tsalt-, 
tsa/f-^c\r\e\N', Pedersen Tocharian Sprachg. 18 f. 

extension del-gh-, dl-egh-; dolgho-e\.c 'sickle, blade'. 

Indo-iran. *dargha- {dolgho-) is assumed through Mordovian loanword /5/v5s 'sickle'; 
compare pamirdial. /aregus ds.; 

Old Irish d/ong/d'\r\e splits', diuige {*dlogio-) ' the fissured ', Middle Irish d/u/g/m 'spWt'; 

Old Norse te/gja'hew, cut out', ta/ga'the cutting, carving', ta/go-knffr' slice knife ', also 
Old Norse tjalga^ thin twig, branch, long arm'. Old English telgam. 'twig, branch, bough', 
telgorrw. f., telgrarw. 'twig, branch, scion ', Middle High German zelge, ze/c/7 'bough, twig, 
branch'. Old High German zue/ga'\.\N\g, branch' (whose ztv- probably previously is taken 
over from zw/g); 

about Lithuanian dalg/'s, Gen. -/orr\., Latvian da/gs, Old Prussian doa/g/s ^ scythe' see 
below 6^e/g-; 

dolgha\^ serb. dlaga^ board for the splint of broken bones ', poln. Dialectal diozka^ 
flooring from planks ', Czech diaha {diaha) " board, splint, base of the ground ', diaziti 
{diaziti), dlazditi^ pave, hit the screed ' (Berneker207). 

As for *del- " whereupon it is split apart ' is also for that with it perhaps originally 
resemble*o'eA "split' given the possibility, that d-el- is an extension from d^i\- 'divide, 
share '. 

References: WP. I 809 ff., WH. 364 ff., Liden KZ. 56, 216 ff., Pedersen Tocharian Sprachg. 

18 f. 

Page(s): 194-196 

Root / lemma: del-4 

Meaning: to rain 

Material: Armenian /e/' heavy rain ', teiam, -em, -um^to rain, shower, sprinkle, irrigate ', 

mm{*teHrrR), Gen. Hmor, 

Middle Irish deltm. 'dew'; also FIN; bret. o'eZ/'humid, wet, moist '; 

Germanic *dol-k6-ox *dol-gho-\v\ dan. Swedish Norwegian /a/^ 'tallow, suet'. Old 
English *tealg. Middle English taigh, engl. tallow, nnl. talk. Modern High German Talg 
(from Ndd.); ablaut. Old Norse tolgr{*tl-kd-) ds. 


Middle Irish deltxu. 'dew'; bret. o'e// 'humid, wet, moist ' display alb.-illyr -k > -th, -t 

References: Petersson Heterokl. 198 f., different Kluge''"' under 'tallow, suet'. 
Page(s): 1 96 

Root / lemma: del-5 

Meaning: long 

Note: to put away more confidently only for Slavic, but probably the basis for the 

widespread extension delegh-3iU6 (d)longho-{see finally Persson Beitr. 889, 903 Anm. 1) 

Material: Perhaps here Old Norse /5//77a 'hinder'. Middle Low German talmen '\o\ter, be 

slow in talking and at work, stupid talk', Norwegian Dialectal Ma 'hesitate, wait, hold on', 

/^/e 'rogue, fool ' (Persson Beitr. 889); 

Old Church S\a\/'\c pro-cfb//t/"[ir\KO\/a\\ russ. c///tb' protract, hesitate', dlinai. 'length', 
Czech diei. "length', 07/// "hesitate', etc (Berneker 252); perhaps vi> dalj§^ far, aloof 
(Meillet MSL.14, 373; Berneker 177 besides other supplements). 

delegh-, djjgho-: 

zero grade Old Indie dTrgha- = Avestan daraga-, daraya-. Old pers. o'5/ig5-"long', zero 
grade compounds Superl. draghJyas-, draghistha- " longer, for a long time ', Avestan drajyo 
Adv. "further', drajistam Mn . " longest', npers. oV/az (actually comparative) "long'. Old 
Indie draghiman-, draghman-vn. "length, duration', Avestan drajdv\. "stretch, length'; 

gr. £v5£A£xn<; "continuous, persistent, enduring' ("*drag out'), evSeAexsw " continue ', 
SoAixoq "long' (to is. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 278, different Specht Dekl. 126), 56Aixo(; "the long 
racecourse '; 

about alb. g/ateeic see below; 


Clearly alb. {* da-lu-ga-as-ti) g/atelong' derived from Hittite da-lu-ga-as-ti {dalugasti) n. 
"length': Old Church Slavic oyb^o/a" length' (= Old Indie dTrghata): proto Slavic. *dlgostb, 
poln. diugosc etc ds. 

Alb. and Baltic forms agree in dropping the initial d- > zero, which means that Baltic 
cognates originated from proto lllyrian: 

Alb. {* da-lu-ga-as-tl) g/ate'\ong, tall, high': Lithuanian I/gas, f. /7ga, Latvian /Igs, Old 
Prussian /7ga and ilgikdv. "long'; alb. is the only IE lang. where {* da-lu-ga-as-ti) g/ate'\ong' 
means also "tall, high' hence the name Alba Longa capital of Etruscan settlers is an alb. 
concept of building fortresses on hilltops of future Rome. 

Latin presumably indulged^ to be forbearing, patient, indulgent; to give oneself up to, 
indulge in; grant, allow, concede' (: £v5£A£xn<;, basic meaning then "be patient to 
somebody compared with, hold on patiently') from * en-dolgh-ejo. 

Maybe alb. {^ en-dolgh-ejo) Geg. ndigjoj, Tosc degjoj^ listen, hear, be submissive ', gjegj^ 
answer', Tosc ndelej, ndejej, ndjej^ feel', ndiej^ feel, hear'. 

cymr. dal, dala, daly^\\o\d, stop', bret. dalc'h^ possession ', derc'he/ 'ho\d, stop' (/"diss, 
from / compare participle dalc'het) presumably with the meaning-development as Modern 

High German " after which last ' to "long' (basic form *del(9)gh-, Zupitza BB. 25, 90 f., 
Pedersen KG. 152, 106); 

Maybe nasalized alb. ndar\\o\A, stop' : cymr. dal, dala, o'a/y'hold, stop'. 

Gothic /i//g^5 "tight, firm, steadfast' C*long, persistent, enduring '), Old Saxon tulgo My. 
"very'. Old English tulge, compounds /y/g" better, rather', Superl. tylgest^besX; 

Baltic with unexplained d-\oss (see below): Lithuanian ilgas, f. ilga, Latvian Ugs, Old 
Prussian //gaand ilgiMv. "long'; 

Old Church Slavic dli^g-b, serb. dug. Old Czech diuhy, russ. o'd/^y"long' (= Old Indie 
dTrgha-), in addition serb. duzi. "length'; Old Church Slavic o/b^o/a "length' (= Old Indie 
dTrghata); proto Slavic. *dlgostb, poln. diugosceic ds.; 

Hittite Nom. PI. da-lu-ga-e-es {dalugaes) "long', da-lu-ga-as-ti {dalugasti) n. "length'. 


a) Middle Persian drang, npers. d/ranglong' (but alb. g/ate, gjate, 5/a/"long' at first from 

b) Latin /onguslong; spacious; of time, long, of long duration; esp. too long, tedious; of 
persons, prolix, tedious', Gothic /aggs, Old English Old High German Modern High 
German /ang{0\6 High German /angen ^become long, seem long, long, want', etc); but 
Old Irish etc /ong's\r\\p' seems to be borrowed from Latin {navis) longa; nevertheless, 
because of second meaning "vessel' and Middle Irish coblach^i\ee\! {*kom-uo-log- or *-lug- 
) though Loth (RC. 43, 133 f.) holds that word for genuine Celtic; compare also abrit. FIN 
Aoyyoc; (Ptol.) and gall. VN AOrrO-ZTAAHTEZ (Aude); aniaut. dl- remains preserved 
otherwise Celtic. In the group b) would display an already common West Indo Germanic 
simplification, might be connected with the o'-loss of Baltic ilgas . compare also Specht 
Dekl. 126. 

Maybe Alba Longa (Rome) capital of lllyrian - Etrus. : lllyrian AlbanollH 

References: WP. I 812 f., WH. I 694 f., 820 f., Trautmann 55, Pedersen Hittite 34 f. 
Page(s): 196-197 

Root / lemma: demel- 
Meaning: worm 

Material: Epidaur. 5£p£A£a(;f. Akk. PI., 5£MpA£T(; p5£AAai Hes.; 

perhaps alb. dhemje 'caterp\\\ar, inchworm' (could stand for *dhem//e), dhemfze, 
dhimfze^ meat maggot '. 

References: WP. I 790. 
Page(s): 201 

Root / lemma: {dema^, doma-, doiria- 

Meaning: to tame 

Material: Old Indie damyati^ is tamed; tamed ' {*dm-ietl), damta-^ tamed ' {*dm-t6s)\ Kaus. 

o'5/775y5// "tames, overmasters ' {*domeJd), participle damita-; dam/tar- ^ tamer'; dam/tva' 

taming ', damayat/" tames' {*doma-jo= Latin domd); dama-h' domesticating ', dama-h' 

taming '; 

osset. domun^ tame', npers. o'a/T? "domesticated animal'; after Pisani Crest. Indeur.2 113 
here (as *drn-so-s) o'asa-/? "fiend, non-Aryan ', actually "slave', but because of the 
incredible stem formation; 

gr. SapvaiJi, Ionian -r||Ji, Aor. £-5apa(a)aa (for *£-5£Maaa) "tame', various secondary 
reshaped, as Sapvau) etc, navSapaTwp " the all-subduer, all-tamer ', Doric SpaToc; "tamed' 
{*dm-t6s), hom. a5fjr|T0c; and aSpnc;, -htoc; " untamed, unrestrained, unwed, unmarried ', 
Ionian Perf. 5£5pr|MC('. SpnTHP "tamer', Spnaiq " taming, domestication'; 

forms with root vowel care missing in Gr.; 

Latin domd {* doma-Jo = damayati), domas {* doma-si = Old High German zamos) " to 
domesticate, tame, break, subdue, master ', Perf. domuFiirom *doma-uai), participle 
o'c»/77//i/s (reshaped after domuFand domitorirom *dmatos, Indo Germanic *dm-to-s), 
dom/tor^ tamer' (= Old Indie dam/tar-); domitus, -usm. "taming' (compare Old Indie 

Old Irish damna/m'b\r\6 (tight, firm), tame (horses)', Verbalnom. damnad and domnad 
(probably = gr.5aiJvr||Ji); phonetic mixture with damna/m irom Latin damno, also the 
unruled mhas probably arisen from participle dammaintr. Old Irish dam- " acquiesce, 
endure, grant' (e.g. daimid' admitted to' probably = Old Indie damyati, composes n'hdaim 
"not enduring, not suffering'; Perf. damairirom lengthened grade *ddm-), with ad- "admit' 
(e.g. 3. PL ataimet}, with fo- "endure' (e.g. 1. Sg. fo-daimim), cymr. addef, bret. ansav 
"admit', acymr. ni cein guodeimisauchQ>\. "have not endured well', ncymr. ^oc/c/e/" suffer. 

endure, allow', corn, gothafbear, endure', bret. gouzanv, gouzavus. (but cymr. dof/ 
"tame', acymr. dometic^ domesticated ', ar-domaur docile ', cymr. dof, bret. o'c^'tame, 
domesticated' stems from Latin domare, so that native forms with o\Nere absent in Celtic); 

Gothic ga-tamjan. Old Norse temja. Old English temian. Middle Low German temmen. 
Old High German zemmen'tame' (Kaus. *domeJd= Old Indie damayati); Old High German 
zamon ds. (= Latin doma-re). Old Norse tamr. Old English tarn. Old High German zam^ 
domesticated, tamed, subdued, mastered ' (unclear, whether back-formation from verb, or 
if the pass, meaning has arisen from 'domestication = the tamed', so that in historic 
connection with Old Indie dama-h^ taming '). 

Because of Old Indie damya-'to tame' and "young bull, which still should be tamed ' and 
because of gr. 5apaAr|<; on the one hand ' overmastering, taming' ( "Epux;, Anakreon), on 
the other hand 'young (still to be tamed) bull', wherefore SapaAn 'young cow', SapaAK; 
'ds.'; also 'young girl', 5aMaAo(; 'calf, is probably alb. dente, dhente, Geg dhent^ smaW 
cattle, sheep and goats, sheep' {* dem-ta or * dem-to-s, respectively *o'o/7>/5, -to-s), dem^ 
bovine animal, cattle, young bull' (= Old Indie damya-), as well as also gall. GN Damonat 
and Old Irish dam 'ox' {*damos), dam a//a/d^6eer' ('*wild ox'), as well as cymr. dafad, 
acorn, dauat, bret. 0^5/71/5/ 'sheep (then = gr. a-5a|jaToc;) to add (originally appellation of 
domesticated bovine animal); Latin damma or dama\s probably borrowed from Celtic or 
from elsewhere; unclear is Old English dai. 'roe deer' (out of it acorn, da' a fallow-deer, 
chamois, antelope '), engl. doe, Alemannian teds., compare Holthausen Altengl. etym. 
Wb. 68; from Old French o^a/zr? 'fallow-deer' derives bret. dem ds.; Germanic additional 
forms s. by Falk-Torp under daadyrm. Lithuanian; corresponding to niederosterr. zamer, 
zamer/young ox' (Much ZfdA.42, 167; proto Germanic *aor *o?). 

Hittite da-ma-as-zi' thronged ', preterit 3. PI. ta-ma-as-sir, Pedersen Hittite 95 f. 


References: WP. 1 788 f., WH I 367 f., 861, Meillet BSL. 33, 110. 
Page(s): 199-200 

Root / lemma: dem-, dema- 

Meaning: to build; house 

Material: Gr. Sspu) 'build', from the heavy basis participle Perf. Pass. 5£5pr|M£voq, Doric 

(Pindar) vEoSparoi; ' newly built', 

5£pa(; n. ' physique, shape' (\^zoob^r\, Attic inschr. -pvr| ' spanning crossbeams in the 

middle of the building ', yet n [a] could also be suffix). 

The meaning " settle, fit' in Gotliic ga-timan, Old Saxon teman, Old High German zeman 
"suit, fit', wherefore lengthened grade Goth\c ga-tem/Pa Adv. " befitting ', Middle Low 
German be-tame' fitting'. Old High German g/-zam/^ proper' and abstract zero grades Old 
High German zumft. Middle High German zumft, zunfV propriety, rule, association, guild ' 
{*drn-ti-) = Middle Irish det' disposition, temperament ' (Old Irish det/ae^bo\6, daring'), 
mcymr. danf temperament, character' (mostly Plur. de/nt), basic form *dm-to-. Loth RC 
46, 252 f. compare mcymr. cynnefin^ trustful ' (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), ( *kom- 

rostem Old Icelandic ///77it>/'" timber'. Old Saxon timbar. Old English timber^ Wrwber, 
edifice, building, building'. Old High German z/mbar't\rr\ber, building, dwelling, chamber', 
whereof Gothic t/mrjan 'buM', Old Norse timbra. Old High German z/mberen ar\d zimbaron 
" build, do carpentry, do woodwork '. 

root nouns dem-, dom-, dm-, dm- house'. 

Old \r\6\c patir dan ^ householder', Avestan d§ng patois' master of (*lord of the house)' 
with Gen. *dem-s, as also gr. 5£a-n6Tr|<; 'master, mister' (see Risch IF. 59, 12, Schwyzer 
Gr. Gr. I 547 f.). Old Indie dam-pa ff-hlor6, master' (new shifting together from *dan pat/- 
[= Avestan dang pati-], less probably with Lok. Aryan * dam as 'master in the house'); 

Avestan Lok. d^m, dqm/"\r\ the house', Lok. PI. dahv-a, Nom. -dairom proto Aryan *- 
das\r\ usi-5a r\arwe of a mountain range ('having one's house by the aurora '), wherefore 
probably Avestan ha-damoi'Lok. 'in the same house'; 

Armenian tunHorw. Akk. 'house' {*ddm), Instr. tamb{*dm-bhi), whereupon Gen. Dat. 

gr. £v-5ov Lok., originally 'inside in house' (also reshaped to £v5o-9i, -0£v, £v5oi), 
perhaps also 5(1) {*d^m]) as Nom. Akk. Sg. n. or Lok.; 5(I)pa, 5(ji)ijaT0(; originally Akk. 
Sg.mask. *ddm-m\N\tb structure in Neutr. after arpajpa ; derivative Apia, Mvia, Aapia 
('mistress of the house'); 

as 1 . composition part in 5a|j-ap 'wife' ( *d9m-rf' governing of the house '), 5aTT£5ov ' floor 
(originally of the house)' from * dm-pedom (^an£5ov out of it after the concurrent of 5a- and 
^a- as intensive prefix; so perhaps also Ionian ^aKopo(; ' temple male servant, temple 
female servant' for *5a-Kopoq) = Swedish tomt, Old Icelandic /O/O/ 'place for edifice, 
building' in Norwegian Mdarten 'loam' (Germanic *tum-fetiz, Indo Germanic *drn-ped-). 

compare also Lithuanian dim-stis' courtyard, property; courtyard ' (2. part *sto-s\.o *sta- 

o-stem domo-s:0\A Indie dama-h ^house, dwelling ', gr. 56|Joq "house' (5o[jr| "t£Txo(; 
etc? Hes), oiKO-56po(; (*-5o|j6(;) " builder ', Latin Lok. domVio a house' (= Old Indie dame 
'in a house, to a house'), dom/nus^ master, mister' from * domo-no-s. 

usiem ato/77^-s(Brugmann Grdr. I|2 1, 180 presumes an adv. Lok. *domuas originator): 
Latin domus, -usi. 'a house, dwelling-house, building, mansion, palace' (out of it is Middle 
Irish dom-, dam-liacc^ sioue house', aur-dam " pronaos (the space in front of the body of a 
temple, enclosed by a portico and projecting side- walls) ' undertaken with the thing 

Old Church Slavic dom-b m. "house', russ. doma 'at house' {*domd[u])\ *domovb: 0\6 
Russian 0^/7701/6 "after the house'; presumedly also through Old Indie damu-nas- 
"housemate' and Armenian /5/7^-/e/'"householder'; 

Maybe alb. dhoma ' room' : Old Indie o''a/77a-/7 "house'. 

a stem *dmdu- in Ionian b\\biQ„ Gen. 5|joo6(; " prisoner of war, farm laborer', Spcon " 
bondmaid ', Cretan [jvcoa f. "people in slavery, population in serfdom '; 

Aryan *dm-ana- in Avestan damana-, nmana-n. "house', also Old Indie mana-h'e6\i'\ce, 
building, dwelling'; 

Lithuanian namas, PI. /7a/77arhouse, dwelling' is dissimilated from *damas, in 
compounds as namu-darys' homemaker ', s. WH. I 861. 


It is a common trait of alb. and Lithuanian to drop the initial da- as in Root/ lemma: del-5\ 
"long': Baltic with unexplained o'loss (see below): Lithuanian ilgas, f. ilga, Latvian ilgs. Old 
Prussian //gaand ilgiMy. "long'; alb. ^/a/e'long' Baltic and Albanian languages often drop 
the initial da- > zero. This is a common Baltic-alb.. Hence Lithuanian /7a'/77as derived from a 
nasalized form *ndamas. 

Old Irish damnae' ma{ena\\ cymr. defnydd. Middle Breton daffnez co\}\6 have originally 
signified "timber'. 

Tocharian B tern-, A tarn-, AB tarn- "create, beget, be born ' and B tsam-, AB tsam-, A 
sam-, sam-, perhaps after Pedersen Tocharian Sprachg. 2V here; 

in addition also B c(o)mel, A cmol {*cmelu) "birtli', Van Windekens Lexique 51. 

An old branching of the root is 0^/773- "tame', originally probably "tie up in the house, 


Root / lemma: dem-, derna-: "to build; house' derived from Root/ lemma: ghei-2. ghi-: 

ghei-men-, *gheimn-\ "winter; snow'. But the gh>dhas been recorded in lllyrian alb. 

alone. This makes proto lllyrian the oldest IE branch. 

References: WP. I 786 ff.; WH. I 367, 369 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 480, 524, 547 f., 625, 

Trautmann 44. 

Page(s): 198-199 

Root / lemma: denR- 

Meaning: to bite 


Root/ lemma: denR-\ "to bite' derived from lllyrian derivative of Root/ lemma: gerrio'^-, 

gnp^-\ "to bite; tooth' common lllyrian g- > d-. 

Material: Old Indie dasati^ bites' {*dnketi), Perf. o'ao'5/77S5 (thereafter also a present 
damsati), Kaus. damsayate ^xx\akes bite ', damsa-h'b'\\.e, gadfly, brake', 
damsana-m'the bitting ', damstra-h, damstra^ sharp tooth, fang' = Avestan tizi-dqstra- 
"with sharp teeth, toothed ' (for -dqstra-s. Bartholomae Airan. Wb. 653); 

gr. 5aKV(jo "bite' {*dnR-nd), Aor. eSqkov (= Impf. Old Indie adasam), wherefore Put. 
5n^0[jai (but Ionian 5a^£Tai), Perf. 5£5r|Y|Jai, 5£5rixw<; (as well as Snypa "bite') with ablaut 
neologism (Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 770); Sokstov, to SoKoq " biting animal'; in addition probably 
656^ "with biting teeth ', perhaps originally "tooth' or "bite' (Liddell-Scott, different Schwyzer 
Gr. Gr. I 620, 723), probably hybridization of *5a^ "biting' with 65ou(;, therefrom derived 
65a^u) (aSa^u) with Assimil. of o in a), a5ax£W etc "scratch, itch', aSaypoc; " the scratch '; 

alb. Geg dane{*donR-na), Tosc o'a/'e "pliers'; 

Old High German za/7^a/'" biting, sharp'. Middle Low German tanger^As., vicious, 
strong, fresh'; Old Norse tgng{Qev\. tengr and tangar). Old English tang, tange. Old High 
German z5/7^5 "pliers' ( *donRa), i.e. "the clenching of the teeth '; with further shifting to "to 
press (lips) together', probably Old Saxon b/teng/" rc\ov'\ng close to, oppressive'. Old 
English getang ds., getenge^ near to, close to, oppressive, thronging, pressing ', Old High 
German gizengi' passing by, moving nearby'. Adv. gizango, wherefore Old Norse tengja 

{*tangjan) "join", Old English tengan ^assa\\, urge, press, push, aspire to move forward', 
getengan ' make adhere, be obedient ' (Old English /nt/ngam. "weary, weak', sam-tinges 
"at once', getingan, stem V., "press in' after Pick 111^ 152 neologism?); 

besides in gramm. variation Germanic */a/7/7^- "adjoining tightly, appendant, tough' in Old 
English /d/?" tough '; Middle Low German /a" abiding, tough ', Old High German zahi. 
Modern High German zah; Old Norse tav\. "stamped place before the house' (Finnish 
loanword tanhua ^corra\, pen, fold'); 

perhaps originally different from the root *dek- "tear', although *clenR- perhaps as 
nasalized form to *dekav\6 "bite' could be understood as "tear with the teeth'. 

References: WP. I 790 f. 
Page(s): 201 

Root / lemma: dens-1 

Meaning: talent, force of mind; to learn 

Material: densosn:. Old Indie daifisas- n. "powerful wonder, wise feat' = Avestan darjhah-^ 

dexterity, adroitness ' (in addition Old Indie darhsu- " powerful wonder ', dam- " very 

powerful wonder ' = Avestan dqhista- "very wise, the wisest '); Old Indie purudarhsas-^ \\c\\ 

in miracles' (= gr. noAuSnvsa noAupouAov "much-counselling' Hes), damsana-m, damsana 

"magic power, witchcraft '; in gr. after zero grade forms with*5a[a]- = *dns- to *5avaoc; 

unvocalized: hom. 5nv£a N. PI. " pieces of advice ', Sg. bi]voq by Hesych, (Doric) abavtq (- 

a) anpov6r|TOv Hes. = (Ionian) a5r|vn(; aKaKO(;, Adv. a5r|V£(jO(; Chios. 

<//7S-/'d-5 "sensible, very wise': Old Indie dasra-^ miraculous ' = Avestan darjra-^sVMvX; 
doubtful gr. 5a£ipa epithet of Persephone, perhaps " the knowing or the power of wonder '; 
5a'i'(ppu)v " wise ' to hold as *5a[a]i-(ppwv to Old Indie das-ra-as Ku5i-av£ipa to K05-p6-(;, if 
it not originally if it has not signified originally only "the sense of direction during the fight' 
(compare 5ai-KTa[j£voc; " slain in battle ', £v 5ai: "in the battle'; s. finally Beehtel Lexil. 92) 
and only, after this the meaning was forgotten, the ambiguous connection came through in 
5ar|vai, see below, to come into usage in sense of "wise'. 

dns-mo-: 0\6 Indie dasma- " power of wonder (from Gods)' = Avestan dahma- " expert, 
inaugurated in religious questions '. 

Maybe alb. o'as/77a "wedding, ceremony (religious rite?)' 

Verbal forms: partly reduplicated "handle knowledge, instruct, teach': 

Avestan dTdaiijhe^ I am instructed ' (in addition zero grade d^stvai. " apprenticeship, 
doctrine, dogma'); 

perhaps gr. 5£5a£ Aor. "taught", Aor. Pass. 5af|vai, 5ar|pi£vai "learn', participle Perf. 
5£5a(ji)(; "erudite, expert, skillful', 5£5aaa9ai tt 316 " examine, question ', a5an(; (Soph.) 
"ignorant, wherein inexperienced '; in addition Sanpojv (Hom.) "sensible, wise', a5anfju)v 
"ignorant, wherein inexperienced ', 5anp£vai £ijn£ipoi yoyd\KZC, Hes. By Archilochos frg. 3, 
4 is unclear 5ai|JU)v (?) " skillful, experienced '. 

Debrunner Mel. Boisacq 1, 251 ff. has shown that 5i5aaKU) "instruct, teach' belongs to 
5£5a£ and not to Latin d/sco'to learn, learn to know, acquire, become acquainted with' 
(see above under de/<-). The fact that also 5a- (as *dns-) is to be put to ours root, can be 
explained best of all by the fact that one accepts, from SiSaoKU) (*5i-5aa-aKU)) has been 
abstracted an erroneous root *5a- (M. Scheller briefl.); 

compare finally Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 307 and see below dens-2. 

References: WP. I 793. 
Page(s): 201-202 

Root / lemma: dens-2 
Meaning: dense 

Material: Gr. baadq, "dense' : Latin densus ds.; the direct derivation from *dnsus does not 
contradict the explanation of *5au) from *dnsd{see above under dens-1)\ indeed from W. 
Schuize (Kl. Schr. 1 16 f.) the stated examples of -a- from Indo Germanic -ns- are 
absolutely not proving. On the other hand bauKbo, "cover with dense vegetation' could go 
back to 5a-uA6(; (: uAri), but SaoKov 5aau etc would barely be formed by abstraction to 56- 
GKioc; " (*densely) shady ' (*5ia-GKiO(;). Meillet MSL. 22, 63 will define a in 5aau(; as 
expressive gemination aa (?) common gr.-lllyrian -ks- > -ss-. About phok. PN AauAi(; s. 
WH. I 468. 

About alb. dent, dend' make dense', etc see below d^en-3. common alb. n > nd. 

Latin densed, -ere (Perf. densTov\\)j by Charisius Gr.-Latin I 262, 4) " to make thick, 
condense, press together ', denominative of densus "dense' ( *densos or *dnsos, event. 

Hittite dassus {Dat Sg. ta-as-su-u-i) "strong (*thick)'. 

References: WP. I 793 f., WH. I 341 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 307. 

Page(s): 202-203 

Root / lemma: deph- 

Meaning: to stamp, push 

Material: Armenian top'el{-em, -eci) "hit"; gr. Sscpu) "knead, drum; tumble ', argiv. 

5£cpi5aaTai 'fuller', with s-extension 5£4ju) (Aor. participle 5£itjr|aa(;) "knead; tan, convert 

hide into leather' (out of it Latin depso'to knead'), 5£ijja "tanned skin'; 5i(p9£pa "leather' 

(*5iitJT£pa); Serb, depfm, dep/'t/" bump, poke, hit', poln. deptac' tread'. 

maybe alb. debq/^drwe away' 


It seems that Root/ lemma: deph-\ "to stamp, push' derived from Root/ lemma: d^ab^^-/, 

nasalized d^amb(h)- : "to astonish, be speechless' 

References: WP. I 786, WH. I 342, SchwyzerGr. Gr. I 298, 351. 

Page(s): 203 

Root / lemma: deic!^- 

Meaning: to wind, put together, *scratch, scrape, rub 

Material: Old Indie drbhat/ ^\o'\r\ed, patched together, winded ', participle sandrbdha-^ group 

of shrubs planted together', drbdhf-t " convolution, concatenation, daisy chain ', Avestan 

daraw5a-r\. "bundle of muscles' PI. "flesh (of muscles) ', Old Indie darbha-rr\. " hassock, 

clump of grass, grass', darbhana- n. "netting'; 

Maybe truncated alb. o'/'eo'/7a "convolution', dredh^Q,ur\ : Old Indie drbdhf-t "convolution', 

Avestan d9raw5a-r\. "bundle of muscles ' PI. "flesh (of muscles)'. 

Armenian torn^aypmoy, funiculus, a noose, halter, snare, trap' (*o'c»/bh-/7-); 

gr. 5apTTr| "basket' is contaminated from *5ap(pr| and Tapnr) ds. (GiJntert IF. 45, 347); 

Old English tearflian {* tarbalon) " roll oneself. Old High German zerben, preter\t zarpta 
refl. " turn, turn round '; e-grade Middle High German zirben sdcm . V. " turn in circles, 
whirl'. Modern High German Dialectal Swiss zirbein ds.. Modern High German Zirbeldruse, 
Zirbelwind {probab\y also ZirbeF pineal ', see below deru-), zero grade Old English torfian 
"throw, lapidate' (compare drehen .engl. tbroi/i), as Old Norse ///:'& "cover with turf'. Old 
Norse torfr\. "turf', torfat " peat clod ', Old English turft "turf, lawn'. Old High German 
zurba, zurfi. "lawn' (Modern High German Torfirorw Ndd.); Old English ge-tyrfan\o strike, 

maybe alb. diminutive {*turfel) turfulloj^ sr\or{, blow' : Old English ge-tyrfan\o strike, afflict'. 

wruss. dorob' basket, carton, box ', russ. old u-dorobbi. "pot, pan', dial. 'u-doroba^\o\N 
pot, pan'("*wickerwork pot coated with loam '), wruss. dorob'ic^ crook, bend'; zero grade 
*dbrba\n russ. derba^Ro6e\an6, Neubruch', derbovatb " clean from the moss, from the 
lawn; uproot the growing', ofe/'Mi. "pluck, tear, rend', serb. drbacat/" scrape, scratch', 
Czech drbamar\6 drbu, drbat/^ scratch, scrape, rub; thrash', with lengthened grade russ. 
derebitb "pluck, rend' (perhaps hat sich in latter family a b^-extension from flfer-"flay', 
Slavic o'e/ipo'i./'a//eingemischt). S. Berneker211, 254 with Lithuanian 

References: WP. I 808. 
Page(s): 211-212 

Root / lemma: der(ep)- 

Meaning: to see, *mirror 


The Root/ lemma: der(ep)-\ "to see, *mirror' derived from Root/ lemma: deii(-\ "to look'. 

Material: Old Indie darpana-rx\. "mirror'; gr. Spwna^siv, Spcbnisiv "see' (with lengthened 

grade 2. syllable??). 

References: WP. I 803; to forms -ep- compare Kuiper Nasalpras. 60 f. 

See also: compare also 5pau) "sehe' and dei^-see'. 


Root / lemma: dera-, dra- 

Meaning: to work 

Material: Gr. 5pau) (*5paiu)) "make, do', Konj. 5p(I), Aeolic 3. PI. 5paiai, Aor. Attic sSpaaa, 

hom. Spnorrip "worker, servant', Spaija "action', 5pavo(; spyov, npa^K; . . . 5uvapii(; Hes., 

aSpavrjc; "inactive, ineffective, weak'; 

Maybe alb. nasalized form nder{*der-) "hang loose'; 

hom. oAiyoSpavsojv "make only less powerful, fainting, unconscious'; hom. and Ionian (see 

Bechtel Lexil. 104) 5paivu) "do'; 

Lithuanian dar{i)a~u, daryti, Latvian darft^6o, make'; in spite of MiJhlenbach-Endzelin s. 
V. dar?tr\otto Lithuanian dereti^ be usable', Latvian deref arrange, employ, engage' etc, 
because the meaning deviates too strongly. 

References: WP. I 803, Specht KZ. 62, 110, SchwyzerGr. Gr. I 675^, 694. 

Root / lemma: dergh- 

Meaning: to grasp 

Material: Armenian trcak^ brushwood bundle ' (probably from *turc-ak, *turc- kom *c/orgh- 

SO-, Petersson KZ. 47, 265); 

gr. 5paaao|jai, Attic 5paTTopai ' grasp ', 5paY5r|v ' griping ', 5paYMa ' handful, fascicle, 
sheaf, 5paY|J£uu) ' bind sheaves ', SpaxMH, Arcadian el. 5pax|Ja, gortyn. 5apKva (i.e. 
Sapxva; s. also Boisacq 109) ' drachma ' ('*handful of metal sticks, opoAoi'), 5pa^, -Kogf. 
"hand", PI. 5apK£c; Ssapai Hes.; 

Middle Irish dremm, nir. oVea/r? 'troop, multitude, crowd, dividing of people' {*drgh-smo-), 
bret. o''/'a/77/77 'bundle, fascicle, sheaf (false back-formation to PI. dremmen); 

Old High German za/ya'side edging a room, edge'. Old Norse targai. 'shield'. Old 
English targei. (nord. loanword) 'small shield' (actually ' shield brim '), elsass. (see 
Sutterlin IF. 29, 126) (kas-)zorg m. 'vessel, paten on three low feet ' (= gr. 5pax-); 

References: WP. I 807 f. 
Page(s): 212-213 

Root / lemma: deiic- 

Meaning: to look 

Note: punctual, wherefore in Old Indie and intrinsic in Irish linked suppletively with a 

cursive present other root 

Root / lemma: deii(- : to look derived from Root / lemma: gher-3 und ghere-, ghre- : to 

shine, shimmer + zero grade of Root/ lemma: ok"-: to see; eye 

Material: Old Indie [present is pasyat/] Perf. dadarsa^have seen', Aor. adarsat, adraksTt 

{adrak), participle drsta-, kaus. darsayati^xx\ake see'; Avestan daras-^ behold ', Perf. 

dadarasa, participle darasta-. Old Indie dfs-i. 'sight', ahardrs-^ looking day ', upa-dfs-i. 

'sight', drst/'-t 'sight', Avestan aibTdarasti- 6s. (Gen. Sg. darstois). Old Indie darsata- 

'visible, respectable ', Avestan darasa-m. 'sight, gaze, look'; 

common Old Indie gh- > ks- 

gr. SspKopai ' look, keep the eyes open, be alive', 5£5opKa, sSpoKov, bt^%\Q, 'vision' 
(with a changed lengthened grade compared with Old Indie drsti-), 5£py|ja 'sight', 5£pYp6(; 
'look, gaze', 5ua-5£pK£TO(; 'heavy to behold' (= Old Indie dargata-), un65pa Adv. 'one 
looking up from below' (*-5paK = Old Indie drg-, or from *-5paK-T), SpoKOc; n. 'eye', 5paKU)v, 
-ovTO(; 'dragon, snake' (from banishing, paralyzing look), fem. 5paKaiva; 

alb. o'/vM 'light' (*£yM--/a); 


Maybe alb. darke'supper, evening meal, evening' : o'/'e/re'dinner meal, midday' : Old Irish 
an-dracht' loathsome, dark'. 

after Bonfante (RIGI. 19, 174) here Umbrian terkantur' seen, discerned, perceived ' 
(that is to say ' shall be seen, discerned, perceived '); 

Old Irish [present ad-cTu] ad-con-darc'\r\ave seen' (etc, s. Pedersen KG. II 487 f.; 
present adrodarcar^ can be seen'), derc^eye', a/A-oV/r" illustrious', bret. ofe/r'/7 "sight', abret. 
e/r/e/r'evidentis', zero grade Irish drechi. {*drka) "face', cymr. drychm. {*drksos) "sight, 
mirror', cymr. drem, trem, bret. dremmlace' {*drk-sma). Old Irish an-drachV loathsome, 
dark' {an- neg. + *drecht= alb. drite); 

Gothic ga-tarhjan " make distinct ' (= Old Indie darsayati); Germanic *tor^a- "sight' (== 
Old Indie drs^ in Norwegian PN Target, Torghatten e\.c, Indo Germanic to- suffix in 
Germanic *turhta- : Old English torht. Old Saxon toroht. Old High German zoraht, newer 
zo///"bright, distinct'. 

References: WP. I 806 f. 

See also: Perhaps with derfepj- {above S. 212) remote, distant related. 


Root / lemma: der-1{\ dor-, deT-) or dor-: dar- 

Meaning: hand span, *hands 

Material: Gr. 5ajpov "palm, span of the hand' (measurement of length), 6p665(jopov " the 

distance from the wrist to the fingertip ', hom. £KKai5£Ka5u)poq "16 spans long ', zero grade 

Arcadian Akk. 5apiv aniGapnv Hes. (lak. 5ap£ip Hes. is false spelling for 5api(;, Schwyzer 

Gr. Gr. I 506); 

alb. {*duor-) o'c>/'e"hand' from *ddrom{U. La Plana IF. 58, 98); [conservative stem of 
plural forms (alb. phonetic trait)] 

Phonetic mutations: alb. {*duor-) o'o/'e'hand' : gr. 5(I)pov "palm, span of the hand' : Latvian 
{*duor-)dure, duris "fist'; proto lllyrian alb. duo- > do- , gr. duo- > do-, Latvian duo- > du-. 


Clearly Root/ lemma: der-1{. dor-, deT-) or dor-, dor-: "hand span' derived through Root/ 
lemma: ghesor-1, ghesr-: hand'; Root/ lemma: ghesto-2\ "hand, arm' through lllyrian 

intermediary. The plionetic sliift kh > t, gh > cl\s a unique alb.. Hence alb. o'o/'e'hancl' 
derived from truncated ghesor. The source of Root / lemma: der-1 {. dor-, der-) or dor-: 
dor-: "hand span' is of lllyrian origin and then it spread to other languages. 
That means Homeric Iliad is a translation of lllyrian Iliad. The Greek translation left many 
lllyrian cognates of the lllyrian Iliad unchanged. There is no doubt that gr. 5u)pov "hand 
span' is a suffixed lllyrian o'c»/'a"hand' consequently Iliad was brought to Balkan languages 
by lllyrians. 

Old Icelandic tarra^ outspread ', terra (is. 

Also Armenian dzerk " hand '. 

Only under a beginning duer- : dur- or duor-: duar : dur- to justify major key-phonetical 
comparison with Celtic dur-no-\n Old Irish dornl\st, hand', cymr. dwrn^\r\an6', dyrnod 
(mcymr. dyrnawt} "slap in the face, box on the ear', dyrnaid {xucyxur . dyrneit) " handful ', 
bret. o'o/77"hand', dournek^ who has big hands '; however, these words also stand off in 
the coloring of meaning "pursed, clenched hand, fist, fisticuff, punch' so far from gr. that 
they do not demand an association with them. 

On the other hand for Celtic *durno-o'r\e considers relationship with Latvian dure, dun's 
"fist'; this is to Latvian duru, duru, durt'puck, bump, poke' to put (compare pugnus : 
pungd); if so also Celtic o'^/'-/70-? compare MiJhlenbach-Endzelin I 529 and see below der- 


From alb. Geg {*dudi), o'o/'ehand, {*duai), duerP\. "hands' it seems that the oldest root 
was alb. PI. {*du9/), duerP\. "hands' [conservative stem of plural forms (alb. phonetic 
trait)]. Hence the original of proto lllyrian - gr. idea was Root/ lemma: dud(u)\ "two' 
meaning two hands. That means both Root/ lemma: der-1 {. dor-, der-) or dor-, dor-: 
"hand span, hands' and Root/ lemma: dud(u)\ "two, *two hands' derived from older 
Anatolian languages Root/ lemma: ghesor-1, ghesr-: "hand' because of the common alb. 
gh- > d-. 

References: WP. I 794 f. 
Page(s): 203 

Root /lemma: {der-2), redupl. der-der-, dfdoT-, broken redupl. dor-d-, df-d- 
Meaning: to murmur, to chat (expr.) 

Material: Old Indie dardura-h^iro<^, flute'; Old Irish deirdrethar'ra(^e6\ PN Deirdriui. {*der- 

der-id)\ Bulgarian o'b/icyd/b 'babble; grumble', serb. drdljati^cha\.\.er\ sloven, drdrat/ ^c\atter, 

burr '; 

Maybe alb. derde/Z/t' chatter, prattle' a Slavic loanword. 

Maybe Dardanoi {* dardant} lllyrian TN : gr. 5ap5a peAiaaa Hes : Lithuanian dardeti, 

Latvian dardet, dardet^ creak' probably "talk indistinctly '; common lllyrian alb. n > nt > t. 

with fractured reduplication: gr. 5ap5a \\tK\aaa Hes., Irish dord^ bass ', fo-dord^ growl, 
bass ', a/7-o'c»/'o' "clear voice' ("not-bass '), cymr. dwrdd^6\r\, fuss, noise' (cymr. twrdd^6\r\, 
fuss, noise' /- has taken over from twrf6s.). Old Irish dorda/d' be\\o\N, roar' (from deer); 
Lithuanian dardeti, Latvian dardet, dardet^ creak'; Tocharian A tsart- "wail, weep, cry' 
(Pedersen Tocharian Sprachg. 19), with secondary palatalization sert- {Van Windekens 
Lexique 145). 

References: WP. I 795, MiJhlenbach-Endzelin I 447. 

See also: The Celtic, tochar. and Balto-Slavic words could also belong to d'^er-S. 

Page(s): 203-204 

Root / lemma: {der-3), dra-, dreb- drem-, dreu- 
Meaning: to run 
Material: dra- 

Old Indie drati^ runs, hurries ', Intens. daridratT wanders around, is poor ', dari-dra-^ 
wandering, beggarly '; 

gr. ano-5i5paaKU) " run away ', Put. 5paao|jai, Aor. sSpav; 5paafj6(;, Ionian 5pr|a|j6(; 
"escape', a5pC(aT0(; "striving not to escape', 5pc(n£Tr|<; " fugitive ', SpansTSuu) " run away, 
splits, separates from' (compare to -n- Old Indie Kaus. drapayati^ brings to run ', Aor. 
ao'/ioV-ayoa/ [uncovered] "runs'); 

Old High German zittarom {*di-dra-mi) "tremble (*ready to flee)'. Old Icelandic titra 
"tremble, wink' (originally perhaps " walk on tiptoe; trip, wriggle restlessly '); 

perhaps here Slavic *dropy^ bustard ' (Machek ZslPh. 17, 260), poln. Czech drop, older 
drop{i)a etc, out of it Middle High German trap(pe), trapgans. 


Lithuanian drebu, -e// "tremble, quiver'; 

poln. (etc) drabina'\a66ef; 

Old English treppan {* trapjan) "tread', Middle Low German Dutch frappen ' stomp' , ndd. 
trippen. Modern High German (Low German) trappe/n, trippein. Middle High German (Low 
German) treppe, trappei.. Modern High German Treppe, Old English traeppei. 'trap', 
Modern High German Trappei, East Frisian trappe, trap'trap, splint, staircase, stairs '; 

through emphatic nasalization, as in Modern High German patschen - pantschen, ficken 
- fiencken{see W. Wissmann Nom. Postverb. 160 ff., ZdA. 76, 1 ff.) to define: 

Gothic ana-tr/mpan' approach, beset'. Middle Low German trampen' stomp'. Middle 
High German (ndd.) trampe/n ^ appear crude' , engl. tramp, trample^ tread'. Middle High 
German trumpfen^ rur\, toddle'. 


Old Indie dramati' running ', Intens. dandramyate^ runs to and fro '; 

gr. Aor. sSpapov, Perf. 5£5popa "run', 5p6iJO(; "run'; 

Old English trem, trym^ Fufttapfe ', Old Norse //'a/77/' "fiend, demon' (see above). Middle 
High German fremen'\Na\/er', Danish tr/m/e'roW, fall, tumble', Swedish Dialectal trumlads.. 
Middle High German trame^ rung of a leader, stairs'; 

here probably Modern High German FIN £'/'a/77/77e(Gottingen), Z7/'(9/77se (Magdeburg), 
from *DromJa ar\d *Dromisa {probab\)/ North lllyrian), in addition poln. (Illyrian) Drama 
(Silesia), Bulgarian Dramatica {thrak.); s. VasmerZslPh. 5, 367, Pokorny UrillyrierS, 37, 

Maybe alb. dromce 'p'\ece, chip (of a blow)' 

insecure is Woods KZ. 45, 62 apposition of serb o'/777a//" shake', dfmnut/" upset, allow to 
shake ', sloven, drmaf/" shake, jiggle', dram/t/" jiggle from the sleep ', drampaf/" ungentle 
jiggle '; 

maybe alb. d rem it ^s\eep', derrmonj^ exhaust, tire, destroy' Slavic loanwords. 

Alb. proves that from Root / lemma: der-, heavy basis dera-, dre-\ "to cut, split, skin' 
derived Root/ lemma: {der-3), dra-, drab- dram-, drau-\ "to run'. 

Czech drmlatr flit, stir; move tlie lips, as if one sucking', drmolitr take short steps ' (these 
in the good suitable meaning; 'shake' from " stumble with the foot '?), drmotiti^chai, prate' 
(probably crossing of meaning with the onomatopoeic word root der-der-2, see there). 

o^re:/- (partly with J as zero grade, probably because of *dreua'<-), FIN (participle) 

Old Indie dravati^ runs, also melts ', FIN DravantT, o^m/a- "hurrying', Avestan dravaya- 
"run' (being from daevischen), draoman-v\. 'attack, onrush', aesmd-drOi{a)- " calling from 
Aesma, sends to attack ' (very doubtful Old Indie dravina-m, dravinas-v\. "blessing, 
fortune', Avestan draonah-v\. ' bei der Besitzverteilung zufallendes Gut, Vermogensanteil ' 
perhaps as "traveling fortune'?); 

Illyrian-Pannonian FIN Dravos {* drouos), out of it serbokr. Drava, compare apoln. 
Drawa {\\\yr\an loanword); Indo Germanic *drouent- ^\r\urry\ng' > lllyrian *drauent-{: above 
Old Indie Dravanti), out of it dial. *trauent- in FIN TpasvT- (Bruttium) > Italian Trionta, Indo 
Germanic *druuent-, lllyrian *druent- in poln. FIN DrwQca, Modern High German Drewenz, 
Italian *truent-\n FIN 77Y/e/7/^s(Picenum); 

maybe alb. {*druent-) Dr/nosrWer name "hurrying water?' common alb. nt > n. 

gall. FIN (from North lllyrian?) Druenf/a {French la Drance, Drouance, Durance, Swiss/a 
Dranse); *Drutos, French le Drot, Druta, French la Droude; 

Lithuanian sea name *Druv-lntas {wruss. Drywiaty); Old Prussian stream, brook Drawe. 

Auf dreu-, participle *dru-to-base6 on perhaps (see Osthoff Par. I 372 f. Anm.) Gothic 
trudan^ tread', Old Norse troda, trad 6s.; Old English tredan. Old High German tretan 
"tread' (by Osthoffs outlook of ablaut neologism). Old High German trata "tread, spoor, 
way, alley, drift, trailing'. Old Saxon trada'iread, spoor'. Old English trodr\., trodui. "spoor, 
way, alley' (engl. trade'trade' is nord. loanword). Old High German trofa. Middle High 
German trottei. " wine-press ', Intens. Old High German trotton 'tread'; Modern High 
German dial, trottein " go slowly '. 

Here also Germanic root *tru-s- in East Frisian trusein '\urc\\, stumble, go uncertainly or 
staggering ', truser dizziness, giddiness ', Dutch treuzelen' to be slow, dawdle, loiter', 
westfal. trusein, truesein' roll slowly ', Middle High German trollen {*truzldn) "move in short 
steps constantly'. Modern High German trollen, Swedish Dialectal trdsalela\ry demon, 
ghost', Norwegian Dialectal trusar\6\ot, fool', trusk' despondent and stupid person'; 

Maybe through metathesis alb. {*trusal) trullos, trains' xwake the head dizzy', //^y 'brain' 

as well as (as *truzla-) Old Norse troll v\. "fiend, demon'. Middle High German trol, trollevn. 
"fairy demon, ghost, fool, uncouth person' (compare unser Trampel\(\ same meaning; the 
Wandals called the Goths TpouAou(;, Loewe AfdA. 27, 107); it stands in same the way 
besides Germanic tre-m-{see below) Old Norse //'a/77/' "fiend, demon'. 

In Germanic furthermore with /-vocalism Middle Low German trTseIn, westfal. triasein 
"roll, lurch', holl.//'///e'/7 "tremble' (from which Italian trIllare'quWer, trill hit') etc against 
association of Old Indie dravatl\N\Vr\ Avestan dvara/tr goes' see below "^^eu-, '^^euer- 

References: WP. I 795 ff., Krahe IF. 58, 151 f.. Feist 45. 
Page(s): 204-206 

Root / lemma: deru- doru-, dr(e)u-, drou- dreuQ- : dru- 

Meaning: tree 

Note: see to the precise definition Osthoff Par. I 169 f.. Hoops Waldb. 1 17 f.; in addition 

words for various wood tools as well as for "good as heartwood hard, fast, loyal'; Specht 

(KZ. 65, 1 98 f., 66, 58 f.) goes though from a nominalized neuter of an adjective *d6ru "das 

Harte', from which previously "tree' and "oak': dorun.. Gen. dreu-s, dru-no-s 

Material: Old Indie daruu. "wood' (Gen. drSh, drunah, Instr. druna, Lok. darunr, dravya- 

"from tree'), dr'u- n. m. "wood, wood tool ', m. "tree, bough', Avestan dauru'tree truck, bit of 

wood, weapon from wood, perhaps club, mace, joint' (Gen. draos), Old Indie daruna- 

"hard, rough, stern' (actually "hard as wood, lumpy '), dru-\u compounds as dru-pada-' 


klotzfijftig ', dru-ghni' wood ax ' (-wooden rod), su-dru-h ' good wood'; dhruva-'Wght, firm, 

remaining ' {dh- through folk etymology connection in dhar- "hold, stop, prop, sustain' = 

Avestan di{u)vd. Old pers. duruva'iW., healthy, intact ', compare Old Church Slavic std- 

dravb); Avestan drvaena- " wooden ', Old Indie druvaya-h' wooden vessel, box made of 

wood, the drum', druna-m'ba\N, sword' (uncovered; with Jnpers. durOna, balucT drm' 

rainbow '), drunf bucket; pail ', drona-m 'wooden trough, tub'; druma-h' tree' (compare 

under 5puM6(;); 

Old Indie darvl-h, darvF {\NOo6en) spoon'; 

Armenian //■a/77 "tight, firm' {*druramo, Pedersen KZ. 40, 208); probably also (Liden Arm. 
stem 66) targal'spoon' from *dru- or *deru-. 

Gr. 56pu 'tree truck, wood, spear, javelin' (Gen. horn. 5oup6(;, trag. 5op6(;from 
*5opF6(;, SoupoTOc;, Attic Soparoc; from *5opFnTO(;, whose n is comparable with Old Indie 
d run ah); 

Cretan 5opa (*5opFa) "balk, beam' (= Lithuanian Latvian darva); 

sizil. aax£5u)poc; "boar' (after Kretschmer KZ. 36, 267 f. *av-ox£-5opFo(; or -5u)pFoc; " 
standing firm to the spear '), Arcadian Doric Au)pi-KAr|(;, Doric Boeotian Au)pi-paxo(; , 
Awpieuq " Dorian ' (of Au)pi(; " timberland '); 


Who were Dorian tribes? Dorians were Celtic tribes who worshipped trees. In Celtic they 
were called Druids, priests of ancient Gaul and Britain (also Greece and lllyria). The caste 
of Druids must have worshiped the dominant thunder god whose thunderbolt used to strike 
sacred trees. Druids must have planted the religion around the sacred oak at Dodona. 

5puc;, 5pu6(; "oak, tree' (from n. *druox *deru, *doruQ. *druu6s become after other tree 
name to Fem.; as a result of the tendency of nominative gradation), aKp6-5pua " fruit tree ', 
5pu-T6|JO(; " woodchopper ', 5puivo(; " from the oak, from oak tree ', Apua(; " dryad, tree 
nymph ', yepavSpuov "old tree truck', a5pua ttAoTq [Jovo^uAa. Kunpioi Hes. ( *sm-, 
Lithuanian by Boisacq s. v.), £v5puov Kap5ia 5£v5pou Hes. 

Hom. 5pufja n. PI. "wood, forest', nachhom. 5p0|j6(; ds. (the latter with previous 
changed length after 5pu(;); 5£v5p£Ov "tree' (Hom.; out of it Attic 5£v5pov), from redupl. 
*5ev(= 5£p)-5p£Fov, Demin. 5£v5pu(piov; compare Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 583; 

5poF- in arg. 5po6v iaxupov. 'ApY£Toi Hes., £v5poia KopSia 5£v5pou Koi to jjegov Hes., 
Apo06o(; (*ApoF-u9o(;), 5poiTr| " wooden tub, trough, coffin' (probably from *5poFiTa, 
compare lastly Schwyzer KZ. 62, 199 ff., different Specht Dekl. 139); SoTipov nu£Aov 
QKacpnv Hes. (diss, from *5poFiTpov), next to which *druio- in 5pai6v pioKipav. nu£Aov 

PN ApuTOJv: Lithuanian Druktenis, Old Prussian Drutenne {E. Fraenkel, Pauly-Wissowa 
16, 1633); (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-). 

in vocalism still not explained certainly 5pioc; "shrubbery, bush, thicket '; maked. 
5apuAAo(; f. "oak' Hes. ( *deru-, compare Old Irish daui); but 5pi(; SuvapK; Hes., lies 5Fig 
(Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 4955); 

alb. drui. 'wood, tree, shaft, pole' {*clruua, compare Old Church Slavic drbvau. pi. 
"wood'); drush-k (es-stem) "oak'; ablaut. *dru- in dr/-ze 'tree', drun/" wood bar'; 


Alb. definite form Nom. dru-ni= alb. Gen. dru-n/"o^\Noo6': Old Indie darun. "wood' (Gen. 
droh, drunah'oi\NOo6'; but a pure Slavic loanword is alb. druvar' woodcutter, 
woodchopper ' 

[conservative definitive forms versus indefinite forms (alb. phonetic trait)] 

thrak. KaAa|jiv-5ap "sycamore', PN Aapavboq, TapavTOc; {*dar-ant-) " Eichstatt a district 
in Bavaria ', ZivSpoupa, Aiv5pu|jr| " Zeus's grove ', VN '0-5pu-a-ai, Apoaoi, Dru-geri {dru- 
"wood, forest'); 

Maybe VN '0-5pu-a-ai : Etruria (Italy) 

from Latin perhaps dOrus^ hard, harsh; tough, strong, enduring; in demeanour or tastes, 
rough, rude, uncouth; in character, hard, austere, sometimes brazen, shameless; of things, 
hard, awkward, difficult, adverse ' (but about durare^ to make hard or hardy, to inure; 
intransit., to become hard or dry; to be hard or callous; to endure, hold out; to last, remain, 
continue ' see below S. 220), if after Osthoff 111 f. as "strong, tight, firm as (oak)tree ' 
dissimilated from *drO-ro-s ( *dreu-ro-s?)\ 

Maybe alb. o^i/zioy" endure, last', o'^/v/r? "patience' . 

but Latin /a/7>r"larch tree', loanword is from an Indo Germanic Alpine language, Indo 
Germanic *derik-s, is conceivable because of heavy f. 


Common Latin o'->/- hence Latin larix {*derik-s) "larch tree'. 

Maybe Pelasgian Larissa {*dariksa) 

Old Irish derucc{gg). Gen. o'e/ro/7"glans', cymr. derwen^oaV! (PI. derv)/), bret. deruenn 
ds., (common Celtic -/7S-, -nt- > -nn-), gall, place name Z7e/vi/s ("oak forest'), abrit. 
Derventio, place name, VN Dervaci; Old Irish derb 'saie '; reduced grade Old Irish daur, 
Gen. daro'oaW {deru-), also dair. Gen. darachf^s. {*deri-). Old Irish daurde and dairde 
"oaken '; derived gall. *d(a)rullia^ oaV! (Wartburg III 50); maked. 5apuAAo(;f. "oak'; zero 
grade *dru-\n intensification particle (? different Thurneysen ZcPh. 16, 277: "oak-': dru- in 

Galatian Spu-vaipsTov " holy oak grove '), e.g. gall. Dru-talos(*\N\Vc\ big forehead'), 
Druides, DruidaeP\., Old Irish o'/'J/" Druid' ("the high; noble ', *dru-uid-). Old Irish dron 
"tight, firm' {*drunos, compare Old Indie dru-na-m, daru-na-, dro-na-m), with guttural 
extension (compare under Modern High German Trog) Middle Irish drocMa ' {* \NOo6en) 
barrel, vat, cask; barrel, tub', drochat^br\6ge'; here also gallorom. o'/t/Zos "strong, 
exuberant (: Lithuanian drutas)', gr. PN ApuTOJV, Old Irish o'/zy//? "foolish, loony' (: Old 
Icelandic //t/d/' "juggler, buffoon'?), cymr. o'/'i/o' "foolish, loony, valiant' (cymr. ^derives from 
roman. equivalent); 

deru-\n Germanic TervingI, Matrib(us) AlatervTs, Old Norse tjara{* demon-), Finnish 
loanword terva. Old English teoruu., tierwei., -avc\. "tar, resin' {*deruio-). Middle Low 
German /ere "tar' (Modern High German Teer); Old Norse tyrvi, ///'/"pinewood', /y/r"pine' 
(doubtful Middle High German zirwe, zirber pine cone ', there perhaps rather to Middle 
High German zirber yNhnX, because of the round spigot); 

dreu- in Gothic triuu. "wood, tree'. Old Norse tre. Old English treow{ev\Q\. tree). Old 
Saxon tr/o^tree, balk, beam'; in iJbtr. meaning "tight, firm - tight, firm relying' (as gr. 
\ox0p6q "tight, firm': iaxupi^O|jai " show firmly, rely on whereupon, trust in '), Gothic triggws 
{*treuua^ "loyal, faithful'. Old High German g/-tr/uw/ loya\, faithful', an: tfyggr'\oya\, 
faithful, reliable, unworried ', Gothic triggwa^ alliance, covenant'. Old English treow^idWh, 
belief, loyalty, verity'. Old High German triuwa. Modern High German Treue, compare with 
ders. meaning, but other ablaut Old Norse trOi. "religious faith, belief, assurance, pledge'. 
Old English truwam.. Middle Low German truwei. ds.. Old High German truwa. Old 
Icelandic trui., besides trOr^\oya\, faithful'; derived Old Norse /ma "trust, hold for true' = 
Gothic trauan, and Old English truwian. Old Saxon truon. Old High German tru(w)en ^{rusV 
(compare n. Old Prussian druwis); similarly Old Norse //'a^s//'" strong, tight, firm', traustn. 
"confidence, reliance, what one can count on'. Old High German trosf 'reWance, 
consolation' {*droust-), Gothic traust/'pact, covenant', changing through ablaut engl. trust 
"reliance' (Middle English trust). Middle Latin trust/s '\oya\ty' in Old Franconian "law', 
Middle High German getri/ste' troop, multitude, crowd'; 

maybe alb. trcis, //ys "press, crowd' 

(5/- formation is old because of npers. durust^ hard, strong', durustl\t, healthy, whole'; 
Norwegian //ysya "clean the ground'. Old English //t75"deadwood', engl. trouse. Old 
Icelandic /ros "dross', Gothic ufar-trusn/an^6\sperse, scatter'. 

*c/rou-'\n Old English tng, engl. /Aa/ 'flat trough, platter', Old Swedish tro'a certain 
measure vessel' {*trauja-, compare above Spoirn), Old Norse treyju-sgdull {a\so tryju- 
sgdoll) "a kind of trough shaped saddle'; 

*dru- in Old Icelandic //"i/d/" 'jester'. Old English //T/d 'merrymaker, trumpeter' (:gallorom. 
*druto-s, etc)? 

*dru- in Old English //^y/T? 'tight, firm, strong, fit, healthy' {*dru-mo-s), with /r-extension, 
respectively forms -/ro- (compare above Middle Irish drochta, drochat). Old High German 
Modern High German trog. Old English trog, troh{rc\.). Old Norse trog{n.) 'trough' and Old 
High German fruha' footlocker', Norwegian Dialectal trygjen. 'a kind of pack saddle or 
packsaddle', trygja'a kind of creel'. Old High German /mc/ra 'hutch'. Low German trugge 
'trough' and with the original meaning 'tree, wood' Old High German hart-trug/7^ dogwood'; 

maybe nasalized alb. trung {* trugge) 'wood, tree' 

Balto Slavic *derua-n. 'tree' in Old Church Slavic drevo {Gen. dreva, also drevese), 
Serbo-Croatian dial, drevo {drijevd), sloven, drevp. Old Czech drevo, russ. derevo, kir. 
derevo 'tree'; in addition as originally collective Lithuanian derva, (Akk. deJv^) f. ' chip of 
pinewood; tar, resinous wood'; ablaut, Latvian darva^iaf. Old Prussian in PN Derwayn; 
lengthened grade *ddru-Ja- in Latvian dCiore f. ' wood vessel, beehive in tree'; *su-dorua- 
'fit, healthy' in Old Church Slavic si^drav-b, Czech zdrav{zdrav^, russ. zdor6v{i. zdorova) 
'fit, healthy', compare Avestan dr(u)vd. Old pers. duruvads. 

Baltic *dreuia-\. ' wood beehive ', substantive adj. (Old Indie dravya-^ belonging to the 
tree ') : Lithuanian dreveand dreve^cavW.)/ in tree', Latvian drove ds:. in ablaut Lithuanian 
drav/st, Latvian dravat ' wood beehive ', in addition Old Prussian drawinei. 'prey, bee's 
load ' and Lithuanian drave^\\o\e in tree'; furthermore in ablaut East Lithuanian dreveaud 
drovei. ds., Latvian c/Aai/a 'cavity in beehive'; 

proto Slavic *druua-Uovc\. PI. 'wood' in Old Church Slavic drbva, russ. drova, poln. drwa 
(Gen. dre\/\/}\ *druuina-v\. 'wood' in kIr. drovno, slovz. drevno; 

Slavic *drbm-b in russ. drom ' virgin forest, thicket ', etc (= Old Indie druma-h, gr. 
5pu|j6(;, adjekt. Old English trum); 

Lithuanian 5^-o(a/s 'abundant, fat (from the growth of the plants)' (= Old Indie su-dru-h 
'good wood'); 

Baltic druta- "strong' (== gallorom. *druto-s, gr. PN ApuTOJv) in Litliuanian drutas, driutas 
"strong, thick', Old Prussian in PN Drutenne, (under the influence of common Celtic -a7s-, - 
nt- > -nn-), PN Druthayn, Druthelauken; belongs to Old Prussian druwisvn. "faith, belief, 
druwit, druw/t ^beWeve' {*druweti: 0\6 High German truen), na-po-druw/snan ^reWance, 
hope'. Beside Lithuanian drutas a\so druktas, see below 6^er-2. 

In ablaut here Old Church Slavic drevlje " fore, former, of place or time; higher in 
importance, at first or for the first time ', Old Czech dreve, russ. drevie "ages before'; 
adverb of comparative or affirmative. 

Hittite ta-ru 'tree, wood', Dat. ta-ru-u-r, 

here also probably Tocharian AB ©/""wood' (false abstraction from * tod dor, K. 
SchneiderlF. 57, 203). 


The shift d- > zero\s a Baltic-lllyrian inherited by Tocharian 

References: WP. I 804 ff., WH. I 374, 384 ff., 765 f., Trautmann 52 f., 56, 60 f., Schwyzer 
Gr. Gr. I 463, 518, Specht Dekl. 29, 54, 139. 
Page(s): 214-217 

Root / lemma: der-, heavy basis dera-, dre- 

Meaning: to cut, split, skin (*the tree) 


Root / lemma: der-, heavy basis dera-, dre- : "to cut, split, skin (*the tree)' derived from 

Root /lemma: deru- doru-, dr(e)u-, drou-, dreuQ-: dru-\ tree' 

Material: Old Indie dar- "break, make crack, split, burst ', present the light basis darsi, adar, 

dart, /7-present the heavy basis drnati' bursts, cracks'. Opt. drnJyat, Perf. dadara, participle 

drta-, of the heavy basis dTrna-, Kaus. darayati, Intens. dardirat, dardarti {coru'^are Avestan 

darodar- "split'; Czech drdam, drdat/'p\uck, pick off, remove'), dardarft/ 'spWt up', dara-h 

m., darTi. "hole in the earth, cave' (: gr. 5op6c; "hose', Latvian nuodaras '6ross of bast'. 

Church Slavic razdorb), drti-hm. "bag, hose' (= gr. bapaxq,, Go\h'\c gataur/=>s, russ. dertb), 

darman- m. " smasher ' (: gr. Ssppa n.), next to which from the heavy basis darfman- 

"destruction'; -dari- "splitting' (= gr. Sppic;), dara- m. "crack, col, gap, hole', daraka- 'r'\pp'\r\g, 

splitting', darT-\v\ dardarT-ti, darT-man-m\h /"for /= a (compare Wackernagel Old Indie Gr. 1 

20), barely after Persson Beitr. 779 of the /-basis; npers. Inf. dirJdan, darfdan, jiJd.-pers. 


Maybe alb. {*daras) derrase' board, plank (cut wood)', derrmonj" destroy, break, exhaust, 


Dardan/ \\\yr\an TN 


The name Z7a/io'a/7/lllyrian TN and [Latin transcription: DorieTs] Greel<: AcopifK;, Attic -\f\q 

derive from the same root. 


by Micha F. Lindemans 

The son of Zeus and Electra. He sailed from Samothrace to Troas in a raft made of hides. 

He eventually married Batea, the daughter of King Teucer, who gave him land near 

Abydos. There he founded the city of Dardania (the later, ill-fated city of Troy). 

Hence the name Dardanelles for what was once called the Hellespont. 


DARA (Dara, Ptol. vi. 8. § 4). 1 . A small river of Carmania, at no great distance from the 
frontier of Persis. There can be little doubt that it is the same as the Dora of Marcian 
(Peripl. p. 21) and the Daras of Pliny (vi. 25. s. 28). Dr. Vincent conjectures (Voyage of 
Nearchus, vol. i. p. 372) that it is the same as the Dara-bin or Derra-bin of modern charts. 

2. A city in Parthia. [APAVARCTICENE] 

3. A city in Mesopotamia. [DARAS] [V.] 


DARADAE the name of Ethiopian tribes in two different parts of Africa; one about the 
central part, in Darfour (Daradon ethnos, Ptol. iv. 7. § 35), the other in the W., on the river 
DARADUS also called Aethiopes Daratitae. (Polyb. ap Plin. v. 1; Agathem. ii. 5.) [P. S.] 


DARADAX (Daradax), a Syrian river, mentioned only by Xenophon (Anab. i. 4. § 10). It 
has been identified with the Far, a small tributary of the Euphrates. At the source of the 
river was a palace of Belesis, then satrap of Syria, with a large and beautiful park, which 
were destroyed by Cyrus the Younger. (Anab. I. c.) [G.W.] 


DARADUS, DARAS, or DARAT (Darados e Daras, Ptol. iv. 6. § 6), a river of Africa, falling 
into the Atlantic on the W. coast, near the Portus Magnus, and containing crocodiles (Plin. 
V. 1); probably the Gambia or Dio d'Ouro. [P. S.] 


DARAE a Gaetulian tribe in the W. of Africa, on a mountain stream called Dara, on the S. 
steppes of M. Atlas, adjacent to the Pharusii. (Plin. v. 1; Oros. i. 2; Leo Afr. p. 602.) [P. S.] 


DARADRAE (Daradrai, Ptol. vii. 1. § 42), a mountain tribe who lived in the upper Indus. 
Forbiger conjectures that they are the same people whom Strabo (xv. p. 706) calls 
Derdae, and Pliny Dardae (vi. 19), and perhaps as the Dadicae of Herodotus (iii. 91, vii. 
66). It is possible, however, that these latter people lived still further to the N., perhaps in 
Sogdiana, though their association with the Gandarii (Sanscrit Gandharas) points to a 
more southern locality. [V.] 


DARANTASIA a place in Gallia Narbonensis. 





DARADRAE (Daradrai, Ptol. vii. 1. § 42), a mountain tribe who lived in the upper Indus. 
Forbiger conjectures that they are the same people whom Strabo (xv. p. 706) calls 
Derdae, and Pliny Dardae (vi. 19), and perhaps as the Dadicae of Herodotus (iii. 91, vii. 
66). It is possible, however, that these latter people lived still further to the N., perhaps in 
Sogdiana, though their association with the Gandarii (Sanscrit Gandharas) points to a 
more southern locality. [V.] 


DARDANI (Dardanoi), a tribe in the south-west of Moesia, and extending also over a part 
of lllyricum. (Strab. vii. p. 316; Ptol. iii. 9. § 2; Caes. Bell. Civ. iii. 4; Liv. xl. 57; Plin. iii. 29; 
Cic. p. Sest. 43) According to Strabo, they were a very wild and filthy race, living in caves 
under dunghills, but very fond of music. [L. S.] 

Avestan daradar- {see above) 'split'. Inf. deran^m (:0\6 Indie drnati). Iter, daraya-, 
participle d9ratd{= Old Indie drta-)\ 

Armenian terem " skin, flay, make callous' (because of /probably for root form *der-s-, 
Persson Beitr. 779 Anm. 1); doubtful Armenian /a^'foreign land', tara- 'besides, without, 
afar', taray Aor. 'take to one's heels, made oneself scarce' (Persson Beitr. 778 a 2); 

gr. 5£pu) 'skin, flay',„/c>-present 5£ipu) ds. (as Lithuanian derubes\des diriu), Aor. Pass. 
£5apr|v, participle 5paT6(;, 5apT6(; (= Old Indie drta-)\ 5op6(; 'hose' (= Old Indie dara-, 
Latvian nud-daras); 5apai(; 'the skinning' (= Old Indie drti-), next to which with (has 
changed) lengthened grade Attic 5£ppi(;, -£(ji)(; 'skin, leathery dress, cover'; *5£pTpov, diss. 
5£Tpov ' the membrane which contains the bowels '; 5£pa(;, -a^oc, n. 'skin, fur' (heavy 
basis?), 5£poc; n., 5£p[ja n., 5opa 'fell, fur'; lengthened grade Sppic;, -xoo, (poet.) 'fight, 
struggle'(= Old Indie -dari-)\ here probably also 5ap-5aiv(jo ' bedraggle ' instead of *5ap- 
Saipoj (: Old Indie dar-dar-tlp. 

cymr. corn. bret. darn'p'\ece, part' (= Old Indie dTrna-); 

Gothic dis-tafran{= gr. Sspw) "break, pull apart', ga-ta/ran 'tear, destroy'. Old English 
teran'tear', Old High German zeran, f/r-zeran 'tear, destroy'; Middle High German 
{vei)zern. Modern High German (i/e/)ze/7/'e/7 "consume'. Middle English, Middle Low 
German /e/re/? "quarrel, squabble', ndd. terren, farren'st\r, tease, irritate, banter'. Old High 
German zerren'puW; Gothic intrans. d/s-, ga-faurnan' tear' (: Old Indie drnati), holl. tornen 
" unstitch, unpick, take apart ', compare nominal Old English Old Saxon torn. Old High 
German zo/77 "anger, fight, violent displeasure ' and in original meaning holl. torn' 
cleavage, separation' (= Old Indie dJrna-, cymr. darn, also Old Indie dJrna- is named 
besides "split' also " confused, put in desperation '); next to which zero grade Old Norse 
tjgrni. {*derna), tjarnr\. {*dernom) "small sea', originally probably " water hole ' (compare 
Old Indie dara-, darr\\o\e in the earth'); causative is trod to ga-taurnan (\terat\ye) gatarnjan 
"mug, rob' (but Old High German uozurnen' despise ' Denom. of *uo-zorn); Gothic 
gatauram. "crack', gataurf^st "destruction' (= Old Indie drt/-, gr. 5apai(;); Old Norse tord- 
in compounds. Old English tordr\. "ordure' {*dr-tdm' separation ', compare Latvian dirstu, 
dirst' defecate ', difsa' buttocks ', MiJhlenbach-Endzelin I 470, and of a guttural extension 
Middle High German zurch, zurchru. " animal excrements '); 

besides of the heavy basis Old Norse trddr\. "batten, lath, support from poles' {*drd-to- 
m). Middle High German truoderi. " slat, pole, from it manufactured rack '; Old High 
German trada' ir\r\qe' (Modern High German Troddel), Middle High German trodel {ior 
* trade}) " tassel, wood fiber '; 

actually to der-(e)u- {see below) with nasal infix belong *dr-nu-d\r\ Middle High German 
trunne f. " running shoal, migration, swarm; surge ', (under the influence of common Celtic 
-ns-, -nt- > -nn-). Old High German abe-trunnig, ab-trunne' apostate ', ant-trunno' fugitive 
', and *dren-ud\r\ trinnan' seclude oneself. Middle High German trinnen, trann' be 
separated from, depart from, run away ', Modern High German entrinnen {*ent-trinnen), 
Kaus. Germanic *//'a/7/7/a/7 in Middle High German trennen'cut, clip'. Modern High German 
trennen, holl. (with metathesis) tarnen, tornen 'separate' (the latter, in any case, more 
directly to derive from *der- "split'; nnol Germanic *tren nan irom -nu-); certainly here 
Swedish Dialectal trinna, trenta ' split fence rack ', further with the meaning " split trunk 
piece as a disc, wheel ' Old High German trennila'baW, trennilon'roW, Middle Low 
German trint, trent' circular', trentm. ' curvature, roundness, circular line ', Old English 
tr/ndet (or tr/ndam.) "round clump'. Middle High German trindel, trendel' ball, circle, 
wheel ' 

With fractured reduplication orformant -d- (compare gr. 5ap5aiv(jo and Czech drdati) 
and from "tear, tug unkindly' explainable meaning probably here Germanic *trat-, *trut- in 

Old English teart^ stern, sharp, bitter'. Middle Dutch torten, holl. tarten'sWr, tease, irritate, 
challenge, defy ', Middle Low German //to/' contrariness ', Middle High German traz, truz, - 
tzes^ obstructiveness, animosity, contrariness'. Modern High German Trotz, Trutz, 
trotzen. Bavarian //a/ze/? 'banter'; with the meaning-development " fray ' - "thin, fine, 
tender' perhaps (?)Middle Low German tertel, tert//kl\ne, dainty, mollycoddled ', Danish 
taertet^ squeamish ' (perhaps also Norwegian Dialectal tert, tart^smaW salmon', terta^ 
small play ball '); Old High German Modern High German zart{Vc\e last from *dor-td-, 
compare Middle Persian dart^ afflicted ', npers. ofe/'o''pain' Wood KZ. 45, 70); 

Lithuanian diriu{\ 5£ipaj), zem. deru{\ Sspoo), o'M'flay, cut off the grass or peat' (heavy 
basis compared with Old Indie djii-, gr. 5apai(;, Gothic gataurl=>s), nudirtas " flayed ', 
Latvian nuddara^ pole with cut branches, bread slice ', PI. -5s" dross, esp. of bast' (: 
MiJhlenbach-Endzelin II 772, Old Indie dara-, gr. 5op6q), Lithuanian derna^boar6, plank, 
balk'; with ^-colored zero grade Lithuanian duriu, durt/'pncW (preterit duriau) = serb. u- 
drim {u-driti) "hit' (russ. u-dyrft-b 'hit' with iterative grade to *d'br-, compare Lithuanian 
duriau, Berneker 179 f.). Against it are Lithuanian durnas^ frenzied, stupid', Latvian durns 
borrowed from Slavic; compare MiJhlenbach-Endzelin I 519. 

Slavic *derda'r\6 *dirid\T\ Old Church Slavic derg, dbrat/'rend, flay' and *dbrg {serb. 
zadrem, Czech dru); u-darjg, u-dariti'\\\^ {*ddr-, compare *der-\v\ gr. 5f|pi(;), with iterative 
grade raz-dirati^{ear\ serb. Iz-diratT exert oneself, (maltreat oneself); clear off, pass 
away, disappear' (in addition Old Church Slavic dira^cracV!; s. Berneker 201, whereas 
also about the meaning-development of probably related family serb. dfra " hole, crack ', 
Bulgarian di?a " track of a person or animal, or from wheels ', diYb 'search, seek, feel, 
pursue'); about *d-br- in serb. u-drimsee above; 

nouns: with e-grade sloven. u-dgr'b\o\N, knock', with d-grade Old Church Slavic razdon, 
'crack, cleavage ' (= Old Indie dara-, gr. 5op6(;, Latvian nuo-daras), serb. u-dorac^ a'^ack, 
with zero grade (Indo Germanic *drto-): serb Church Slavic raz-drttb ' lacerate ', kir. dertyj 
' torn, flayed ' (= Old Indie drta-); Indo Germanic *drti- : russ. dertb ' residue of crushed 
grain, bran; cleared land ' (= Old Indie drti-e\.c); russ. (etc) dernblawn, meadow' (: Old 
Indie d/rna- etc, meaning as in Lithuanian d/rf/"cut the lawn grass'); 

Maybe alb. {*derm6) derrmq/ ^exbaust'. 

russ. dermo^ rags stuff, the unusable, rubbish, dirt ' (*dross by splitting, peeling), derkij 
'rash, hasty, fast ', dranbi. ' shingle, lath', drjanb= ' dermd, draka^ brawl ', drac^v^aW 
puller, tool used to remove nails', o-drfnyP\. 'chaff' etc. 

With A extended Lithuanian nu-dirliotr'Qee\ the skin', serb. drljam, drljatr\\arro\N\ drIjTm, 
dr//7t/"6west' (Berneker 255); 

Tocharian AB tsar- "separate, split', te/io/ye "cleft, fissure, crack' (Pedersen Tocharian 
Sprachg. 19). 

d(e)n-{. *derei-?j only barely covered (see esp. Persson Beitr. 779 f.): 

Gr. 5pT-MU(; "(incisive, splitting) piercing, sharp, herb, bitter' (probably after o^uq 
reshaped from *5pT-|j6(; or -o\x6(^), Latvian dnsme "crack, scratch ', perhaps (if not 
derailment of ablaut to Lithuanian dreskiu because of whose zero grade drisk-) from 
Latvian driksna ( *drTskna) " scratch ', draTska " tearer ', compare MiJhlenbach-Endzelin I 
488 f., 500; 

remains far off SpTAoc; " bloodsucker, leech, penis', actually " the swollen ', to Spiaouaav 
OaAAouaavHes. (M. Scheller briefl.)- 

With :/- forms of the light {der-eu^ and heavy basis {dera-u-, df-u^ " tear, (the land) 
break, burst, erupt ': dora-ua: dr-ua^s^ec\es of grain', deru-, de-dru-eic "lacerate skin'. 

Middle Persian drun, drudan'reap'; 

about Germanic forms with nasal infix see above S. 207; 

here Old Norse trjonat {*dreu-n-dn-) " proboscis of the pig' ("bursting, burrowing '), tryni 
n. ds.. Middle High German triel {*dreu-lo-) m. "snout, muzzle, mouth, lip', 

maybe alb. Geg {*tryni) turini, Tosc /i//7/7" mouth of animals, snout' 

Norwegian Dialectal mule-trjosk, -trusk {*dreu-sko-) "horse muzzle' (Falk-Torp under 
tryne). Because of the meaning insecure is Falk-Torps apposition under tr0gav\6 trygleoi 
Old Norse trauda^ lack, come short ', traudia Mv. "barely', traudr^ querulous ' and - with 
^-extension - Old English trucian^ be absent, lack, come short ' (nengl. dial, to truck\o 
fail'. Middle Low German truggelen^beQ, cheat, deceive'); 

Latvian drugt^ diminish, collapse ' (Irish droch, cymr. drwg^ penurious, evil, bad' from k- 
extension?, MiJhlenbach-Endzelin I 505). 

Old Indie durva^ millet grass ' {dr-ua)\ 

compare gr. delph. Sapara f., Thessalian 5apaToq m. "bread' {*dra-), maked. SpapiK; ds.; 

gall. (Latin) dravoca^ ryegrass ' {*dra-u-)\ bret. draok, dreok, cymr. drewg ds. are 
borrowed from Roman. (Kleinhans be! Wartburg III 158); 

Middle Dutch tanve, terwe, holl. /arn/e "wheat', engl. tare'weed, ryegrass, vetch' 
(Germanic *tar-ud, Indo Germanic *doraua)\ 

Lithuanian oV/va "farmland' ( *dr-ua, with intonation change the 5-stem), actually " freed, 
cleared ', dirvonas^ virgin soil, land ' (compare to meaning russ. Dialectal dor^ new tillage, 
cultivated land ', rozdertb " land made arable '), Latvian druva^ihe tilled farmland, sown 
field ' (MiJhlenbach-Endzelin I 470, 505), russ. (see Berneker 186) derevnja^ village 
(without church); land property ', Dialectal "piece of field', paset derevnju^Ms the field'; 

with the meaning " skin rash ' ("splitting off skin flakes, cracked skin'): 

Old Indie dar-dru-v(\. "kind of skin rash ', dar-du-Tn. (uncovered), da-dr'u- m., da-dru-ka- 
m. " leprosy '; 

Latin derbitai. "lichen' is loanword from gall. *o'e/'i/e/a (compare also Middle Irish deir. 
Old Irish *deriror(\ *o'e/'5 "lichen'), to cymr. tarwyden, tarwden{P\. tarwed) (besides 
darwydenihrouQh influence of the prefix group t-ar-, Pedersen KG. I 495), Middle Breton 
dervoeden, nbret. deroueden "sick of lichen '( *deru-eit-)\ 

Germanic *fe-fru-\n Old English tefer'sk\n rash'. Old High German zittaroh {*de-dru-ko- 
s= Old Indie dadruka-). Modern High German Zitterich^sV\v\ rash'; 

Lithuanian dedervine^ rash resembling lichen ' (Trautmann 47, MiJhlenbach-Endzelin I 
450; compare in similar meaning of the root form *der- Czech o-dra, PI. o-dry^ prickly 
heat, miliaria, heat rash', poln. o-dra^ measles ', of the ^-extension Bulgarian drbgn-b-se^ 
rub myself, itch myself, become scabby '); 

dereg- : 

Middle Dutch freken stem V. "pull, tear' and "shudder'. Old High German trehhan^ push, 
poke, intermittently tear, scrape, cover scraping ', *trakjan in Middle Low German trecken 
"pull, tear (tr. intr.)'. Old English trseglian^io pluck', wherewith because of the same vocal 
position maybe is to be connected to Latvian dragat^^uW, rend, upset, shake', draguls^ 
shivering fit ', draga^a strong angry person, renders and demands a lot '; Latvian drigelts, 
drigants, Lithuanian drigantas "stallion' are loanword from poln. drygant, compare Buga 
Kalba irs. 128, MiJhlenbach-Endzelin I 498. 

deregh-{see Persson root extension 26, Berneker254 and 212 m. Lithuanian): 

Old Engiisli //ie/ya/? (Germanic *targiaii) "banter, stir, tease, irritate'. Middle Low German 
tergen, targen^puW, stir, tease, irritate', holl. tergen. Modern High German zergen^'puW, 
tear, anger', Swedish Dialectal targa^ tug with the teeth or sharp tools ', Norwegian 
Dialectal /e/ya 'banter'; Lithuanian dirginu, dlrgintT flurry, irritate, stimulate, excite, pull 
(the trigger of a gun) '; russ. c/e/p'a/6 'pluck, pull, tear, rend ' (etc), s^-o'o/'o^a 'cramp'. 


ApEKQvov name of foreland in Kos (as Apsnavov plural as name of forelands, Bugge 
BB. 18, 189), 56pKai Kovi5£(;, SspKuAAsiv aipoTTOTsTv (actually 'tear the skin open' as 
analogous meaning 5£p|JuAA£iv) Hes.; 

gr. 56pnoq m., 56pnov n. 'supper' {*dork- + uo-iorms) = alb. o'a/'/re 'supper, evening' 
(unclear the ablaut relation in dreke'\unc\r\, middle of the day'; compare Persson Beitr. 
859''); perhaps to (North lllyrian?) PN ApoKOuiva (leg. AapKOuiva?) in Wurttemberg, as " 
place to rest '; 


This seems wrong etymology since alb. dreke'\unc\r\, middle of the day' seems to have 
derived from Root / lemma: der/c-: 'to look, light'; gr. SspKopai ' look, keep the eyes open, 
be alive', SsSopKO, sSpoKov, 5tp^\(; 'vision', Sspypa 'sight', bepy[}6(; 'look, gaze', 5ua- 
5£pK£Toc; 'heavy to behold' (= Old Indie dargata-), un65pa Adv. 'one looking up from 
below', 5paKoq n. 'eye', 5paKU)v, -ovioc, 'dragon, snake' (from banishing, paralyzing look), 
fem. 5paKaiva; alb. oVyM 'light' {*drk-ta)\ 

According to alb. phonetic laws alb. oVvM 'light' derived from {drik-a) not {*drk-ta) because 
of common alb. -k- > -ths. 

Maybe alb. {* dargata-), darke^ supper, evening meal, evening'; {*drech), oye/re "dinner 
meal, midday, light of the day': Old Irish an-drachf loathsome, dark' (see above). 

sloven, drkam, drcem, drkatT glide, slither, on the ice trail; run, trot run ' (probably from 
'clear off, run away, leave'), Czech o'/'/raZ/'bump, poke, jolt', Bulgarian dircam, drbcnh^ 
pull, riffle flax, hemp ' (Berneker255, Persson Beitr. 85, 359). 


Armenian terem (see above under der-); 

Middle Irish dorr' anger', dorrach' rough, coarse' (see Persson Beitr. 779 Anm. 1); 
presumably Old English tears. Old High German ze^s "penis', Norwegian ters'r\a\\'; also 
Old Norse tjasnai. "kind of nail' from *tersndn-?, Norwegian trase'rag, clout', trasast' 
become ragged', /ras "deadwood', //-as/r "offal, deadwood'; 

Maybe alb. traste'bag, (ragged cloth?)', //"as "pull (a boat on the coast) : Rumanian trage 

sloven, drasati' disband, separate', Czech ^/z-asa//" scratch, scrape, stripe', drasta, 
o'/'as/a "splinter, scrap, shred; garment ', draslavy^ough, jolting ', zero grade drsen 
"rough', drsnaty' jolting '(compare above Middle Irish dorr). 


Lithuanian su-drysku, -driskau, -drikst/' tear', dreskiu, dreskiau, -drekstT rend ', 
draskau, draskytiWer. "tear', Latvian draskat6s., draska' rag', Lithuanian drekstine lenta' 
crafty slat, thinly split wood ' (Leskien Abl. 325, Berneker 220, 224)., Bulgarian draskam, 
drastb ( *drascg) " scratch, scrape; fit tightly ', perfective drasnt ( *draskng); draska " 
scratcher, crack'; Czech old z-d ries-kati ar\6 (with assimilation of auslaut and a sounding 
aniaut) z-dr/ezhaf/" break, rupture', drieska, o'/yez/?^ "splinter, chip, splinter', nowadays 
dr/zha 'ch\p, splinter'; poln. drzazga ^sp\\r\ter'; 

With formant -p-: 

drep-, drop-. 

Old Indie drapf-hru. "mantle, dress', drapsa-h rw. "banner (?)' (= Avestan drafsa- 
"banner, ensign, flag, banner'), Lithuanian drapanosi. PI. " household linen, dress', Latvian 
drana {probab\y *drap-na) "stuff, kerchief, cloth'; gallo-rom. drappus^kercb\ei, cloth' (PN 
Drappo, Drappus, Drappes, Draponus) is probably Venetic-lllyrian loanword; the a-vowel 
from Indo Germanic oor, as das -pp-, expressive; 

gr. SpsTToo " break off, cut off, pick ', Spsiravn, Spsiravov "sickle', also Spairavov (out of it 
alb. drapen "sickle' ds.), that is defined through assimilation of Spsnavr) to *5panavr|; o- 
grade Spcbniw SiaKonru) Hes. (= serb. drapljem), Spajna^, -koc, " Pechpflaster, um 
Haareauszuziehen ', SpwnaKi^u) "pull the hair out'; Old Norse trgfr\. PI. " fringes ', trefri. 
PI. ds., trefja^rub, wear out'. Middle High German trabei. "fringe'; 

*drdp-\r\ russ. drjapa-ju, -tb (with unclearya), dial, drapatb, drapatb "scratch, rend ', serb. 
drapam, drapljem, drapati^iear, wear out; scratch, scrape', poln. drapac^ scraicb, scrape. 

scrape, rub, flee'; drp-, Slavic *dbrp- in Bulgarian d-brpam, perfective drbpni,^ tear, pull, 
drag ', serb. drpam, drpat/ar\6 drpTm, drpiti^ rend '; Balto Slavic dreb-, drob- 'scrap, shred, 
dress' in Latvian drebei. 'stuff, dress, laundry', Lithuanian drobei. 'canvas, fabric', 
drabanasxx\. 'rag, scrap, shred', drabuzis, drobuzism. 'dress'; Upper Serbian drabym. PI. 
" dress stuff ', Czech-mahr. zdrabym. PI. 'rag, scrap, shred' have probably through 
influence the root *drob- (see below d^/ieb^'-) 'carve, slit, dismember ' -b- instead of -p-; 


Gall. (Venetic-lllyrian) PN Drippia, Dr/ppon/us {compare above Drappus etc); 

Note: Alb. drapen ' s\ck\e' : (Venetic-lllyrian) PN Dripponius 

Bulgarian dr/pa'rag, scrap, shred', sloven. drfpam{dnpljem), drfpati^iear, have 
diarrhea', Czech o'/vpa 'scrap, shred', drfpati^ rend, tear'; 


Gr. 5punTU) ' scratch', anoSpunru), -5pu(pu) (with secondary cp instead of tt, s. Persson 
Beitr. 859) ' scrub, flay off the skin', 5pucpn ' scratching, peeling ', 5puni(; 'a kind of thorn '. 

For variation of a: /: ^in ' popular words ' compare Wissmann Nomina postverbalia 

References: WP. I 797 ff., WH. I 342 f., 373, 861, Trautmann 51 f. 
Page(s): 206-211 

Root / lemma: des- des- 

Meaning: to find 

Material: Gr. 5r|w 'become find' (futur. gebrauchtes present), £5r|£v supsv Hes.; 

alb. /7o'es/7'find, encounter', ndieh {*of-sRd) 'feel, find'; perhaps also Old Church Slavic 
desg, des/t/l\nd', ablaut, russ. -Church Slavic dositi {udositi) 'find, meet', whether not to 
dek-; whereas is Old Indie abhi-dasati^ is hostile, attacked ' rather Denomin. of dasa-h 
"slave, fiend'. 

About alb. ndeshs. also above S. 190. 

References: WP. I 783, 814, Trautmann 54, SchwyzerGr. Gr. I 780. 

Root / lemma: deuk- 
Meaning: to drag 

Material: Gr. 5ai-5uaa£a9ai sAKsaGai Hes. (*5ai-5uK-iu) with intensive reduplication as irai- 
cpaaau)). In addition perhaps also Ssuksi cppovri^Ei Hes., wherefore horn. a5£UKri(; ' 
inconsiderate '; unclear is noAu5£UKr|<; " der vielsorgende ' (but AsuKaAiajv is dissimilated 
from *A£UKaAiu)v, Bechtel), and with zero grade svSukecjix; 'keen, eager, painstaking '. The 
meaning "care, worry, be considerate of ' arose from "pull, drag' perhaps about "bring up'; 
similarly stands for Old Norse tjda ( *teuhdn) "help' (see Falk-Torp 1315 f.). 

Somewhat other spiritual change of position shows Latin ducereas " to draw; to draw 
along or away; hence to shape anything long, to construct. Transf., to charm, influence, 
mislead; to derive; to draw in; to lead; in marriage, to marry a wife; to calculate, reckon; to 
esteem, consider'. 

Alb. nduk^ pluck, tear out the hair ', dial, also " suck out '. 

Mcymr. oy^a/" bring' {*dukami)\ about Old Irish to-ucc-{cc= gg) "bring' see below euk-. 

Latin ducd{0\6 Latin douco), -ere, duxT, ductum " to draw; to draw along or away; hence 
to shape anything long, to construct. Transf., to charm, influence, mislead; to derive; to 
draw in; to lead; in marriage, to marry a wife; to calculate, reckon; to esteem, consider ' = 
Gothic tiuhan. Old High German ziohan. Old Saxon tiohan. Old English /ec»/7"pull, drag' 
(Old Norse only in participle toginn). 

verbal compounds: ab-duco = Gothic af-tiuhan, ad-ducd= Gothic at-tiuhan, con-ducd = 
Gothic ga-tiuhan, etc. 

root nouns: Latin dux, ducisxw. f. " a guide, conductor; a leader, ruler, commander' 
(therefrom educare^bnuQ up, educate, rise '; linguistic-historical connection with formally 
equal Old Norse toga. Old High German zogon'puW, drag' does not exist), tradux^here 
guided) vine-layer '. Is Old Saxon etc heritogo. Old High German herizogo^ military leader 
', Modern High German /yeAzo^ replication of aTpaTr|y6(;? compare Feist 479. 

//-stem: Latin ductim^by drawing; in a stream', late duct/-d^6uct' (besides fu-stem 
ductus, -us' direction, leadership, duct, conduction ') = Modern High German Zucht{see 

Specially rich development form in Germanic, so: iterative-Kaus. Old Norse feyg/a'puW, 
drag, pull out' = Old English t/egan'puW, drag' {*taug/an); Old High German zuckan. 

zucchen, Middle High German zucken, zcicken 'qu'\cW, pull fast, wrest, draw back' (with 
intensive consonant stretch; therefrom Middle High German zuc, Gen. zuckesm. ' twitch, 
jerk'); Old Norse togn. "the pulling, rope, cable'. Middle High German zoc, Gen. zogesm. 
"puir, whereof Old Norse toga, -ada^puW, drag'. Old English tog/an, engl. tow'puW, drag'. 
Old High German zogon. Middle High German zogen'puW, drag (tr., intr.), rend, pull', 
compare above Latin {e)-ducare\ Old English tygem. /-stem "pull'. Old High German zug. 
Modern High German Zug {* tugi-)\ Old High German zugil, zuhil. Middle High German 
zugil. Modern High German Zugel, Old Norse tygillm. "band, strap, strip'. Old English tygel 
"rope'; Old Norse taugi. "rope'. Old English teagi. "band, strap, manacle, paddock ' 
(therefrom Old English tTegan^b\v\6\ engl. tie); with zero grade Old Norse togu. "rope, 
hawser'; Old Norse taumrm. "rope, cable, rein'. Old English teamm. " pair of harnessed 
oxen, yoke, bridle, parturition, progeny ' (therefrom tfeman' proliferate, be pregnant ', engl. 
teem), Dutch toom'brood'. Old Frisian /5/77 "progeny'. Old Saxon tom'a strap or thong of 
leather; plur., reins, bridle; scourge, whip'. Old High German Middle High German zoumm. 
"rope, cable, thong, rein'. Modern High German "bridle, rein' (Germanic *tauma-1rorr\ 
*tauj-ma-); Old High German ^/z/i/^d/7 "bear witness, prove' (actually " zur 
Gerichtsverhandlung gezogen warden '), Middle High German geziugen^ prove from 
evidence ', Modern High German (be)zeugen, Zeuge, Middle Low German betugen^ 
testify, prove ', getuchu. " attestation, evidence '; further with the meaning "bring out, bring 
up, generate' Old High German giziug {* teugiz) " stuff, device, equipment ', Modern High 
German Zeug, Middle Low German tuch{-g-) n. " stuff, device ' and "penis'. Middle High 
German ziugen. Modern High German zeugen; Gothic ustauhts' consummation ', Old 
High German Middle High German zuhti. "raise, upbringing, breed, breeding, progeny ', 
Modern High German Zucht{= Latin ductus see above); therefrom Modern High German 
zuchtig, zuchtigen. Old English tyhtm. " upbringing, breed, breeding'. Old Frisian tucht, 
/oc/7/" ability to procreate'. 

Specially because oi Zucht^ progeny ', Bavarian also " breeding pig ' one draws Old 
High German zoha. Middle Low German tdle{*tdhila). Modern High German schwab. 
zauche^b\\.dc\\ neuisl. /da" vixen ' to the root; yet compare Middle High German zupe 
"bitch', Norwegian dial, tobbe^ruaxe, small female creature ' and Germanic *//7rdand *tibd 

A simple root form *den-^p\}\\, drag' perhaps in Old Norse tjddru. {*deu-trom) " tether, 
bandage rope ' = Middle English teder-, tef^er6s.. Old High German zeotar' sbait'. Modern 
High German Bavarian Zieter^ front shaft ' (also Old English tudor, tuddoru. " progeny '?); 
but Old Indie dorakam^ope, strap' is dravid. loanword (Kuiper Proto-Munda 131). 

References: WP. I 780 f., WH. I 377 f., 861 . 
Page(s): 220-221 

Root / lemma: deu-1 

Meaning: to plunge, to penetrate into 

Material: Old Indie upa-du-^ to go into, (of clothes), to put on, to wear, assume the person 

of, enter, press into, cover oneself, wear'; 

The cause of -(e)s- stem seems to belong to: Old Indie dosa, new dosa-h ' evening, 
darkness ', Avestan daosatara-, daosastara-^ situated towards evening, to the west ', 
npers. o'ds "the former yesterday night'; 

gr. bz\zKoc, (more properly bz\zKb(;) "evening' (metr. lengthening for *bzzKoc, from 
SsuoEAoq? originally Adj. " vespertine ', as still in hom. SsisAov npap); gr. 5uu) (Attic u:, ep. 
u), trans. " sink, dive, swathe ' (only in compounds: KaraSuu) "sink'), intrans. (in simplex 
only in participle 5uu)v; Aor. £5uv) "dive in, penetrate (e.g. aiOspa, zc, novTOv), slip in, pull 
in (clothing, weapons; so also £v5uu), ano5uu), nspiSuu)), sets (from the sun and stars, 
dive, actually, in the sea)', also med. 5uopai and Suvw (hom. 5ua£T0 is old augment tense 
to the future, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 1 788); aAip5uu), Kallimachos "sink in the sea' (p unclear, 
s. Boisacq s. v.; preposition *[5]/0[c»]?); 5unTU) "dip, dive, sink' (after punru)); aSuTOv " the 
place where one may not enter ', 5uaic; " disappearing, dive, nook, hideaway, setting of the 
sun and stars ', np6(; nAiouSuaiv " towards evening ', 5ua|jai PI. " setting of the sun and 
stars '; unclear apcpi5upo(;, 5i5u|Joc; " coupled ' s. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 589; after Frisk Indog. 
16 f. here also 5uTr| "shrine'. 

References: WP. I 777 f., WH. I 3, 682. 
Page(s): 217-218 

Root/ lemma: {deu-2ox dou^ : du- 
Meaning: to worship; mighty 

Material: Old Indie duvas-x\. " offering, worship instruction ', duvasyati^ honors, reveres, 
recognizes, recompenses ', duvasyu-, o'^i/dyi/- "venerating, respectful '; Old Latin duenos, 
then duonos. Classical bonus'good' (Adv. bene, Demin. bellus{*duenelos] "pretty, cute'); 
Note: common Latin du- > im- 
probably = Old Irish o'e/? "proficient, strong', Subst. " protection'; Latin bed, -are^ to bless, 
enrich, make happy ', beatus^ blessed, lucky' {*du-ejd, participle *du-enos); in addition Old 
Saxon /M//7/7d/7 "grant'. Middle Low German twTden^ please, grant'. Old English langtwTdig^ 

granted long ago', Middle High German zmc/en' grant', md. getwed/c'tame, domesticated, 
compliant ' {* du-ei-to-; Wood Mod. Phil. 4, 499); 

after EM2 114 perhaps still here gr. Su-va-piai " has power '. 

Perhaps also here Germanic *faujan' make' (from "* be mighty ') in Gothic taujan, 
taw/da^ make', Proto Norse faw/dsl made'. Old High German zc»^^//^/7'exercebant 
(Cyclopes ferrum)'. Middle High German zouwen, zouwen^ finish, prepare ', Middle Low 
German /o^M/e/7 'prepare, concoct, tan, convert hide into leather', wherefore Old English 
getawa' an implement, utensils, tools, instruments ' (therefrom again {ge)taw/an ^ prepare' , 
engl. faw^ make ready, prepare, or dress (raw material) for use or further treatment; spec, 
make (hide) into leather without tannin ') and (with original prefix stress in nouns) Old 
English geatwei. PI. 'armament, armor, jewellery, weapons ' = Old Norse ggtvari. PI. ds.. 
Old Frisian touw, /on/ 'tool, rope, hawser'. Modern Frisian touw^ the short coarse fibres of 
flax or hemp, tow ', Middle Low German touwe^\.oo\, loom', touwe, tou^rope, hawser' (out 
of it Modern High German Tau), Old High German gizawa^ household furniture, apparatus 
' (but also 'succeed', see above). Middle High German gezduwer\. 'appliance' (out of it 
with Bavarian-dial, vocalization Middle High German zawe). Modern High German Gezahe 
(see about these forms Psilander KZ. 45, 281 f.). 

In addition with e (Psilander aaO. expounded also *taujan through proto Germanic 
abridgement from *t^wjan) perhaps Gothic /en/a 'order, row', gatewjan ^ 6\spose' , Old High 
German zawa^ coloring, paint, color, dyeing', langobard. zawa^ row, division of certain 
number, uniting'. Old English sel-tsewe^ altogether, wholly, entirely well, sound, whole, 
healthy, well ' (about possible origin of Germanic *tewairom *fej-wasee below *de/(- 
'take'; then it would be natural to separate from taujan); with oGothic fau/. Gen. foj/'s 
'action', ubiltojis^ evildoer, wrongdoer ', Old Norse tdr\. 'uncleaned wool or flax, linen 
thread material ' = Old English /on/ 'the spinning, the weaving' in tow-hOs^ spinnery ', tow- 
craefV skillfulness in spinning and weaving ', engl. tow^ the short coarse fibres of flax or 
hemp, tow '; with Asuffix Old Norse tdlr\. 'tool'. Old English tdlr\. ds. {*tdwula-), verbal only 
Old Norse Wja, /j^a 'utilize, make usable ', actually 'align', denominative to *tdwja-a^er 
Psilander aaO., while Falk-Torp seeks under /0/e therein belonging to Gothic tiuhan 
*tauhjan, *tiuhjan. 

Thurneysen places (KZ. 61, 253; 62, 273) Gothic taujan to Old Irish do'id^ exert, 
troubled '; the fact that this, however with do'id^ catches fire ' is identical and the meaning 
'make' has developed from ' kindle the fire, inflame', seems unlikely. 

About other interpretations of taujan s. Feist 474 f. 

References: WP. I 778, WH. 11 11 , 324 f., 852. 
Page(s): 218-219 

Root / lemma: deu-3, deua-, dua-, du- 
Meaning: to move forward, pass 

Material: Old Indie du-ra-h^ remote, distant, wide' (mostly locally, however, also 
chronologically), Avestan durae. Old pers. dura/y'aiar, far there ', Avestan duraf' at a 
distance, far, far there, far away ', compounds Sup. Old Indie davTyas-, dav/sfha-' more 
distant, most distant'; ved. duvas- " moving forward, striving out ', transitive Avestan duye' 
chase away ', avi-fra-5avaite " carry away itself (from water)'; Old Indie dOta-h, Avestan 
duta- " summoner, delegator'; perhaps here Old Indie dosa-hm. 'lack, fault, error' {*deu-s- 


gr. Doric Attic 5£U), Aeolic hom. 5£uu) (not *5£ua-, but *5£F-) "lack, err, miss', Aor. 
£5£r|aa, £5£ur|aa; unpers. 5£T, 5£U£i, participle to 5£0v, Attic to 5ouv "the needful '; Medium 
5£0Mai, hom. 5£uo|jai "lack' etc, hom. " stay behind sth, fall short, fail to attain, be 
insufficient ', Attic " please, long for '; £ni5£r|q, hom. £ni5£ur|(; " destitute, lacking ', 5£r||Ja 
"request'; in addition 5£UT£po(; " follow in the distance, the second one ', in addition Superl. 
hom. 5£UTaTog. 

Perhaps in addition with -s-extension (see further above Old Indie dosa-h) Germanic 
*tiuzdn\r\ Old English teorian^ cease, languish' (*stay behind), engl. //re "exhaust'. 

compare further md. zJn/e/? (strong. V.) " move in the front, move, proceed there ', Old 
High German zawen^ proceed, go ahead, succeed'. Middle High German zouwen^\\\^rr^| , 
somewhat hasten, proceed, go ahead, succeed', zouwe\. "haste, hurry'. 

2. Apers. duvaistam Mn . "for a long time', Avestan dboistam M\. " long, extended ' 
(temporal); about Old Indie dvita, Avestan daibita. Old pers. duvita-paranam see below 

Armenian tevem^ last, endure, hold, hold off', /ei/" endurance, duration', i tev^ long 
time through ', /o/r "duration, endurance ' {*teuo-ko-, *touo-ko), ablaut. e/'Aa/'"long' 
(temporal) from *dua-ro- (= gr. 5r|p6v), e/'/ra//7"long' (spacial); 

gr. 5nv (el. Doric Sdv Hes.) " long, long ago ' (*5Fav), 5oav (*5oFav) "long' (accusative 
of *5Fa, *5oFc( "duration'), 5r|p6v, Doric 5ap6v " long lasting ' (*5Fa-p6v), 5r|6a "long', 
therefrom 5r|6uv£iv "hesitate, stay long ', 5a6v noAuxpoviov Hes. (*5Fa-iov); about 5ap6v 
compare Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 482, 7; 

Latin du-dum " some time ago; a little while ago, not long since; a long while ago or for a 
long time ' (to form see WH. I 378). Here also (in spite of WH. I 386) o'J/'5/'e 'endure' 
because of Old Irish cundrad^'Qaci, covenant' {*con-durad)\ butcymr. cy/7/7//'eo' 'movement' 
remains far off in spite of Vendryes (BSL. 38, 115 f.); here also Latin dum, originally ' short 
time, a short while ', see above S. 181; 

lengthened grade Old Irish doe{*dduio-) 'slow'; 

Old Church Slavic dave^ erstwhile, former', o'aK6/7b 'ancient', russ. davno^siuce long 
ago', etc; 

Hittite tu-u-wa {duwa) ' far, away ', tu-u-wa-la {Horn. PI.) 'remote, distant' from *dua-lo-, 
Benveniste BSL. 33, 143. 

References: WP. I 778 ff., WH. I 378 f., 861, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 348, 595, 685. 
Page(s): 219-220 

Root / lemma: deup-{. kteup-1) 

Meaning: a kind of thudding sound, onomatopoeic words 

Material: Gr. hom. 5ouno(; ' dull noise, din; sound of the kicks '; 5outt£(jo ' to sound heavy 

or dead '; the in hom. EySounnaav, £piY5ouno(; ' loud-thundering ' (jjaaiySounov 

...IjeyaAonxov Hes.) revealed treading original aniaut yS- is maybe parallel with KTuno(; 

'blow, knock' besides Tuno(; or is copied to it, so that no certainty is to be attained about its 

age; after Schwyzer would be (Y)5oun£U) intensive to zero grade ktuh-; serb. dupTm, dupiti 

'hit with noise', sloven, dupam {dupljem) dupati^ punch on something hollow, rustle 

thuddingly ', dupotati, Bulgarian dufift ' give the spurs to a horse ', Latvian dupet/es' duW 

sound' (Balto Slavic d- from gd-7 or older as gr. y5-?); 

Maybe onomatopoeic alb. dum {*dump) ' thudding sound' [common alb. p > mp > m] 

after Van Windekens Lexique 138 here Tocharian A tap- ' allow to sound, announce ' 
{*tup-) in Infin. tpassi, participle Pass, cacpunder 

References: WP. I 781 f., Endzelin KZ. 44, 58, MiJhlenbach-Endzelin I 518, Schwyzer Gr. 
Gr. 17183. 
Page(s): 221-222 

Root / lemma: de- do- 

Meaning: a demonstrative stem 

Material: Avestan vaesman-da ' up there to the house '; 

gr. -5s in 6-5£, r|-5£, t6-5£ ' that here, this ' (I - deixis), £v0a-5£, £v9£v-5£, t£T-5£, hinter 
Akk. the direction, e.g. 56fJov-5£, oIkov 5£, oIk6v5£, 'A9r|va^£ (*A9avava-5£), as Avestan 
vaesmen-da (Arcadian 0up5a £^u) Hes., reshuffling of -5£ after double forms as np6a9£ : 
npooGa), also in 5£-upo (5£upo emulated PI.) 'here', Latin quan-de, quam-de^ as like ' = 
Oscan pan, Umbrian pane 'as', also Oscan pun, Umbrian pon{n)e 'as well as' {*quom-de), 
Latin in-de^ thence, from there ' {*im-de), un-de^ whence, from where '; gr. 5£ 'but'; gr. 5r| 
' just, now, just, certainly ', n-5r| 'already', £n£i-5r| ' since, whereas, because '; 5ai after 
interrogative words '(what) then?'; 

Indo Germanic la'eput also in Old Irish article in-d{*sind-os, Indo Germanic *sem-de); 

Italian -*dam\v\ Latin quT-dam, quon-dam, Umbrian ne-rsa' as long as' (probably 
solidified Akk. f. *ne-dam ' not at the same time '; besides m. or n. in:); 

Latin dum{*dom) 'still', as Konj. 'while, during the time that; so long as, provided that; 
until', originally demonstratives 'then', compare etiam-dum, interdum, nondum, agedum{: 
gr. aY£ 5n), manedum, quidum^as so?' , then in relative-conjunctional meaning, as also in 
dummodo, dumne, dumtaxat, Oscan fsfdum ' the same as' however, is to be 
disassembled in fs-fd-um, as also in. Latin Tdem, quidem, tandem, tantusdem, totidem\s 
not to be recognized with dum Irom *domt\r\e changing by ablaut -denr. Id-em kom * id-em 
= Old Indie /d-am ' just this ', compare Oscan fs-fd-um, as quid-emiroxw *quid-om = Oscan 
pfd-um, and as a result of the syllable separation f-dem\Nou\6 be sensed as -dem an 
identity particle and would grow further); 

but the primary meaning of dum is ' a short while ', wherefore u perhaps is old (compare 
dudum) and dum belongs to root deua- (EM2 288 f.). 

Indo Germanic '(t/o originally 'here, over here' in Latin o'd-/7/-c^/77 (archaically), donee 
{*dd-ne-que), for Lukrez also donique^ so long as, till that, to, finally ', but also 'then' {do- 
equal meaning with ad-, ar- in Umbrian ar-ni-po ' as far as ' from * ad-ne-q^om) and in 
quandd^\N\r\en' = Umbrian panupei^ whenever, as often as; indef. at some time or other '; 
Old Irisho'lo, du, acymr. o'/(= dJ), corn, de'to' from *o'J(in gall, o^iz-c/'and'), Thurneysen 
Grammar 506; Old English to. Old Saxon to{te, ti). Old High German zuo{za, ze, zf, the 
abbreviated forms are in spite of Solmsen KZ. 35, 471 not to understand as previously 
proto Indo Germanic ablaut variants). Modern High German /o (Gothic du'to' with Dat. and 
proverb, e.g. in du-g fnnan ^beg\n' , seems proclitic development from *td{7), is marked from 
Brugmann l|2, 812 as unresolved); Old Lithuanian o'o preposition and prefix 'to'; Old 
Church Slavic da^ so, and, but; that ' (meaning-development '*in addition' - 'still, and', 
from which then the subordinating link); different Pedersen Tocharian 5. 

Besides Indo Germanic *dd\x\ Old Cliurch Slavic o'o "until, to'. 

Lithuanian da-, perfektivierendes verbal prefix, and Latvian o'a "until - to', also verbal 
prefix e.g. in o''5-/e/"hinzugehen', derive from dem Slavischen. 

en-do. Old Latin endo, indu^\v\\ Latin only more as composition part, e.g. indi-gena, ind- 
oles, other formations in hom. to £v-5-Tva (right £v5Tva) "intestines, entrails ', Middle Irish 
inne^As." ( *en-d-io-)\ (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), against it wird Old Irish ind 
preposition and prefix "in' von Thurneysen Grammar 521 as after in- umgefarbte 
Entsprechung von gall. a/7o'e contemplates and further von Pedersen KG. I 450 with 
Gothic s/7o'"untir. Old Indie ^o'/?/ connected; and gr. £v5o-9i " indoors, in, within ', £v5o-9£v 
" from inside ' are reshaped as Lesbian Doric £v5oi after oiko-0i, -9£v, -i from £v-5ov, s. 
*dem-\.o build'; Hittite an-da^\n' to *en-do{or*n-dd?), Pedersen Hittite 166. Whereas it is 
the adverbial- and predicate character of nouns Old Irish /n{d), abret. in, mcymr. yn 
probably instrumental of article; s. further Thurneysen Grammar 239. 

de{as o'd probably an Instr. extension) in Latin o'e"prep. with abl. in space, down from, 
away from. Transf., coming from an origin; taken from a class or stock, made from a 
material, changed from a previous state; of information, from a source, in time, following 
from, after; in the course of, during, about a subject; on account of a cause; according to a 
standard', Faliscan ofe (besides Oscan dat^de' (for *dad, with t afier post, pert etc; Oscan- 
Umbrian *dad\s probably replacement for *o'e after ehtradetc, respectively after the 
ablative transformed in Instr. -e{d), d{d)\ad); as proverb in dafdajd' give away, give up, 
surrender, deliver, consign, yield, abandon, render', dadfl<atted^ dedicate, consecrate, set 
apart ', Umbrian daetom^ a fault, crime '; in addition compounds Latin deterior^ lower, 
inferior, poorer, worse ', Sup. detemmus, demum (Old Latin also demus) " of time, at 
length, at last; in enumerations, finally, in short; 'id demum', that and that alone ' ("*to 
lowest ' - "lastly, finally'), denique^ at last, finally; in enumerations, again, further or finally; 
in short, in fine '; 

Old Irish o'/"(besides o'efrom Indo Germanic de, wherewith perhaps gall. ppaTou-5£ " 
from a judicial sentence ' is to be equated), acymr. di, ncymr. y, i, corn, tiie, bret. o'/" from - 
down, from - away ', also as privative particle (e.g. acymr. di-auc^ slow, tardy, slack, 
dilatory, lingering, sluggish, inactive, lazy ', as Latin debiiis, intensifying Old Irish dT-mor^ 
very large ' as Latin o'e/77a^/s "furthermore, very much') 

The meaning " from - down, from - away ' these with gr. 5n, 5£ formally the same 
particle probably is only a common innovation of Celtic and Italic; also German? 

(Holthausen KZ. 47, 308: Old High German zao'a/" poverty, need' from *de-tlom, of *de^ 
from - away ', as wadar^oor, needy' : Latin i/e "enclitic, or, or perhaps'?). 

The ending of the following adverbial groups also belongs to this root: Old Indie tada 
"then', Avestan /aJa"then', Lithuanian /5o'a"then'; Old Indie /rao'a "when?', Avestan kada, 
jav. /raJa "when?', Lithuanian /rao'a"when'; Old Indie yao'a "when, as', Avestan yada,\ay. 
j/aJa"when', Old Chureh Slavic yeo'a "when' (compare also Old Indie yao'/" if. Old pers. 
yadiy, Avestan yedi, yeidi^as soon as' and Avestan y5Ja/"whenee'); Old Indie /da'now, 
yet'; also the Slavic formations as russ. /r^o(3 "whereto, where'; 

Maybe alb. ku-do{*kud^^ everywhere, anywhere', nasal nga-do{k^d^ "everywhere' 

Old Chureh Slavic k^du, /r^o'e "whence', n/kbda-ze ^ r\ever' , poln. o'o/r^o' "whereto, where'. 
Old Church Slavic f^de' from there ', sqdu^ from here ' , but it could contain also Indo 
Germanic d^^. 

A cognate stem Wperhaps in enclitic Iran. Akk. Avestan Old pers. dim^ her, she ', 
Avestan d/t'es', d/sP\. m. f., drP\. n., and Old Prussian Akk. Sg. d/n, d/en^\\r\r\, sie' (etc); 
compare but Meillet MSL 19, 53 f. 

References: WP. I 769 ff., WH. I 325 f., 339 f., 370 f., 694, 859, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 624 f. 
Page(s): 181-183 

Root / lemma: deg- 

Meaning: to grab? 

Material: Gothic tekan 'touch'; 

Maybe alb. takonj "touch' 

Additional cognates: [PN taka= WFris. take, EFris. taken, MDu. /a/re/7 grasp, seize, catch, 

rel. by ablaut to Goth, tekan] 

with ablaut Old Norse taka, (engl. take) "take'; Tocharian B tek-, tak- "touch', B teteka" as 

soon as '. 

Maybe alb. /a/rc»A7y"touch' : Gothic tekan "touch'; 

References: WP. I 786, WH. I 351, Van Windekens Lexique 138, 139 (compares also Latin 

tango'to touch'), Pedersen Tocharian 2071. 

Page(s): 1 83 

Root /lemma: de-\ «/a-and del-, di- 

Meaning: to bind 


Root / lemma: de-. <ya-and dei-, di-\ "to bind' derived from dual , duel-, stems of Root/ 

lemma: dud(u)\ "two' meaning "bind in two' 

Material: Old Indie oy-a//(with a-, ni-, sam-) "binds' {dy- zero grade of *dei-, from 3. PI. 

dyanti, compare Avestan nT-dya-t^m2>. Sg. Med. in pass, meaning " it has made soil 

holdback ', -a-extension from the zero grade di-, Bartholomae Airan. Wb. 761), Old Indie 

participle dita- " bound ' (= gr. 5£t6(;), daman-u. "band, strap' (= gr. -5r|MC(), ni-datar- 


gr. (hom. Attic) Ssw (*5£ju)) "bind', 5£t6i; " bound ', 5£Tr| " shavings tied together as a 
torch, faggot, torch, fetter, sheaf ' (5s- for Indo Germanic *d9-as Qzioc, : TiGriM'). 
apaAAoSsTrip " sheaf binder ', btaxo, "the fastening, binding', 5£ap6(; "band, strap', Kpri5£- 
pvov "head fascia', Sspvia PI. " bedstead '; hom. present 5i5r|Mi bind' is to 5nau) after 
TiGniJi: 6nau) "neologism'; un6-5r||Ja (compare Old Indie daman-) "sandal', 5ia5r|Ma " a 
band or fillet, turban, diadem '; 

alb. duai^ fascicle, sheaf (about *o'd/7-from Indo Germanic *de-n-), o'e'/"(*band, strap), 
sinew, tendon, vein' (Indo Germanic *o'd-/c»-). 

References: WP. I 771 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 340 f., 676, 688. 
Page(s): 1 83 

Root / lemma: degh-mo-s 

Meaning: slant 

Material: Old \n6\cj/hma-h^ slantwise, slant, skew' (Proto Aryan *z/z/7/77^-assimil. from 

*dizhma-), gr. 56xMioq, 5oxm6c; "slant, skew' (assimil. from *5ax|j6c;). 

References: Pedersen KZ. 36, 78, WP. I 769. 

See also: Other possibilities see below gei-^ium, bend'. 

Page(s): 222 

Root / lemma: d^ab^-^ 

Meaning: proper, * fitting, dainty 

Material: Armenian darbin^ smith ' {Vi'"db^r-ino-)\ 

Latin faber, /^it*/"/"" craftsman, artist'. Adj. "ingenious, skilful'. Adv. fabre^sVMxjX, affabre^ 
skillfully ', contrast infabre, fabrica^ dexterity, workshop ' (Paelignian faber\s Latin 
loanword); perhaps here Latin (Plaut.) effafilatus' exposed ', Denom. from *fafilla, 
"*acquiescence' (/dial.?); 


common Latin d- > f-\ 

alb. Tosc thembere^\\ee\, hoof (where a smith would attach a horseshoe)' [common alb. f- 

Gothic ga-daban^ occur, arrive, reach, happen, be suitable ', Perf. gadob^ to be clearly 
seen, to be conspicuous ', Adj. gadofis^ it is suitable, proper, fitting' = Old English gedefe 
" fitting, mild' {*ga-ddbja), gedafen^ proper', gedafn/an' be fitting, suitable' = Old Norse 
o'a/^a "proficient, proper, become strong, prosper, thrive'. Old English gedaefte^ fitting, 
mild', gedaeftan^ sori, order, arrange'; 

Old Church Slavic dobrt 'good, beautiful, beauteous, fair ' (= Armenian darbin, Latin 
faber), dobjb, dob/Jb'Vne best, assayed, examined, tested, strong ', doba {o\der rfn-siem) 
"fitting, applying, opportunity', podoba ' orr\arx\er\t, adornment, decorousness, decency', u- 
dobbnb l\g\r\t' , u-dobbMv. 'light'; Lithuanian daba' quality, nature, habit, character', 
dabinti ^a6orr\\ dabnus ' da\r\b/' etc. 

Maybe alb. / dobet{* u-dobbnb) 'emaciated, dainty, elegant, (beautiful)', o'Oit'/' profit, 


Root / lemma: d^^^-2: 'proper, * fitting, dainty' derived from Root/ lemma: d^ab^-/, 
nasalized 6'^amb(h)- : 'to astonish, be speechless, *hit' [see below] 
References: WP. I 824 f., Trautmann 42 f., WH. I 436 f., 863. 
Page(s): 233-234 

Root / lemma: d^anu-or d^onu- 

Meaning: a kind of tree 

Material: Old Indie dhanvan-r\., dhanu-rr\., dhanus-r\. 'bow', dhanvana-rr\. ' a certain fruit 

tree ' : Old High German tanna 'fir, oak' ( *danwd). Middle High German tanne. Old Low 

German dennia 'fir', (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-). 

References: WP. I 825. 

Page(s): 234 

Root / lemma: d'^au- 

Meaning: to press 

Material: Avestan dvaidT\ . Du. Pras. Med. ' we press ', o'5i/^s-c//75 (could stand for duvqs- 

) ' although pressing oneself further '; Phrygian 5aoc; . . . uno Opuyojv AuKoq Hes. 

(therefrom the people's name Aaoi, Da-ci), Lydian Kav-5auAr|<; ("Kuv-aYXT^ Indian Hemp, 
dogbane (plant poisonous to dogs)'), compare Kav-5au)v, name of thrak. god of war, 
lllyrian PN Can-davia; dhauno-s^\No\V as ' shrike ' in Latin GN Faunus {to gr. Gauvov 
Gnpiov Hes.) = lllyrian Z?a^/7^s (therefrom VN Aauvioi, inhabitant of apul. region of Daunia; 
compare thrak. Aauviov teTxo^); gr. Zsuq OauAioc; i.e. " shrike ' (thessal.; s. also Pick KZ. 
44, 339), with ablaut gr. Gclx;, G(ji)(F)6(; "jackal' (i.e. " shrike '); 
Maybe alb. o'ac'cat' : Phrygian bdoc, 

Gothic af-dauiPs^ rended, mangled, afflicted '; 

Old Church Slavic davljg, daviti^ embroider, choke, strangle ', russ. davftb " pressure, 
press, choke, crush ', davka "crush'. 

References: WP. I 823, WH. I 468. 

See also: About d^a^-'be astonished, marvel ' see below d^e/a- 

Page(s): 235 

Root / lemma: d^abh./^ nasalized ^^^ambl}^)- 

Meaning: to astonish, be speechless, *hit 

Note: presumably as "beaten, be concerned ' from a basic meaning "hit' 

Probably common origin of Root/ lemma: d^abh-/, nasalized 6'"amb{^)- : to astonish, be 

speechless, *hit; Root/ lemma: d^^eb^^-, d'^eb^-eu-: "to harm'. Root/ lemma: {d'^errt^-), 

d^/lt^-: "to dig'. Root/ lemma: d'^em-, d'^ema-: "to smoke; to blow'. 

Material: Gr. racpoq n. " astonishment, surprise ', Perf. ep. Ionian TsGnna, participle Aor. 

TQcpcbv "astonish', Gcbniu), Gcbnsuu) ("gaze in wonder =) flatter ' (see Boisacq s. v. Gcbijj), 

nasalized GaMpO(; n. " astonishment, amazement, fright', GaiJpsu) "marvel, astonish, 

frighten'; to p compare Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 333, 833; 

Gothic a fdobn 'become silent!'. 

Under prerequisite a basic meaning "hit' can the following Germanic family be added: 
Old Norse daf/a' splash in the water', Norwegian dial, dabba' stamp, tread down, 
trample, make a blunder '; 

Maybe alb. Geg zhdep'beat, strike' 

Old Norse an{djd0fa' hold on a boat against wind and stream ', Middle English dabben, 
nengl. dab'hW. lightly'. East Frisian dafen'hW, knock, bump, poke'. Middle High German 
beteben' stun, wander about, press', ndd. bedebbert^xe^nmaud, flog, embarrassed'. 

Modern High German tappen, Tapp^ flick ', Middle High German tape'^Qav^' (Germanic e, 
but not to use for statement of Indo Germanic vocalism), Middle Dutch dabben^tap, 
splash' . However, see also Persson IF. 35, 202 f., several of these words with Middle High 
German tappe' clumsy, awkward; clumsy person' etc correlates in a Germanic root dabb-, 
deb{b)-, dab-, dap- 'thick, lumpy', from which "clumsy, stupid, doltish', under comparison 
with Latvian dep/s swearword, perhaps ' fool ', depe' toad ' ("*the awkward'), depsis 
"small, fat boy' [maybe alb. 0^16/? "cradle (for a baby)'] 

and Germanic words, as Swedish Dialectal dabb^ tough lump of mucus ', o'ai/e "puddle, 
pool, slop' (: Old Norse 0(3/75 "splash'?) etc (Latvian o'e/O- is perhaps a a change form to 
*d!"eb- in Old Church Slavic debelt "thick' etc, compare MiJhlenbach-Endzelin I 455); it is 
to be counted on merger of different word cognates in Germanic (see also under dai-, dap- 

after Endzelin (KZ. 51, 290) places engl. dab^iap' to Lithuanian dobiu, dobti' beat to 
death ', Latvian dabiu, dabf\\\'(. 

maybe alb. deboj {* dobet) "chase away', i dobet{*u-dobbn-b) "emaciated, dainty, elegant, 
(beautiful)', o'Oit'/" profit, advantage'. 


Alb. proves that Root / lemma: d^abh-^: "proper, * fitting, dainty' derived from Root/ 
lemma: d^^ab^-/, nasalized d^amb(h)- : "to astonish, be speechless, *hit' [see above] 
References: WP. I 824. 
Page(s): 233 

Root /lemma: d^al- 
Meaning: to blossom, be green 
Material: Armenian o'5/5/'"green, fresh'; 

gr. OaAAu) " blossom, be green, flourish', Perf. T£0r|Aa, Doric TsOaAa, whereof present 
9r|A£(ji), Doric GaAsu) ds., GaAot; n. "young scion, shoot', £pi9r|An(; " sprouting lusciously ', 
EuOaAnq, Doric suOaAnc; " sprouting or blossoming lusciously ', BaKKoq "young scion, shoot, 
young twig, branch', GaAia "bloom, blossom, blossoming prosperity, esp. PI. festive joy, 

Alb. dal{*dalnd), Aor. doia^dal-) " arise, sprout, rise, extend ', participleo''a/e(*o'a//7o) 
etc (about djale^V\(^, child, youngling ' see below del-3). 

There Alb. only arranges original a-vocalism and hence also in gr. die grade a is not 
perceived as neologism of ablaut in a, which could be developed in itself from yare to be 
covered at best by a parallel root tl^e/- : 

perhaps Armenian deV physic, medicine ' (whether from '*herb'); 

cymr. dair\eayes' (analogical Sg. dalen), acorn. de/enleaV etc (/-umlaut of o). Middle 
Irish duille {* dolTnJa) collective, f. ' leaves ', gall. nopn£5ouAa 'five leaves' (Dioskor.) : leg. 

maybe alb. {*dalTnia) de//nje "\ur\'\per' 

Essentially is unsatisfactory apposition from Germanic *d/7Ja in Old English d/7e, Old 
Saxon d/7//, Old High German /////; o'/ZZ/'dill, strongly smelling plant umbel ', changing 
through ablaut Old English dy/e, Old Danish dy//e, Modern High German Dialectal tulle 6s., 
with other meaning Old Norse oy//5'Sonchus arvensis L., sowthistle '; at least very 
doubtful of Old High German tola ' a cluster, esp. of grapes ', toldo m. ' treetop or crown of 
a plant, umbel ', Modern High German Dolde^ uxwbeW 

Maybe alb. dylle^yN^y! 

A cognate being far off the meaning of the family is the form Old English deall 
"illustrious', see d^^e/- "gleam, shine'. 

References: WP. I 825 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 302, 703, 714, 720, WH. I 524. 
Page(s): 234 

Root / lemma: d^eb^- 6'^do^-eu- 

Meaning: to harm 

Note: the nasalized forms ( *(i!^enio^-) are as proportional neologisms to interpret the root 

after containing /?-. 

Material: Old Indie dabhnotr damages, disables, cheats. Pass, gets damaged ' ( t|hebh-/7- 

eu-ti), Perf. dadabha and (changed) dadambha, participle Perf. Pass. dabdba-an6 (from 

the root form on -cr.) a-dbhu-ta- M]. " wonderful ', actually "* the inaccessible deception, 

untouchable '; dambhayatr makes confused, frustrated' {dambha-h^6ece\t'), Desid. dipsati 

(= Avestan dlwz-, see below), dabhra-^ a little, slightly, poorly'; 

Avestan dab-' cheat, defraud sb of sth ': davqi^yaQ. Sg. f. "the cheating ', davayeinti 
N. Sg-. f. 'the dishonest ', dabanaota2. PI. present (Aryan *dd^anau-mi, Indo Germanic 
*do'^-en-eu-mi). Inf. diwzaidyai {\n\Vc\ou\. more desiderative meaning, but = Old Indie dipsa- 
tl), participle Perf. Pass, o'sp/a- (innovation); d§ba-vayaT he shall beguile, infatuate ' (root 
form *dd^eu-), a-debaoman-u. " infatuation '; osset. dawin'sieay; 

Hittite te-ip-nu-' esteem lowly, humiliate ', Pedersen Hittite 144. 

Tokharian: A tsaw-, tsop-, B tsap-, tsop- 'mash, crush, pierce; strike, jab, poke' (PT *tsop-, 
*tsapa-) (Adams 743) 

In addition very probably gr. aTsppoj 'damage, rob, cut (Guijov), bewilder, deceive ', 
Pass. ' I am robbed ', with a- probably from *a-, *sm- and with to the same consonant 
relationship as between TTuv5a^ : Old Indie budh-na-h. 

References: WP. I 850 f., Kuiper Nasalpras. 147, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 333. 
Page(s): 240 

Root / lemma: (^'^eb- 

Meaning: fat, heavy 

Material: Old High German tapfar' burdensome, filled; heavy, weighty ', Middle High 

German tapfer^W^hi, firm, thickset, full, weighty, signifying ', late 'valiant (tight, firm in the 

battle)'. Old High German tapfare''r(\o\e\ tapfani. 'moles'. Middle Low German dapper' 

heavy, weighty, vast, grand', Dutch dapper' ya\\av\{\ much, a lot of, Norwegian daper 

'pregnant'. Old Norse dapr' heavy, elegiac, dismal, sad'. 

Perhaps Old Norse dammr. Modern High German Damm, Middle High German tarn 6s., 
Gothic faurdammjan' dam up, hinder', as dhobmo-hexel 

Old Church Slavic debelh 'thick', russ. Dialectal debelyj" corpulent, strong, tight, firm', 
abl. o^c/^d/j^'strong' (etc, s. Berneker 182); Old Prussian deb/kan'b'\g, large'; perhaps also 
Latvian dab/'s under dabis' luscious', dabli audzis' lusciously sprouted ', dablfgs' 
luscious' (Berneker aaO.; after MiJhlenbach-Endzelin I 428 nevertheless, are Latvian 
words probably to be connected with Old Church Slavic dobrb); 

Tocharian A tsopats'b'xq, large', tappo' courage ', /par'high', B tappre, tapr-ds., 
Pedersen Tocharian 243, Tocharian Sprachg. 23, 27, 29, Van Windekens Lex. 135, 148. 

References: WP. I 850, WH. I 437. 

Page(s): 239 

Root / lemma: 6^eg''h- 

Meaning: to burn, *day 

Material: Old Indie dahati, Avestan o'aza/// "burns' (= Lithuanian degu. Old Church Slavic 

zegg, alb. djeK), participle Old Indie dagdha-h{= Lithuanian degtas), Kaus. dahayati; daha- 

/7 "blaze, heat', n/dagha-h'\r\eat, summer', npers. day'burn brand' (in addition spatgr. 

bds/akoq, -\q " red-brown horse '?); Avestan daxsa-m. "blaze'; 

gr. GsTTTavoq aTTT6p£V0(; Hes. ("kindled '; == Lithuanian degt/nas' who or what is to be 
burned '), Tscppa "ash' ( *d^eg"'hra)] 

alb. djek' incinerate, burn ', Kaus. dhez, n-dez, ndez^ ignite ' (basic form *6'"og"heid = 
Latin foved); 


Common Latin d- > f-: 

Latin fovea, -ere "to be boiling hot, to boil, seethe, glow. Transf., to be in quick 
movement, to seethe; to be excited by passion, rage', foculum^ a sacrificial hearth, fire- 
pan, brazier' {*foue-clom), fomentum^ a poultice, fomentation. Transf., alleviation' 
{*fouementom), fomes, -/t/s' touchwood, tinder' {*fouemet-, meaning as Latvian daglis), 
favilla " glowing ashes, esp. of the dead; a spark ' (probably from *d^og"h-lo-la); favonius " 
zephyrus, the warm west wind ' (from *fovdnios): febris "fever' ( Weg^hro-, after Leumann 
Gnom. 9, 226 ff. /-inflection after sitis). 

Middle Irish daig{Ge'r\. dega) "fire, pain' (from *degi-)\ about Middle Breton deuiff, nbret. 
devi, cymr. deifio^bwvi see below *(£/af/-"burn'; cymr. de^ burning '; go-ddaith^b\aze' 
(from *-dekto-)\ but Old Irish o'eo'-d/" break of dawn' after Marstrander Diet. Ir. Lang. I 213 
actually " parting drink, the last drink '; nir. 0^0^/75 "burdock' (: Lithuanian dagyssee below); 

about Gothic dags'day' etc see below *agher- S. 7; 


from Root/ lemma: 6!^eg''h-\ "to burn, *day' derived Root/ lemma: agher-, aghen-, aghes- 
(or oghereic): "day' the same as Root/ lemma: aRru: "tear' derived from Root/ lemma: 

daRru-: "tears'. The phonetic shift da- > a-, zero'xs a common Baltic. Compare Root/ 
lemma: del-5\ "long': Baltic with unexplained o'-loss (see below): Lithuanian ilgas, f. ilga. 

Latvian ilgs, Old Prussian //gaand ilgi'Mv. "long' : Hittite Norn. PI. da-lu-ga-e-es 
{dalugaes) "long', da-lu-ga-as-ti {dalugasti) n. 'length'. This is a sound proof of Aryan 
migration from the Baltic region to North India. 

Lithuanian degu, degf/'burn' (trans, and intrans.), degtas'burnt', degtinas^ what is to 
be burned ', degtinei. " brandy, alcohol ', ablauteud dagys, o'a^/s 'thistle' (Latvian dadzis); 
dagas^ the burning; summer heat; harvest ', o^a^a 'harvest'. Old Prussian 0(3^/5 'summer'; 
Lithuanian daglas^ to brand ', deglas^ torch, cresset, brand; black-dappled '; Latvian 
daglasi. PI. 'scorch', o's^/zis 'tinder'; Lithuanian nuodegulis^ firebrand ', degis^ burner; 
burning '; ablaut, atuo-dogiai {!) m. PI. ' summer wheat, summer crops '; 

sloven, d^gn/t/'burn, warm', Czech old dehna'6ev\\', ablaut, dahnet/ 'burn'; russ. 
degotb 'tar' (from '* wood rich in resin '), as Lithuanian degutas' birch tar '; with Assimil. 
(?) von *degg\.o *gegg:0\6 Church Slavic zegg, zes//'burn', ablaut, russ. /z-^a^a 'pyrosis, 
heartburn' (see Meillet MSL. 14, 334 f., different Brugmann l|2 3, 120). 

Maybe alb. z/7e^ 'summer heat' a Slavic loanword. 

Tocharian B /e/r/ "disease, malady' (= Irish daig); A tsak-, B /s5/r- 'burn', /s after ablaut. 
tsak-{Vi'"eg"h-) 'gleam, glow'; AB co/r'light' (from 'pinewood torch') : Balto Slavic *degut- 
'tar' (see above). 

References: WP. I 849 f., WH. I 466 f., 469, 471 f., 864, Trautmann 49, Pedersen 
Tocharian Sprachg. 23. 
Page(s): 240-241 

Root / lemma: ^^eigh- 

Meaning: to knead clay; to build 

Note: s. to Sachlichen Meringer IF. 17, 147. 

Material: Old Indie dehmi' coat, cement' (3. Sg. degdh/"\r\s\.ead oi*dedhi), also participle 

digdha-, deha-m. n. ' body, structure ', dehffi. ' embankment, dam, curve, bay ', Avestan 

pairi-daezayeitr walled all around ' (= Old Indie Kaus. dehayati) uzdistaZ. Sg. Med. ' has 

erected (a dam) ', participle uz-dista-, uz-daeza- m. ' pile, embankment ', pairi-daeza-m. ' 

enclosure, park ' (out of it gr. napa5£iao(; 'a royal park or pleasure ground, a Persian word 

brought in by Xen.; used for the garden of Eden, Paradise'), Old pers. oVic/a 'fortress' (from 

*diza-, root nom. in -a), npers. diz, dez6s.\ 


Reduplicated laryngeal in h2™ahre- > Avestan ae- 

Armenian dizanem{kox. 3. Sg. ede^ " pile up ', dizanim^ be piled up ', o'ez'heap'; 

Maybe nasalized alb. {*6^eigh-) deng^heap' [common Latin -/?- > -g-]. 

thrak. -5i^0(;, -5i^a 'castle' (: Old pers. d/da or W/gh-/a); also 5£^iov, PN A£i^a(;, Burto- 
dexion, Burtu-dizos, Aiyyiov (: Latin fingo); Pannonian VN An-dizetes^ castle inhabitant '; 


lllyrian Pannonian VN An-dizetes^ castle inhabitant ' displays satem characteristics 
[common alb. -gh- > -d-, -z-]. 

gr. T£Txo(; n., toTxo(; m. (formal = Old Indie deha-) "wall'; Giyyavw, Aor. GiysTv " touched ' 
(meaning as Latin fingere a\so " shaped, fashioned, formed, molded; arranged ', voiced- 
nonaspirated ^previously original from the nasalized present form); 


Common Latin d- > f-: 

Latin fingo, -ere, finxi, fictum^\.o shape, fashion, form, mold; also to arrange, put in 
order; to represent, imagine, conceive; to feign, fabricate, devise, make up; touch 
strokingly', figulus^ a worker in clay, potter ' (:Germanic *di3ulaz), iTIum {* figslom) "shape', 
e/^ig/es "(molded) image, an image, likeness, effigy; a shade, ghost; an ideal ', figura^ 
form, shape, figure, size; an atom; shade of a dead person; in the abstr., kind, nature, 
species ', fictid^ forming, feigning; assumption ', fictilis^ shaped; hence earthen, made of 
clay; n. as subst., esp. pi. earthenware, earthen vessels ' (to Latin ^instead of h 
s.Leumann Latin Gr. 133; after latter derives from forms as f/ctus a\so /rfrom Old Faliscan 
f/f/ked' touched, handled ', Oscan /^>^/r^s perhaps " you will have devised '); probably 
Umbrian f/k/a, ficlam " a gruel used at sacrifices, a cake, offered to the gods ', Latin fftilla " 
a gruel used at sacrifices ' (with dial, /from ct); Oscan fefhuss^ walls ' {Weigho-); 

about Latin fflum (identical with fflum " filament ' ?) compare WH. I 497, on the other 
hand EM2 360; 

Old Irish oVige/? "tight, firm' ("*kneaded tightly, compact'); Old Irish *kom-uks-ding-\o 
build, erect' in 1. Sg. cunutgim, 3. Sg. conutuince\.c and perhaps also dingid, for-ding^ pw\ 
down, oppressed ', see below 1. d^e/?^/?- "press, cover' etc; 

Gothic l=>amma digandin "the kneading ', kasa digana' clay vessel ', gadigis (meaning 
\ox gadikis, 'anything moulded, an image, figure, shape, construction', es-stem, similarly 
teTxoc; "a wall'); daigsm. "dough' {*d^o/ghos), Old Norse de/g{r\.), Old English dag, Old 
High German fe/g6s.; Old Norse d/gr^t\r\\ck, corpulent ' (meaning as Irish digen), Gothic 
o'/g/'e/ "density, thickness, bulk, mass'. Middle High German tiger, t/gere Adv. "fully, entirely 
', Norwegian Dialectal digna^ become thick ', diga^ thick, soft mass ' besides Middle Low 
German Norwegian dTger, Old High German tegal. Old Norse diguir glaze pot, crucible, 
skillet ' seems to be a genuine Germanic word (*d/j.. laz), however, this has sponged in 
the meaning of Latin tegu/a {irom rnyavov "a frying-pan, saucepan'); 

Maybe alb. tjegu/a' roof-tile' : Latin tegu/a'tWe, roof-tile' [conservative definitive forms 
versus indefinite forms (alb. phonetic trait)]. 

Lithuanian d/ezt/, dyzt/l\ay, flog' ("*knead, smear one down '), Latvian d/ezet' 
convince, offer' ("*to humbug sb '); Old Russian deza, kir. d/za etc " kneading trough, form, 
mould ' {*d^o/gh-/-a; Berneker 198, MiJhlenbach-Endzelin I 487). 

Maybe alb. {*d'^oigh) 0770^5 "plank' 

An adapted form {*gheiA^-) is probably Lithuanian ziedziu, z/esf/lom\, mould'. Old 
Lithuanian puod-z/dys' a worker in clay, potter ', Old Church Slavic z/zdg, zbdat/^to build', 
zbdb, z/db "wall' (Buga Kalba ir s. 184 f); 

Tocharian A fseke si peke si^ figure, shape or painting ' (W. Schuize Kl. Schr. 257 f., 
Indo Germanic *d!^oighos). 

A parallel root t|he/g- seeks Wood Mod. Phil. 4, 490 f. in Middle High German tTchen 
"make, create etc'; Old English diht(i)an " to say often; to say over, dictate a thing to be 
written; hence to get written down ', Old High German ///7/0/7" invent and create; versify ' 
derive from late Latin dictare " to say often; to say over, dictate a thing to be written; hence 
to get written down '. 

References: WP. I 833 f., WH. I 501 f. 507. 
Page(s): 244-245 

Root / lemma: d'^eia- : d'Na- : d'^T- 

Meaning: to see, show 

Material: Old Indie adJdheV he looked ', PI. dJdhimah, Med. dfdhye, adJdhJta, Konj. 

dfdhayat {perhaps converted to present Perf., compare Perf. dldhaya); dhya-ti, dhya-ya-ti 

(/b-present) " looks in spirit, d. i. thinks, reflects ', participle dhya-ta- and dhT-ta-, dhya^ the 
thinking, meditating ', oyTKa-Za/"- "thinker', dhya-na-n. 'meditation, contemplation ', 
dhyaman-n. (Gr.) "thought, notion'; dh7-h, Akk. o'/7/K-a/77 "thought, notion, imagining, 
discernment, understanding, religious meditation, devotion ', dhJ-ti-' awareness, thought, 
notion, devotion ', dhTra-^ seeing, smart, wise, skilful', avadhJrayati^ disdains (despicit), 
rejects, despises ', prakr. herai^ sieves '; s- formation Old Indie dhiyasana-' attentive, 
observant, heedful '; presumably also dhisana- if "sensible, wise, smart', dhisanyant-W " 
observant, pious ', dhisa\'(\s\x. Adv. if " with devotion, zeal, or lust ', yet compare on the 
other hand that belong to Latin festus, fanum, Indo Germanic d^es- "religious', dhfsnya-^ 
devout, religious '; 


Reduplicated laryngeal in h2"ahre- > Avestan ae- 

Avestan da{})- "see', e.g. a-o'/Sa'// "contemplates', daidyantoHom. PI. participle " the 
seeing ' (etc, s. Bartholomae Airan. Wb. 724); participle pait'hdTta- " beholds ', -dJti- f. "the 
beholding ', da&a- " sensible, smart' (lengthened grade as -dida'ti), -da(y)-, -df- f. as 2. 
composition part "vision, look; discernment, intention'; -daman- " intention'; daeman- n. 
"eye, eyeball; look', doi&ra-u. "eye', daena^re\\q\ou' and " internal being, spiritual I '; npers. 
drdan'see', drm lace, cheek'; 

gr. anpa, Doric aapia "mark, token, sign, Kennzeichen, Merkmal etc' {*d!"Ja-mn= Old 
Indie dhyaman-, Lithuanian by Boisacq s. v., compare Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 322; after E. 
Leumann [Abh. Kunde d. Morgenl. 20, 1, S. 96] rather to Sakisch 555/773 "mark, token, 
sign'), aniJaivu) " mach^urch^ir^eicherU<^^ etc'; 

alb. dfture, dftme^ wisdom, learning ', 07/73/: "cunning'. 

Also alb. o'/"l know, discern' 

It goes back to a synonymous *id!^au-. 

Gr. Gaupa " what excites admiration, astonishment; veneration, astonishment ' ( *id!^9u- 
mn) Gaupa^oo " be surprised, astonish, venerate, admire ', next to which with gradation 
G(I)(u)|ja; compare Boeotian 0u)|ju)v, Doric Oajpavraq (Lithuanian by Boisacq under 
GaOpa; about Gr|pO(; Gauija Hes. probably Gf|Fo(;, s. Boisacq under GappO(; m. Lithuanian); 
Attic Geo " looking, sight; show' from *GaFa, compare syrak. Gaa, Ionian Gnsopai, Doric 
Gasopai "consider' (Attic Gsaopai reshaped after Gsa), etc, s. Boisacq under Geo and 
G£U)p6(; (to latter still Ehrlich KZ. 40, 354 Anm. 1). Except gr. equivalents are absent. 

References: WP. I 831 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 349, 523. 
Page(s): 243 

Root / lemma: d^efo^- 

Meaning: to bury 

Note: Only german. and Balto-Slavic 

Material: Old High German bi-telban, -/e/pa/? (participle bitolban) "bury", Old Saxon bi- 

delban6s., mndd. Dutch delven. Old English delfan^6\i^, bury', Flemish o'e/i/'gorge, 

ravine, gulch, ditch, trench, channel'; in addition Swiss tu/pen'h\t, thrash', Tirol da/fer's\ap 

in the face, box on the ear, blow, knock', ndd. do/ben'hW; 

Balto Slavic *dilbd^ dig, hollow out ': in Lithuanian de/baan6 dalbai. " crowbar', Latvian 
dilbai., dilbism. " hollow bone, epiphysis, shinbone', delbs^ upper arm, elbow', dalbsm., 
dalbat " fishing rod, hayfork '; perhaps Lithuanian nu-dilbintT lower the eyes down '; 

Slavic *dblbg, *de/t/"\r\ Serbo-Croatian dubem, dupst/" hoWow out', dubok^deep, etc 
(ablaut. *de/t/"\n Serbo-Croatian dial. d//st/^ chisel, cut ', compare ^y/ye/o "chisel'); Czech 
d/ubu, d/ubat/"\r\o\\o\N out, poke ', ablaut. *do/b-\n Czech dlabati^ chisel, cut ', dlab^ seam ' 
(= Latvian dalbs). Old Russian nadolobt m., nadolbai. " town enclosure '; *o'c/i6'-/c»- "chisel, 
sharp iron ' in Old Prussian dalptan^ press copy, impact break ', Slavic *o'c»//c» "chisel' in 
Bulgarian dlato, russ. -Church Slavic diato, russ. doMods. 

maybe truncated alb. {*doltd) o^a/Ze "chisel' 

References: WP. I 866 f., Trautmann 54, MiJhlenbach-Endzelin I 434. 
Page(s): 246 

Root/ lemma: 6^elgh-, d^elg-il) 
Meaning: to hit 

Material: Old English dolgn.. Old High German tolc, tolg, dolgn. "wound' ("*blow, knock'). 
Old Norse dolgu. "enmity', o'o/g/' "fiend', oy/^ya "enmity', wherefore probably ndd. dalgen, 
dalJen^hW (borrows Norwegian Dialectal da/ga6s.), Modern High German (Hessian- 
nassauisch. East Prussian) da/gen, ta/ken 'thrash, hit'. Middle High German talgen 
"knead'. After Havers KZ. 43, 231, IF. 28, 190 ff. was also for gr. GsAyu) " enchant, beguile 
etc', GsAKTOop, GsAkthp, GsAkthpioc; " charming, tempting ', GsA^ic; " enthrallment ' (Indo 
Germanic *&^elg- besides *6^e/gh-7) the basic meaning " enchantment through a blow ' 
probably, as well as also TeAxTvec;, OsAyTvEc; demons were damaging through blows the 
health of the people and at the same time the smiths. 

Everything quite uncertainly. Rather Tocliarian A talkev\., B /e/A/" sacrifice, oblation' could 
still belong to it. 
References: WP. I 866. 
Page(s): 247 

Root / lemma: 6^elg- 

Meaning: to stick; needle 

Material: Old Irish deign, (es-stem) 'thorn, cloth needle', corn. delc(\.e. delch) " a 

necklace, collar [for horses and other animals]', mcymr. dala, d/a/'bite, prick, sting'; 

Old Norse dalkr^ needle to fasten the mantle about the right shoulder; spinal column of 
fish; dagger, knife ', Old English da/cm. "clasp, hairpin' (Modern High German Dolch, older 
Tolch, ndd. dolk, after Mikkola BB. 25, 74 the origin of Czech poln. tulich, sloven, tolih, is 
namely borrowed at first from Latin dolo^a pike, sword-stick; a small foresail sword-cane', 
but perhaps reshaped after Germanic words as Old English dale); 

Lithuanian dilgus^ pricking, burning ', dilge, dilgelei. "nettle', dilgstu, dilgtr get burned 
by nettle '; dalgis ^ scythe' here, not to S. 196! 

Here perhaps Latin falx'a sickle, bill-hook, pruning-hook; a sickle-shaped implement of 
war', after Niedermann Essais 17 ff. regressive derivative from falcula, that derives from 
Ligurian (?) *dalkla{*6!"al-tla), also as sizil. ZayKAr), AqvkAI "Messina' (: Spsnavov). 

maybe lllyrian TN Docleatae 

However, one derive just as well from *6'"alg-tla ; if in that Italian dialekt would have 
become Indo Germanicyto al, the a-vowel can be also explained. 

Late Latin daculum ^ s\ck\e' could be in addition the Ligurian equivalent. Against it Terracini 
Arch. Glott Ital. 20, 5f.,30f. 

References: WP. I 865 f. 
Page(s): 247 

Root/ lemma: d^e/-/, d^o/o- 
Meaning: curve; hollow 

From Root / lemma: ghel-1 (and ghel-1), also as /-, u-or /7-stenn; ghela- : ghle- ghlo- : 
ghla-\ "to shine; green, gold, blue, *sun' derived Root/ lemma: d^e/-/, d^o/o-: "curve; 
hollow'. Root/ lemma: 6^61-2: "light, shining'. Root/ lemma: 6!^el-3\ "to tremble' [common 
alb.-lllyrian gh- > o'-]. 

Material: Gr. GoAoc; f. " dome, cupola, domed roof, round building (sudatorium)'; sizil. GoAia, 
lak. (Hes.) oaAia " round summer hat ', 9aAaiJ0(; m. " situated in the interior of house room, 
bedroom, pantry ', GaAapn "cave, den (of animals)', 6(p-0aA|j6c; "eye' (*6TTO-9aA[j6(; "* eye 
socket '); 

cymr. dolt "valley', bret. £7c»/in PN; 

Old Norse c/a/r'bo\N'; Gothic da/str\. or da/n. "valley, pit, pothole'. Old Saxon da/, Old 
English dse/, Old High German ta/n. "valley'. Old Norse da/rm. "valley'; Gothic dalat^^ 
downwards ', o'a/aA'a" under', dalat^ro^ from below ' (here as *DaliPerndz^ valley 
inhabitant ' the Da//tem/ oi Av\enus, German Alps in Valais, after R. Much, Germanist. 
Forschungen, Wien 1925), Old Frisian to de/e ' down' , Old Saxon to dale. Middle Low 
German dale, nnd. dal'down, low'. Middle High German ze tal6s.; Old English dell Middle 
High German telle i. "gorge, ravine, gulch' {*daljd); changing through ablaut Old Norsed0ll 
m. " valley inhabitant ' {*ddlja-), Norwegian dial. d0r small valley, long gully resembling 
dent ' {*ddljd) = Old High German tuolla. Middle High German /Je/e "small valley, dent ', 
mnl. doer6\tc\r\, trench, channel'; Old Norse d^la'guWy' {*deljd), d^ld^smaW valley' 
{*delldd}; ndd. o'o/e "small pit, pothole'. Middle High German to{e) f. " drainage ditch ' (Old 
High German o'o/a "gully, ditch, trench, channel, duct, tube, pipe' probably actually ndd.), 
Old High German tulli. Middle High German tulle, ndd. o'o//e "short duct, tube, pipe' (also 
ndd. o'a/ stands for "duct, tube, pipe'); 

Old Church Slavic (etc) o'c»/z>"hole, pit, pothole, valley', dolu^ downwards ', o'c»/& "under'. 

References: WP. I 864 f.. Loth RC. 42, 86. 
Page(s): 245-246 

Root / lemma: 6^^61-2 

Meaning: light, shining 


From Root / lemma: ghel-1 (and ghel-1), also as /-, ^-or /7-stem; ghela- : ghle-, ghlo- : 

ghla-\ "to shine; green, gold, blue, *sun' derived Root/ lemma: ^^el-1, d^o/o-: "curve; 

hollow'. Root/ lemma: ^^el-2\ "light, shining'. Root/ lemma: ^^el-3\ "to tremble' [common 

alb.-lllyrian gh- > d\ 

Material: Perhaps Armenian deHn, Gen. dei-noy'ye\\o\N, sallow, paled, pallid' {*6!^eleno-); 

Middle Irish dellrad^ radiance '; Old English deair sioui, proud, bold, illustrious'. Old 
Norse GN Heimdallr, Ma/'-o'p// 'epithet of the light goddess Freyja ', Dellingr^ father of the 
day ', Middle High German ge-te//e^ pretty, good'(?). 

References: WP. I 865. 
Page(s): 246 

Root / lemma: d^e/-3 

Meaning: to tremble 


From Root / lemma: ghel-1 (and ghel-1), also as /-, ^-or /7-stem; ghela- : ghle-, ghlo- : 

ghla-\ 'to shine; green, gold, blue, *sun' derived Root/ lemma: d^e/-/, d^oA?-: 'curve; 

hollow'. Root/ lemma: ^^el-2\ 'light, shining', Root/ lemma: ^^el-3\ 'to tremble' [common 

alb.-lllyrian gh- > d\ 

Material: Armenian o'c/a/r? 'tremble'; Norwegian and Swedish dial, dilla^smui^, swerve ', 

Norwegian dial, dalla, dulla^ walk on tiptoe; trip ', Low German o's/Ze/? 'amble', Norwegian 

d/7te'trot, walk on tiptoe; trip ', da/teds. 

Doubtful; s. Falk-Torp under o'/Z/e addendum. 

References: WP. I 865. 
Page(s): 246 

Root/ lemma: {d^errto^-), d^/pb^- 

Meaning: to dig 

Note: only gr. and armen. 

Material: Armenian damban 'graye, vault, sepulchre, grave; grave, monument, tombstone 

', dambaran 6s.\ 

gr. GaTTTOJ ( *6^nio^-id), Aor. Pass. STacpnv 'bury, entomb', a9aTrT0(; ' unburied ', racpoq m. 
'funeral, obsequies; grave, burial mound', racpn ' funeral, grave', Ta(ppo(; ( *(i!^np^-ro-s) f. 
'ditch, trench, channel'; but Old Prussian damboi. 'ground' is amended in daubo{see 

Maybe alb. dhemb'pa'm, saddness' 


Clearly Root / lemma: {d'^errt'^-), dh/pb^-: "to dig' derived from Root/ lemma: d^e/T?-, 
6^ema-: "to smoke; to blow' which means that Aryans initially burnt the dead while the 
ritual of burial was born much later. 

References: WP. I 852. 
Page(s): 248-249 

Root / lemma: d^em-, d^ema- 

Meaning: to smoke; to blow 

Material: Old Indie 0775/775// "blows' {dhami-syati, -fa- and dhmata-. Pass, dhamyate and 

dhmayate), Avestan dadmainya-^ puffing up, swelling, of frogs ', npers. dam/dan 'b\o\N', 

0^5/77 "breath, breath ', osset. dumun, d/m/n ^ smoke; blow'; 

Maybe alb. Tosc tymn. "smoke': also alb. Geg dhem, alb. dhemb'hurt, ache', dhimbje 

'pain' [common alb. shift m > mb]. 


Clearly from Root/ lemma: d^em-, d'^ema-: "to smoke; to blow' derived Root/ lemma: 

d'^eu~4, d^e^a- (presumably: d^ue- compare the extension d^ue-k-, d'^ue-s-): "to reel, 

dissipate, blow, etc.'. 

gr. 0£fj£poq, aepvoc;, 9£[j£pu)nic; " somber, dark-looking ' (: Old High German timber 

Middle Irish ofe/77 "black, dark'; 

Norwegian daam {'d'^emo-) "dark', daamem. " cloud haze ', daamm. "taste, smell, odor' 
= Old Norse damr'taste'; 

with Guttural-extension: d^enguo-, d^engui-^ misty ' in Old Norse dgkki. "dent in the 
landscape ' = Latvian danga {*d^onguS) " faecal puddle, slop, swampy land, sea mud ', 
further Old Norse d0kkr. Old Frisian diunk^ daxW (Germanic *denkva-)\ zero grade Old 
Saxon dunkar. Old High German tunkal. Modern High German dunkel {ouQ\na\\y and with 
the meaning " misty - humid, wet' Norwegian and Swedish Dialectal o'i//7/re/7 "humid, wet, 
dank, muggy', engl. dank. Dialectal 0'^/7/r "humid, wet'); in addition cymr. dewm. 
{*d^enguos) "fog, smoke, sultriness' etc, deweint^ darkness' (mistakenly Loth RC 42, 85; 
43, 398 f), Hittite da-an-ku-i-is {dankui§) " dark, black' (Benveniste BSL. 33, 142); 

Old Norse o'y'slime, mud, ordure, morass' from *d^mkio-, compare with gramm. 
variation Danish oy/7^"damp, humid, wet', Swedish Dialectal dungen^\\\xxn\d, wet'; 

with Germanic -p-: Middle Higli German dimpfen, damprsteam, smoke', Old High 
German Middle High German dampfm. 'vapor, smoke'. Middle Low German engl. damp 
"vapor, damp fog', ndd. dump/g'6u\\, humid, wet, musty ', Modern High German dumpfig, 
dumpf{a\so = confused, scattered, sprayed); kaus. Old High German dempfen, tempfen. 
Middle High German dempfen' stew through steam, stew '; 

with Germanic -b-: Swedish dial, dimba siexw V. 'steam, smoke, spray', d/mba \apor' , 
Norwegian dambn. 'dust'. Old Norse dumba'dust, cloud of dust' (besides with -mm- Old 
Norse d/mmr'darW, Old Frisian Old English d/mmds., Norwegian Dialectal dimma, 
dumma ' lack of clarity in the air, fog cover ', Swedish dimma 'thin fog'). Old High German 
timber. Middle High German timber, timmer'dark, dim, black'; 

to what extent of background the s-forms Swedish Dialectal stimma, stimba' steam', 
norw Dialectal stamma, stamba'sWv\\C Indo Germanic have been newly created or only 
after concurrence of Old High German toum : Old English steam, German toben ' rage ' : 
st/eben{see below d^eu-, d'^eu-b^- 'scatter, sprinkle'), is doubtful; 

Lithuanian dumiu, dumti'b\o\N', apdumti' blow with sand or snow (of wind) ', dumpies 
'bellows', dumpiu, dumpti'b\o\N' (probably with p-extension). Old Prussian dumsie' 

Old Church Slavic dtmg, dgti'b\o\N' (to Balto Slavic vocalism s. Berneker 244 f. m. 
Lithuanian, Meillet Slave comm.2 63 f., 164, Trautmann 63). 

References: WP. I 851 f. 
Page(s): 247-248 

Root / lemma: d^engh-1 

Meaning: to press; to cover 

Material: Old Irish dingid, for-ding' oppressed' (see also d^eigh-); compare Pedersen KG. 

II 506; 

Lithuanian dengiu, derigti' cover', danga'cover', dangus'sky, heaven', in addition d/rigti 
' disappear' (from '* be covered '), Slavic *dgga'bo\N' (: Lithuanian danga) in russ. duga 
'bow', old ' rainbow ', Bulgarian d-bga, serb. duga, poln. dial, dgga ds., probably to: 

Old Icelandic dyngia' dunghill, house in the earth where the women did the handwork ', 
Old English dynge. Old High German tunga' fertilization ', Old Saxon dung. Old High 
German tung. Middle High German tunc' the subterranean chamber where the women 

weaved ' (originally winter houses covered with fertilizer for the protection against the 
cold), Old English dung^ jail ', Old High German tungen^ depress, fertilize ', Old English 
engl. dung' manure ', Modern High German Dung, Dunger. 

Maybe alb. dengu' heap' 

References: WP. I 791 f., 854, Trautmann 44 f. 
Page(s): 250 

Root / lemma: d^engh-2 

Meaning: to get, gripe 

Material: Old Indie daghnot/ {Aor. dhak, daghyah eic) " reaches up to, achieves ', -daghna- 

' reaching up to something ' {*6^ngh-); 

gr. TQXUc; "quick, fast', Kompar. Gaaawv {*d'^ngh-); 

Old Irish da/ngen't\g\r\t, firm, strong' = cymr. dengynds. {*dang/no- or *dengino-); 

Slavic d^gh: dggh " strength, power, luck ' in russ. -Church Slavic djagh " strap, leather 
belt ', russ. djaga^ leather belt ', djaglyj^ s\xox\q, fit, healthy', djagnutb "grow, become 
strong '; ablaut. Old Bulgarian /7e-o'p^b "disease, malady' (but russ. o'^iy'"strong' belongs 
rather to 6!"eugh-, under S. 271); the meaning has taken place after probably an 
intermingling with Slavic /^^-"pull, drag, draw ' (Bruckner KZ. 42, 342 f). 

References: WP. I 791 f., Berneker 190, 217 f. 
Page(s): 250 

Root / lemma: 6!^en-1 

Meaning: to run, *flow 

Material: Old Indie dhanayat/' runs, set in movement', npers. dan/dan ^\r\urry, run'. Old Indie 

dhanvat/^ runs, flows ', Old pers. danuvat/y' flows ', Old Indie oy?^/?^/^/'- "running, flowing '; 

Messapic river name ardannoa ( *ar-6'"onu-a) " situated in the water ' (?), (under the 
influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), apul. PN Ardaneae = Herdonia (Krahe Gl. 17, 

Latin probably fons, -tis^ a spring, fountain; fresh or spring water. Transf. spring, origin, 
source '; perhaps hybridization of /ostem *fontos and //-stem *fent/s C^^n-t/'-); 

Note: common Latin initial o'->/- shift. 

Tocharian AB tsan "flow', B tsehe " current, gush ', tsnam "flow'. 

References: WP. I 852, Couvreur BSL. 41, 165. 
Page(s): 249 

Root / lemma: d^en-2 

Meaning: surface of hand/land, etc. (*dry land) 


From Root/ lemma: d^e/?-/: " to run, *flow' derived Root/ lemma: d'^en-2: "surface of 

hand/land, etc. (*dry land)' meaning "arid flat area'. 


Old Indie dhanus-n., dhanvan-m. n. " dry land, mainland, beach, dry land, desert ', dhanu- 

, dhanu-i. "sandbank, seashore, island'; 

gr. Gsvap n. " palm, sole, also from the surface of the sea or from deepening in the altar 
to the admission of the offering ', oniaGsvap " opisthenar, back of the hand ' 
(*6nia0o0£vap). Old High German tenarm., tenrai. {*denara-). Middle High German tener 
m. "flat hand', Curtius^ 255 (samt Old Indie dhanus-, see below). 

In addition Vulgar Latin danea'area' (Reichenauef Gl.), Old High German tennir\., 
(under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-). Middle High German tenne m. f. 
n.. Modern High German Tenne^ barn floor, threshing floor, flattened loam ground or 
wooden floor as a threshing place, hallway, ground, place, surface generally ', Dutch 
denne'area, a pavement of tiles, brick, stone; floored, boarded; n. as subst. a floor, story; 
a row or layer of vines '; as " smoothly trodden place good as threshing floor ' can be also 
understood meeklenb. ofe/7/7 "trodden down place in the grain layer'. Middle Low German 
0^/7/7© "lowland, depression' (and " valley forest ' see below). Middle Dutch denne' den of 
wild animals ' (and " valley forest ', see below), dan " waste, from shrubbery surrounded 
place, place generally, land, scenery ' (and " valley forest ', s. under). Old English denn 
"cave, wild den', nengl. den^cas/e, pit, pothole'. East Frisian dannfej^bed, garden bed, 
garden plot '. 

About Lithuanian den/sm. " deck board of a small boat ', Latvian denis ds. (Germanic 
loanword?) s. Trautmann 51, MiJhlenbach-Endzelin I 455. 

References: WP. I 853. 
Page(s): 249 

Root / lemma: d^en-3 

Meaning: to hit, push 


From Root/ lemma: 6!^en-1\ " to run, *flow' derived Root/ lemma: 6yen-2\ "surface of 

hand/land, etc. (*dry land)' meaning "arid flat area', then from Root/ lemma: 6'^en-2\ 

"surface of hand' derived Root/ lemma: A'^en-S: "to hit, push'. 

Material: Only in extensions (almost exclusively Germanic): 

o'-extension: Old Norse dettas\.erc\ V. " fall down heavily and hard, hit ' {*dintan, 
compare Norwegian dial, datta^'danton] "knock': denta^ give small punches '), Modern 
Frisian dintje' shake lightly ', Norwegian deise^ fall tumbling, glide ' (from:) ndd. dei(n)sen 
{*dantisdn) " reel back, flee'; East Frisian duns^^aW (sfrom -dt- or -ds-), Old Norse dyntr, 
Old English dyntm. (= Old Norse dytt/), engl. d/nt'b\o\N, knock, shove '; 

alb. g-dhent, gdhend^ hew wood, plane, beat ', Geg dhend, dhenn " cut out, cut ' (under 
the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-). 

Maybe {*gdhend) gdhe'p'\ece of wood', alb. Tosc dend'WA, beat'. 

Gutt-extension: Old Norse danga {*dangdn) "thrash': Old Swedish d/'unga stem V. "hit'. 
Middle English dingen^hW, bump, poke', nengl. f///?^ (Scandinavian loanword). Middle High 
German t/nge/en' knock, hammer', Norwegian d/ng/e {and dangle) "dangle'; Kaus. Old 
Norse dengja. Old English dengan. Middle High German tengen {tengelen) "hit, knock, 
hammer (Modern High German dengeln)'; Old High German tanga/m. "hammer'. 

Labial-extension: Swedish d/mpa{damp) "fall fast and heavily', ndd. dumpen'\r\\t, bump, 
poke', engl. dial, dump^ hit heavily '. 

References: WP. I 853 f. 
Page(s): 249-250 

Root / lemma: d^eragh- 

Meaning: to pull; to drag 

Note: equal meaning with tragh-{see d.). 

Material: Old Norse draga, Gothic under Old English dragan, engl. draw'puW, drag'. Old 

Norse dragn. " base of a pulled object ', Norwegian drag^ draught, wash of the waves, 

watercourse, towing rope ', dial, drogi. {*dragd) " short sledge, road track of an animal, 

valley ', Old Norse dregiirband, strap', drogi. "stripe'. Old Swedish dr0gh^ sled ', Old 

English drsegei. " seine, fishing net which hangs vertically in the water with floats on the 

top and weights on the bottom ', Middle Low German dragge, nnd. also dregge^ boat 

anchor ', engl. dredgers.; changing through ablaut Norwegian dorgi. {*durgd, Indo 
Germanic *6'^rgha) 'fishing line, which one pulls up behind the boat '; with the meaning 
"bear, carry' (from 'drag', s. Berneker 212), Old High German tragan^bear, carry', s/'h 
(gi)tragon ' bear oneself, conduct oneself, behave '. 

Maybe alb. Geg {dheragh-) terhek^'QuW, drag' : Polish targac ' carry ' [common alb. -g- > - 
/7- shift] 

Probably here Slavic *darga\v\: serb. -Church Slavic draga^vaWey', russ. dor6ga^\Nay, 
alley, journey', dial, 'fishing rod'; 

maybe alb. {*do-r6ga) rruga^^Nay, alley, journey' [common alb. de- > zero grade] similar 
formation to Hittite Nom. PI. da-lu-ga-e-es {dalugaes) 'long' : alb. {* da-lu-ga-e-es) glate 
'long'; also alb. {*dordga) dergonj^ send in a trip'. 

The phonetic shift da- > a-, zero\s a common Baltic lllyrian. Compare Root / lemma: del-5 
: 'long': Baltic with unexplained o'-loss (see below): Lithuanian I/gas, f. /7ga, Latvian /Igs, 
Old Prussian /7ga and //g/Adv. 'long' : Hittite Nom. PI. da-lu-ga-e-es {dalugaes) 'long', da- 
lu-ga-as-ti {dalugasti) n. 'length'. 

serb. draga^vaWey', poln. droga^^ay, alley, road, journey', russ. o'cAdz/Zi. 'hollow out', 
Czech drazitr make a rabbet or a furrow, hollow out '; perhaps also Czech z-drahati se 
'refuse, decline', poln. wz-dragac si§^ to flinch from doing sth, flinch, shudder ' (as ' 
protract, draw ') and Old Church Slavic podragh ' hemline, edge of a dress ' (different 
under dergh-^ catch '). 

Latin traho'to trail, pull along; to drag, pull violently; to draw in, take up; of air, to 
breathe; to draw out, hence to long- then; to draw together, contract. Transf. to draw, 
attract; to take in or on, assume, derive; to prolong, spin out; to ascribe, refer, interpret', 
traha^ sledge, drag ', tragum^ seine ', tragula^ds., small drag, a species of javelin ' could 
go back through spirant dissimilation {*dragd\.o *dragd) in d^ragh-, but also Indo Germanic 
/- have (: Old Irish tra/g looi' etc, s. tragh-). 

References: WP. I 862, Trautmann 45. 
Page(s): 257 

Root/ lemma: d^e/b^-{d^ersb^-7) 

Meaning: to work 

Material: Armenian o'e/-;fc>^/r' rough, stiff, rude'; 

Old English deorfa n siexw V. "work; perish, die', gedeorfv\. "work, hardship ', Old Frisian 
for-derva. Middle Low German vor-derven. Middle High German verderben^6\e, perish', 
also Kaus. "spoil'; 

Lithuanian d/'rbu, dlrbt/" work', darbas' work', darbus' laborious'. 


Root / lemma: d^e/b'^-{6^er^^-'?) : "to work' derived from Root/ lemma: d'^ereb'"-: "to 

References: WP. I 863, II 631, Kluge^ 101, 649. 
Page(s): 257 

Root / lemma: d^ereb'^- 

Meaning: to harden 

Material: Old Indie drapsa-h rr\. "drip'??; 

gr. TpscpsoGai, TSTpocpsvai " curdle, coagulate, harden, be firm ', rpscpu), Doric rpacpu) 
"make curdle, coagulate, harden (yaAa; rupov), nourish (*make thick, fat, obese), bring up' 
(GpsijJU), sGpsitJa) Tpocpoq " nourishing ', f. " wet nurse ', Gpsppa " the nourished, foster 
child, child, breeding livestock ', rpocpK; "fat, obese, strong, big, large', TpocpaAi(;, Aboq " 
fresh cheese, coagulated milk ', Tap(pu(; "dense', rapcpsa PI. n. " thicket ', rpacpspn (vn) " 
firm land'; 

maybe truncated alb. (*Tp6cpi(;) trashelat, obese, strong, big, large, coagulated'. 

nasalized and with Indo Germanic b{\r\do Germanic Articulation variation in nasal 
surroundings) Gp6|jpO(; " coagulated mass (from milk, blood etc)', Gpoppoofjai " coagulate 
', GpojjpeTov " clots '; 

Old Saxon derbi {*darbia) "strong, mad, wicked, evil'. Old Frisian Middle Low German 
ofen/e 'strong, just, rightful ' (different from Old High German derb^ unleavened ' = Old 
Norse t^Jarfr), ablaut. Old Norse djarfr^ Qarr\y , bold' (the older meaning still in Norwegian 
dial, d/rnairom *d/rfna' put on weight, recover, regain one's strength '); Old Norse d/rfa' 
encourage '; nasalized probably Old Norse dramb' lavishness ' (*be thick), nisi, drambr' 
knots in the wood '; Old Norse drumbr'c\ot, chunk'. Middle Low German drummer sturdy 


Probably from (Old Saxon thervi, Old High German derbr unleavened ', Modern High 
German Bavarian derb^ arid, dry, thin ') Root / lemma: (s)ter-1, (s)ter9-. (s)tre-\ "stiff, 
immovable; solid, etc' derived the extended root Root/ lemma: d^erebh-: "to harden' 
[common st- > t- PIE] 
References: WP. I 876. 
Page(s): 257-258 

Root / lemma: ^^eregh- 

Meaning: thorn? 

Note: with formants -(e)s-Bx\^ -no-. Dubious equation. 

Material: Old Indie draksa " grape '; common Old Indie gh- > ks- 

gallorom. *dragenos' thorn', Old Irish dra/genm. " blackthorn ', cymr. draenm., nbret. 
drean ^bnar' (Celtic *drageno- irom *&^regh-)\ 

perhaps also Old High German tirn-pauma^ of the cornel-tree ', tyrn, dirnbaum^ a 
cornel cherry-tree ', Modern High German dial. di(e)rle, dirnlein^ Cornelian cherry 
(dogwood) ', Swiss tierii, whether it is not borrowed from Slavic in very old time; 

Lithuanian drignesP\., Latvian dr/genes 'b\ack henbane ' (compare Miihlenbach- 
Endzelin I 498), whether it is not borrowed from Slavic; 

russ. deren, deren " Cornelian cherry (dogwood) ', Serbo-Croatian dnjen, Czech drfn 
ds., poln. (old) drzon^ barberry', Kashubian o'/d/? "prickle', polab. oVis/? "thorn'. 

Germanic- Slavic basic form could be Werghno-anA would stand admittedly in its 
meaning "sprout, twig, branch', PI. "young shrubbery, bush' considerably differently colored 
gr. Tp£xvo(; (Hes., anthol.), T£pxvo(; (Maximus), Cypriot to Tspxvija very close. 

References: WP. I 862 f., Pedersen KG. I 97, M.-L. 2762. 
Page(s): 258 

Root / lemma: A^eregh- {^^jgh-na-) 

Meaning: to wind, turn, *release, discharge, disband 

Material: Npers. darz, darza^ suture', darzman, darznan^ filament', o'a/'za/? "needle', 

Pahlavi darzTk^ tailor'; 

Armenian darnam {* darjnam), Aor. darjay' turn over, revolve, turn; return ', o'a/T? "bitter, 
sharp' (compare oIvo(; TpsnETai ), darj^ turn, reversal, return ', Kaus. darjucanem^ turn 
round, turn away, whirl round, return '; 

alb. drefh {stem *dredh-), Aor. drodha^ turn round, turn together, twine, spin ', alb.- 
skutar. nnrize^ diaper ' {n-dred-ze)\ (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn- 

Maybe alb. drize^ throny bush '. 

after Pedersen Hittite 123, 125, Tocharian Sprachg. 20 here Hittite tar-na-ah-hi^ I pocket, 
let in ', Tocharian A tarna-, tark-, preterit A cark, B carka^\e\., allow, disband, release ' (?). 

Maybe secondary meaning alb. o'/'e//? 'perturb, terrify' 

also nazalised alb. /7c//7ze'band, bandage', ndrydh^W\s{\ 

Maybe an older form alb. {*6'^eregh-) derdh^pour, release, discharge, disband, pocket, 
deposit (liquid, turn over?), ejaculate semen ' [common alb. -gh- > -o'-] : Tocharian A tarna- 
, tark-, preterit A cark, B carka^\e\., allow, disband, release ' (?). 


The oldest IE form is actually Hittite tar-na-ah-hi^ I pocket, plug in, let in ' : alb. {*&^eregh-) 
derdh^ pour, release, discharge, disband, ejaculate semen'. It seems that the old meaning 
of Root / lemma: 6!^eregh-{6'^fgh-na^ : 'to wind, turn, *release, discharge, disband ' 
derived from the act of intercourse which became a taboo word in patriarchal society. 
Alb. shows that Root/ lemma: ^^eregh-{<^^fgh-na^ : 'to wind, turn, *release, discharge, 
disband ' derived from the extended Root/ lemma: d^er-/, d^era-: 'a kind of deposit or 
dreg, *ordure, defecate ', Root/ lemma: {<i^er-4t) d^or-: d^er-: 'to jump, jump at, *stream, 
ray, drip, sperm' becoming an euphemistic root. The intermediary bridge root between the 
two was: *6'^ere-gh-. Gr. Gpaaau), Attic GpaiTU) (Perf. hom. Tsiprixa intr.) 'bewilder, perturb 
', Topaxn 'perplexity' found in secondary meaning alb. o'/'e//? 'perturb, terrify, twist'. 
References: WP. I 863, Liden Arm. stem 101 ff., Meillet Esquisse2 111, Kuiper Nasalpras. 
Page(s): 258 

Root/ lemma: d^er-/, di'^era- 

Meaning: a kind of deposit or dreg 

Note: Originally with 6^er-5^ ordure, defecate'? 

Material: a. 6^ere-gh-: 

Gr. Gpaaau), Attic GpaiTU) (Perf. horn. TSTpnxci intr.) "bewilder, perturb ', rapaxn 
"perplexity", rapaaau), Attic -ttoj "bewilder' {*^^eragh-i6\ Lithuanian dirgtisee below); 
Tpaxu(;, Ionian Tprixu<; "rough, uneven' (probably originally from dirt crusts; -pa- here from 
sog./, i.e. *d^erdghu-sy, rapxH rapa^K; Hes. (vowel gradation as anapyn: Lithuanian 

Note: common lat d- > f- shift: 

Latin fracesi. " (broken bits, fragments; hence) grounds or dregs of oil ', fracere " be 
rancid ' from *d^r9gh-\ c\s covered probably from faeces, flocces, there tlher/r- otherwise 
is testified only in Baltic; 

in the meaning " lees, dregs, yeast': alb. drai., Geg dra-ni^ residuum of oil, from 
abundant butter; tartar' (basic form *drae\xo'C(\ *draga, *d^r9gh3)\ 

Old Norse dreggi., PI. dreggiar^yeas^! (out of it engl. dregs); 

Old Lithuanian drages {*iA^raghJas) PI., Old Prussian dragiosP\. "yeast', Latvian 
(Endzelin KZ. 44, 65) dradzi^ residuum from boiled fat'; Slavic *droska\xo'C(\ *&^r9gh-ska\'r\ 
Middle Old Bulgarian drost//aP\.n. "yeast', kir. dr/sc/ds., otherwise assimilated to *troska 
(sloven, trgska' residuum, yeast') and mostly *o'>'c»z^a (Old Church Slavic drozdbj§P\. f. 
"rpuyia, yeast' etc; s. Berneker228); 

here also gallorom. *drasica " dry malt ' (M.-L. 2767), this anyhow from older *drasca (= 
Slavic *droska) or *drazga{== Slavic *drozga) transfigured sein wird; 

with 5/-formants: Old High German {*trast, PI.:) trestir^ what is left of squeezed fruit, 
dregs, pomace ', Old English daerst^e), draesti. " dregs, yeast' (Germanic *draxsta-, 
Sverdrup IF. 35, 154), drosds.; 

with s/7-formants: Old English drosnei., drosnam. "yeast, smut'. Old High German 
druosana, truosana "yeast, residuum '; 

here probably Lithuanian dergia {dergti) " it is bad weather', dargana, darga^ weather, 
bad weather ' (glottal stop, compare die gr. root forms and Lithuanian dregnas, dregnus 
"humid, wet'); in addition Old Russian pao'o/'o^a probably " thunder-storm ', sloven, sq- 
draga, -drag, -drga " hail with small grain size; frozen snow lumps, graupel '; Lithuanian 
dargus " nasty, dirty, filthy'; Old Lithuanian dergesis "filthy person'. Old Lithuanian dergeti 

'hate', Latvian derc/zet/es 'quarre\, squabble' (Muhlenbach-Endzelin I 456 m. Lithuanian), 
Old Prussian derge 'to hate'; Lithuanian dergt/" become dirty, get dirty ', dargt/' revile ', 
dargai. ' rainy weather, defilement, contamination, vituperation '; 

b. A'^erg- in: Middle Irish derg^ed'; Middle High German terken^ befoul ', Old High 
German tarchannen, terch/nen ' (darken) conceal, hide ', Middle Low German dork' keel of 
water depth ', Old English deorc' swart ', engl. dark, Old English f^eorcung' dawn, twilight' 
probably with dafter deostor' dark', geduxod' dark'. 

Maybe alb. o'a/'/re "evening, evening meal, supper', dreke {* derk-) 'dinner, midday'. 

c. d^e/ifr-in: Lithuanian defktT make nasty, befoul ', darkyti'yMy, inveigh, deform', 
darkus' nasty'. Old Prussian e/'o'e/'/r/s 'poisoned', Latvian darks, darci {*darkis) 'pinto' 
Muhlenbach-Endzelin I 448 (see the kinship by Leskien Abl. 361); or to Middle High 
German zurch' ordure', ziirchen ' deiecate'7 Zupitza gutturals 170 under accentuation of 
intonation difference of o'e?/r// compared with derges/s etc; 

here probably Tocharian AB tarkar'c\oud' (Frisk Indog. 24); 

WP. I 854 ff. 

d. dhersbh-.-dh/abh-: d^r^'^-. 

Doubtful Avestan dr/m- {*d'^rsb'^f-) 'stain, birthmark '; 

Middle Irish drab' grape marc, yeast' (tlVsbho-), drabar-s/uag' base, vulgar people'; 

Old Icelandic draf, engl. draff' berm, yeast'. Middle Low German draf. Old High German 
trebirP\. ' grape marc ', Old Norse draflim. 'fresh cheese', drafna'to disband ', Norwegian 
drevja' soft mass '; geminated nl. drabbe' berm, residuum ', ndd. drabbe's\\me, mud'; 
Swedish drovn. ' residuum ' ( t|h/-abhc»-). Old English drdf,0\d High German truobi 
'cloudy', Gothic drobjan. Old High German truoben' tarnish, bewilder'. Old English drefan 
" agitate, tarnish ' (identical meaning-Verh. as between gr. Tapaaau) and Old Norse 

A nasalized form with Baltic uas zero grade vowel of a dissyllabic basis (caused by a 
limited nasal irR) seems Lithuanian *drumb-\n Lithuanian drumstas {co\}\d stand for 
*drumpstas) ' residuum ', drumstus ' c\oudy' , drumsciu, drumsti" tarnish ' (Schleifton 
caused by a heavy group mpstl). 

References: WP. I 854 f., WH. I 538 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 715. 

Page(s): 251-252 

Root / lemma: 6'^er-2, 6'^era- 
Meaning: to hold, support 

Material: Old Indie dhar- "hold, stop, bear, carry, prop, support, receive, hold upright ' 
(present mostly dharayatr, Perf. dadhara, dadhre; dhrta-, dhartum) Pass. " are held back, 
be steady, behave sedately ', Avestan dar- "hold, seize, restrain; whereof adhere, observe 
(a law); hold fast in the memory; perceive with the senses, grasp; sojourn, while, stay' 
{daraye/t/ etc, participle darata-), ap. darayamiy^\\o\(i\ npers. Inf. dastan, osset. Inf. damn, 

Old Indie dharana-^beauuQ, carrying, preserving ', dharuna- " holding, supporting; n. 
foundation, prop', dharana-^ holding; n. the clamps, the restraining '= Avestan darana-v\. " 
means for withholding ', Old Indie dhartar-an6 dharitar-m. " holder', dharitrf girder, 
bearer ', dhartra-y\. "support, prop' = Avestan darsdra-v^. " the grasp, understanding ', Old 
Indie dharma-{= Latin firmus) m. " firm, strong, stout; lasting, valid; morally strong ', 
dharman-m. " holder', dharman-v\. " support, prop, law, custom ', dhanmani'Lok. " after 
the statute, according to custom ', dharaka-' holding; m. container', dhrti-t " the holding 
on, determination ', dr-dhr-a- " tenacious ', sa-dhn{or sadhnm) Adv. " holding out on a 
purpose, holding on to a purpose ', sadhrfy-anc-^ be directed by a purpose, be united, 
together '; didhTrsa^ the intention to support to support', Avestan didaresata^ he composes 
himself for, he gets ready for '; 

about Old Indie o'/77/'a- "tight, firm' s. Waekernagel Old Indie Gr. I 25; 

Armenian perhaps o'ao'5/'(redupl.) "abode, residence, rest ' ("*adherenee, abide by, 
stay', compare Avestan meaning " while, stay, behave quietly '), dadarem' abate (from the 
wind)', compare under Old English darian^ the side, flank; of persons ', Dutch bedaren^ 
become quiet (from the wind, weather)'; 

gr. with the meaning " prop themselves up, force open ' (from the heavy root form) 
Gpavoq m. " bench, footstool ', hom. (Ionian) 9pr|vu(;, -uoq " footstool, thwart ', Ionian 
Gpnvu^, Boeotian Gpavu^, -uko(; "stool' (place an early proto gr. *9pC(vo-, which would 
contain -pa- from -?-, i.e. -©/"a-), Ionian Inf. Aor. GpnaaoGai " sit down ' (proto gr. 6pa-); due 
to the thematic root form tl^e/'(9-.'9p6-vo(; m. "seat'; Cypriot lak. 96p-va^ unonoSiov Hes.; 
with the meaning " grasp through the senses, observe ' and " hold on custom, a religious 
custom ', a-0£p£(; av6r|T0v, avoaiov Hes. (compare under Lithuanian dereti^ be usable '), 

evGpsTv cpuAaaasiv Hes. (from the thematic root form *d'^ere-; against it from Vi^efd-.) 
GpnoKU) vow Hes. (Ionian), GpaoKSiv (a) avapipvnaKSiv Hes., Ionian 0pr|aKr|'i'r|, Koine 
GpnoKsia 'worship', 9pr|aK0(; 'religious, godly, pious', GpnoKsuu) ' observe the official law 
of god '. 

Is aGpsu) 'observe keenly ' up to zero grade nVr\e preposition *en{or a- = *sm-?) to 
compare afterwards with svGpsTv? (Lithuanian by Boisacq s. v.) Probably here aGpooq, 
aGpooc; ' concentrated, crowded together, gathered ' (compare to meaning Old Indie 
sadhryanc-, Lithuanian by Boisacq s. v., in addition Brugmann IF. 38, 135 f.). 

Mit. Old Indie dharaka-^ container ' is compared with Gcbpa^, -qkoc; ' breastplate; trunk; 

Latin fre-tus^ relying on, confiding in ', Umbrian Me 'leaning, supported, relying, 
depending, trusting, daring, confident; trust, confidence, reliance, assurance', Latin frenum 
' bit, bridle, rein' and 'rein', if originally ' holder ' (stand to gr. Gpavoc; as ple-nus\.o Old 
\u6\c pOr-na-)\ with a meaning ' tenacious, tight, firm: fast' perhaps /fe/ie 'closely, almost, 
nearly ', ferme {* ferlmed. Sup.) ' quite approximately, nearly ', as well as firmus^ firm, 
strong, stout; lasting, valid; morally strong ' (with dial. /). 

Acymr. emdriV orderly ', cymr. dryd^ economical ' ( t|h/Yc»-). 

Old English darian^ hidden, concealed, secret, unknown ' ('*restrain, hold themselves 
together, ' or ' keep shut so one does not see somehow '), Dutch bedaren^ become quiet 
(from the wind, weather)', in addition Old Saxon o'e/77/"hide, conceal'. Old English dierne 
'hide, conceal, clandestine ', Old High German tarni^ lying hid, hidden, concealed, secret, 
unknown ', tarnen. Middle High German farnen^cover up, conceal'. Modern High German 

Lithuanian der/'u, ofe/'e// 'employ, engage (*belay), buy', deru, dereti^ be usable ', Kaus. 
darau, daryt/'make, do', dorai. ' the useful ', Latvian deru, ofe/'e/' employ, engage, hire 
out, arrange ', Kaus. danf^ make, create, originate'; 

perhaps with formants -^o-.' Latvian dargs'6ear, expensive, precious'. Old Church 
Slavic dragbds., russ. dorog, Serbo-Croatian dragds.; 

Hittite tar-ah-zi {tarhzi) ' can, be able, defeated ' {*(i!"f-?) belongs rather to ter-4. 

guttural extensions: 

6^eregh-'\r\o\6, stop, hold down; tight, firm': 

Avestan drazaite. Inf. draJa/jhe'\r\o\6, stop, contain oneself, guide, lead', upadarzuvainti 
" they hold out, persist = accomplish, finish ', wherefore Old Indie -dhrk {on\Y Nom.) in 
compounds "bearing, carrying'; this form {*6'"rgh-s) testifies for aniaut d^- the Aryan and 
hence probably also Slavic family; 

Old Church Slavic drbzg, drbzat/^\r\o\6, stop, contain ' (etc, s. Berneker 258); russ. 
droga ' wooden bar or metal strip uniting the front and the rear axis of a cart, centre pole ', 
Dem. dr6zkiP\. " light, short carriage ', hence Modern High German Droschke. 

As nasalized forms in addition Avestan drsnjaiti' solidifies, strengthens, hardens ', a- 
dranjayeiti^ determines ', subjunctive dTdrayzaite^ looks for protecting himself; participle 
draxta-, also Avestan dranjayeiti, dadrajois, participle draxta- " learnt by heart, murmured 
memorized prayers ' (compare Church Slavic tvrbditi^ moor ': russ. tverditb " learn by heart 
'); Middle Irish dringid^ he climbs ', dreimm ^cXw^b' ('*holding on climbing'); kymr. dringo^ 
rise, climb '; Old Norse drangr^ high cliff, drengr{*drangja-) "thick stick, column ' (and 
ijbertr. 'young man, husband'). Old Church Slavic drggi, " shaft, pole, turnpike '; different 
SpechtDekl. 139. 

6^ereg/h "hold down, tight, firm': 

Old Indie dfhyati, drrhhati {drmhati) "makes tight, firm', participle drdha- "tight, firm', 
oVa/T/a/- "proficient', Avestan o'a/'az5ye///"binds tight, fetters', Desid. dTdarazaiti, daraza- m. 
" the fastening, binding, snatch, griffin ', daraz-i. "band, manacle', darazra-^Wqhi, firm', 
probably also npers. darz^ suture' and similar to Iran, words for " sew filament '; 

thrak. GN Darzales, 

probably Lithuanian o'/?zas "strap', d/rzmas' strong', Old Prussian dirst/an' strong, 
stately', dirz-tu, difzti^ become tenacious, hard '; 

Lithuanian darzas^ gar6en\ Latvian darz' garden, courtyard, enclosure, fenced area ' 
could be reconverted with metathesis from *zardas {compare Lithuanian zard/s' 
Roftgarten ', zardas' hurdle ') (different MiJhlenbach-Endzelin I 448 f.), but to difzas 
(above) and Old High German zarge. Middle High German zargei. " border, side, verge of 
a space, edge '; 

Slavic *cfbrzb'bo\6, foolhardy ' in Old Church Slavic cfn,zb, sloven, c/rz, Czech drzy, 
russ. derzk/jds. and Old Church Slavic drtzng, drtzngtr have the audacity, venture ', 
russ. derznutb etc. 


awnord. driugr^ withstanding, strong, full', driugum^yery\ aschw. drygher^ respectable, 
strong, big, large'. North Frisian o'/iee^/? 'tight, firm, persistent ' (but to 6^reugh-1 be\ov\i^ 
Old English dryge^6ry\ dreahnian^ dry up, strain, filter', - with /? instead of ^ -, Old Norse 
draugr^ withered tree trunk'. Old High German truchan^Ary'); 

maybe nasalized alb. trung' tree trunk' 

here as " withstand ' and " hold together - assemble ' Gothic driugan ' do military service 
' (Old English dreogan^ withstand, commit '), Old English gedreag ^\xoo'q, multitude, 
crowd', Old High German truht- f. ' cohort, troop, multitude, crowd'. Old SaxondruM-, Old 
English dryht, Old Norse drottt ' cortege ', Gothic drauht/'-w/tof^ ' {*\aws of war =) military 
service ', gadrauhts ^wamor' , Old Norse drott/nn ^pnnce, lord, master, mister'. Old English 
dryhten. Old High German truht/h' master, mister' (suffix as in Latin dominus). Old High 
German trust {*druhsti-) " warrior's troop '; 

Lithuanian draugas ' travelling companion ', Old Church Slavic drugb " fellow, other etc', 
druzina 'auaTpaTiooTai'; 

Old Prussian druktai'Mv. 'tight, firm', podruktinai^ I confirm ', Lithuanian zem. druktas, 
driuktas 'thick, bulky, strong'; 

Old Irish drong^troop, multitude, crowd', abret. drogn' meeting together, union, 
assembly ', drog^ a party, group; esp. a political party, faction, side ' are, as late Latin 
drungus' troop ' borrowed from Germanic (see below trenq-f). 

References: WP. I 856 ff., WH. 505 f., 536, Trautmann 45, 59 f. 
Page(s): 252-255 

Root / lemma: (i!^er-3, 6!^ereu- d^ren- 

Meaning: expr. (to purr, murmur, etc.), onomatopoeic words 

Material: Gr. Gopupoc; ' woozy noise', Gopupeu) 'make a noise, bewilder', TovGopu^w 

'grumble, murmie', T0v9pu(; cpoovn Hes.; BpOKoq m. 'murmur, din, fuss, noise', GpuAsu) 

'murmie, babble'; Gpeopai (*-F-) 'cry loudly', TspGpeia 'empty gossip, subtleness ', 

TspGpsuopai "make empty gossip' (see Boisacq s. v.), 6p6o(;, 9pou(; " loud cry ', GpoEW ' 
shout, let become loud '; 

Old Saxon drom. Old English dream xx\. " making a glad noise, jubilation ' (different 
Kluge KZ. 26, 70: as '*troop, multitude, crowd', *drauYma-, to Gothic drauhts); Old English 
doram. 'bumblebee' {*duran-), engl. dorr- "cockchafer'; 

redupl. Latvian dundur/s'b\g, giant gadfly, brake, wasp', dender/s{7) " weeping knave, 
boy' (Muhlenbach-Endzelin I 455). 

Also for Celtic and Balto-Slavic words, are mentioned under der- "murmur', Indo 
Germanic aniaut d^- comes in question. 


Old Indie dhranat/' sounds ' (Dhatup.); 

gr. Gpnvoc; m. "funeral song, lament, dirge', 9pr|V£U) " lamentation ', Gpcbva^ Kncppv 
(drone) Hes., T£v-9pnvr| " hornet ', av-9pnvr| (*av9o-9pnvr|) " forest bee '; Old Saxon dreno, 
Old High German treno'6rone', lengthened grade Old Saxon dran ds., also Old English 
dran drseni. "drone'; zero grade Gothic drunjus' clangor ', Norwegian drynn. " low shout', 
drynja " low roar, bellow'. Low German dronen " make noise, talk slowly and monotonously 
' (out of it Modern High German drohnen). 

An aniaut doublet maybe lies in Lithuanian tranas. Old Church Slavic *trgtb, *trgd'b 
"drone' before; compare Trautmann 326. 

5-extension in Middle Irish dresachV creaky or squeaking noise ', gall. -Latin drenso, - 
are^cry (of swan)', ndd. drunsen^ low roar, bellow', Dutch drenzeln^ whimper', Hessian 
drensen^ groan ', Modern High German dial, trensen^ elongated roar, bellow' (from cows). 

A Guttural-extension probably in Armenian drnc/m'b\o\N the horn, toot' {*d^renk-) and 
Old Irish drecht^song, tale ' {*d'"renkta), proto Slavic. *drgki3 {*d'^rnk-) in sloven, drok 
"pestle' etc; 

perhaps Tocharian A traiik-, B treiik- "speak'. 

References: WP. I 860 f., WH. I 374, Mladenov Mel. Pedersen 95 ff. 
Page(s): 255-256 

Root / lemma: {d'^er-4.) d^or- : d'^er- 

Meaning: to jump, jump at, *stream, ray, drip, sperm 
Material: Old Indie dhara 'siream, ray, drip, sperm '; 

gr. (Ionian) 9op6(;, 6opr| " manly sperm ', 9opiaK£a9ai " absorb sperm ', poetically 
GpcoaKU), Attic GpcooKU), Fut. GopoOpai, Aor. sGopov 'spring', Bp{x}0\j6q ' protrusion, hill' 
(Gpw- from t|hg/-a- because of oof the secondary forms is developed to Vi'^ore-, d^oz-a-, 

from a base 6^ ereu-: Q6pw\J0i\, Gopvuo|jai ' spring, jump ' (op probably Aeolian instead 
of ap from /) compare GapvsuEi 6x£U£i. ansipEi. cpuTeusi Hes., GapvuaGai 6x£U£iv Hes.; 
Goupo(; "stormy, boisterous ' probably from *GopFoc; (Bechtel Lexil. 167); 

Middle Irish dar- ' spring, jump', Impf. no-da/red, preterit ro-dart, Verbalnom. dair. Gen. 
dara, myth. PN Daire{*(i!^ario-s), der^Q\r\\ cymr. -o'e/'/g "rutting, in heat'. 

References: WP. I 861, WH. I 528, SchwyzerGr. Gr. I 696, 708. 
Page(s): 256 

Root / lemma: 6^er-5, 6!"rei-d- 

Meaning: to defecate 

Note: (whether related to d^e/"-/ "muddy residuum ' and d^er--/?) 

Material: Latin for/a P\. "diarrhea' (by Varro of pigs), fond, -/?e "defecate'; 

gr. 5ap5aiv£i [joAuvei {*6^r-d-) Hes., after Pick KZ. 44, 339 Macedonian, either from Gap- 
G- with fractured reduplication or from Gap-5- with the same formant -d- as the /-extension 
d^r-e/'-d-, very dubious; 

Lithuanian der-k-iu derkti^ soil with feculence, defecate '. 

Maybe alb. Geg derdh, Tosc derth {* der-k-) " release semen, pour ' [common alb. -k- > -th- 
, -g- > -dh-\ 


Old Norse dnta{dreit}. Old English dntan. Middle Dutch ndd. dnten. Old High German 
trJzan^ defecate ', o-grade Old Norse o'/'e//a"make defecate', zero grade Middle English 
nengl. o'»'/(from *drit). Old Icelandic drit, Flemish drits, trets^ filth, faeces ', westfal. driat^ 
scared shitless, the defecated '; 

russ. dial, dristatb^ have diarrhea', Bulgarian driskam, dnstb'haye diarrhea', serb. 
drfskati, drfckati, Czech dnstat/6s. (Slavic *drisk-, *dr/st- irom *6'^re/d-sk-, -(s)t-, Berneker 

References: WP. I 861 f., WH. I 527 f. 
Page(s): 256 

Root / lemma: d^e/s- 

Meaning: to dare 

Note: (also with -/-, -u- extended) 

Material: Old Indie dhrs-no-ti, dhars-atF is audacious, courageous, ventures', dhrsu- 

(Gramm.), dhrsaf hearty ' (= Avestan daresal), dhrsnu-^bo\6, valiant, gamy, audacious, 

cheeky ', dhrsta- " insolent, cheeky ', dhrsita- 'bold, gamy', dadhrs'h ' intrepid, bold', with 

object dharsayati^ ventures in, makes a mistake, overcomes ', dharsana- n. "attack, 

maltreatment ', dharsaka-' attacking, assaulting '; Avestan darsam Mn . "violent, very', 

darsi-, darsyu-, dars/ta- ^bo\d\ Old pers. adarsnaus^ he ventured ', dadarsi-EH; 

gr. Lesbian Qt^aoo, n. " courage, boldness' (hom. 0£paiTr|<; " bold, cheeky '), with from 
Adj. displaced zero grade Ionian Old Attic Qd^aoc, (Attic 9appo(;) ds., Attic Gpaaoc; n. " 
courage, boldness; audacity, brashness ', Gapasu), Gappsw "be gamy', Gapauc; (rhod. 
0apaupiO(;, ther. 0hapuMaqho(;), Gpaau(; "bold, gamy; foolhardy, cheeky ' (= Old Indie 
dhrsu-), Lesbian Adv. Gpoasux;, GapaOvo(; " courageous, confident, trusting ' (*Gapao- 

Latin infestus " aggressive, hostile, dangerous ', infestare " to attack, disquiet ' and 
manifestus^ palpable, clear, visible, evident; caught out, detected ' {*(ii'^ers-to-)\ 

Gothic ga-dars{: Old Indie Perf. dadharsa^ has had the audacity '), Inf. gadaursan, " I 
venture ', Old Saxon gidurran. Old English dear, durran. Old High German (gi)tar, 
(g/)turran 'venture, risk'. Old High German giturst. Old English gedyrsti. "boldness, 
audacity ' (= Old Indie c//'s//-/7 "boldness'); 

Maybe alb. {*(gi)tar) guxoj'dare' : Old High German (gi)tar, {g/Jturran \entwe, risk'. 

Lithuanian nasalized Lithuanian dr^su'6are, venture' {*d^rensd), dr/'stu, dfisti {dhrns-) 
"venture, risk', drqsa{*6'^rons-) "forwardness', drqsus= Latvian druoss'qamy, brave' 
( t|h/-c»/7s-; Old Lithuanian still dr/susan6 dransniaus); without nasalization Old Prussian 
d/rst/an 'state\y' and oy/'sos "proficient' {*d/rsu-); 

here perhaps Tocharian A tsar'rougW, tsras/" strong', B tsiraune^ strength '. 

References: WP. I 864, WH. I 698 f., Trautmann 60, Van Windekens Lexique 147. 
Page(s): 259 

Root/ lemma: 6^eLb^- d^fyb^- 

Meaning: spike, wedge 

Note: uncertain, because almost only Germanic 

Material: Gr. rucpoi a(pr|V£(; Hes. 

diminutive Middle High German tubel. Middle Low German o'dVe/'clot, chunk, peg, plug, 
spigot, nail' (Modern High German Dobel, Dubel\N\Vc\ md. aniaut). Old High German tubila, 
-/" spigot ', engl. dowel-pin ^'^eg, plug, pin'; Middle Low German dovicke, Dutch deuvik^ 
spigot '; Swedish Norwegian dubb^^eg, plug', Tirol tuppe^b'xg piece of wood'. Middle Low 
German dob{b)el. Middle High German top{p)e/'6\ce, cube'. Besides Germanic words the 
meaning "hit': East Frisian dufen, o'Z/i/e/7'bump, poke', Dutch doF shove, stroke'. Old 
Icelandic dubba. Old English dubbian^ knight, make a man a knight ', East Frisian dubben 
"bump, poke'; there it also gives Germanic *dab-^\r\\t' (see below d^abh- 'marvel'), could be 
a new variant of *dub- (perhaps come about under the help of words for "peg, plug, spigot 

References: WP. I 848. 
Page(s): 268 

Root/ lemma: 6^eu-i}- 6'^eu-p- 

Meaning: deep, *black, bottom, dark waters 


The shift g"'- > -b- , k"- > -p- is a common gr. hence all other IE tongues borrowed Root / 
lemma: ^^eu-b-, ^^eu-p-\ "deep, dark' from respectively proto lllyrian gr. ^^eu-g"-, (H^eu-k"-. 
But proto lllyrian gr. 6'^eu-g''-, 6'^eu-k''-\s an extenstion of an older root. After Jokl (Eberts 
RL. 13, 286 f.) here thrak. PN h6^r\poc;{*6'^uber-), Asppn Cd'^eubra) it seems that Baltic 
languages derived the concept of "deep' from lllyrian "black, dark', hence from Root/ 
lemma: d'^eu~4, d^et/a- (presumably: 6^ue-, compare the extension d'"ue-k-, d'^ue-s-): "to 
reel, dissipate, blow, *smoke, dark, gray, deep etc' derived Root/ lemma: d^eu-b- d^eu-p- 
: "deep, *dark'. 
Material: forms in -b. 

gr. pu06(;, Ionian ^uoaoq m. "depth (of the sea)', probably reconverted with metathesis 
from *6'^ub-, 

maybe alb. {*byssa-h), ,6'y//7a "buttocks, backside hole' : gr. pu96(;, Ionian puaaoq m. 
"depth (of the sea)' [common alb. -s- > -th-] the same formation as poln. o'^pa" buttocks, 
backside hole', Serbo-Croatian dupe. Gen. -e/a" buttocks '. 

after Jokl (Eberts RL. 13, 286 f.) here thrak. PN A6(3npO(; ( Vi'^uber-), Asppn {*6'^eubrS)\ 

Also alb. PN Dibra 

lllyrian 5uppic; GaAaaaa (Kretschmer Gl. 22, 216), also in alb. Tosc FIN Tubra, Drove etc 
(Pokorny Urillyrier 99); 

Old Irish domain, fu-dumain, cymr. dwfn, corn, down, bret. doun(\.e. dun) "deep 
{*d^ubn/-), gall, dubno-, dumno- "world' (£'i//?/70/7A' actually " world king'). Old Irish domun 
ds., acymr. annwf(y)n, ncymr. annwn^ God's kingdom and the underworld ' ( *an-dubno- 
actually " underworld, outside world ' as Old Icelandic ut-gardr); s. also under S. 268 Slavic 

maybe alb. {*diep) djep'{*6eep) cradle, hollowed wood' : poln. dziupiou., dziuplai. " tree 
hole '. 

Gothic diups. Old Icelandic diupr. Old English deep. Old Saxon diop. Old High German 
t/ordeep'; Gothic daupjan. Old English dJepan, Old Saxon dopian. Old High German 
toufen^ baptize ' (actually "dive'). Old Icelandic deypa^d'we'; with -pp-\ Norwegian duppa 
"dive' and /formation. Old English dyppan^d'we; baptize', ndd. duppen. Old High German 
fupfen^ bathe, wash'; with gemin. spirant faer. duffa ' s\N\ng' (from barge); with gemin. 
voiced-nonaspirated Norwegian dubba^ bend down ', dobbe' marshy land' (compare 
Wissmann Nom. postverb. 170, 186); nasalized Norwegian dumpm. "dent in the earth', 
Danish dial. 0^^/77/0 "cavity, lowland, depression', engl. dump' deep hole full with water'. 
Old High German /i//7X/C)/^/c» "whirlpool'. Middle High German tumpfel. Modern High 
German (from Ndd.) Jumper deep place in the flowing or standing water; puddle ', engl. 
dimple' cheek dimple ', Dutch domp{e/)en'6\ye, sink'; 

Lithuanian dubus'6eep, hollow', in addition FIN Dube, Dub/nga and Dubysa{= cymr. 
FIN Dyf/irom *DubTsa, Pokorny Urillyrier 46 f.), o'^^/7a5 "bottom' (probably because of 
Latvian d/bensirom *dubnas= Slavic *dbbno, gall, dubno-; s. die Lithuanian by Berneker 
245 f.); also the FIN wruss. Dubna (= Latvian Dybnoja) "the deep river' and the Old 
Prussian PN Dum{p)nis, Dubna show still bn, dumbu, dubt/' become hollow, sink in ', 

dauba, dauburys^<^o'C(^e, ravine, gulch', o'i/oM'hollow out', duobe^caye' (Latvian duobs, 
duobjs^deep, hollow', duobe'pW., pothole, grave' with i/ofrom oi/?), dubud, -ens' basin ', 
duburys, duburys, dubufkis " pit full of water, hole, pool ', nasalized dumburys ' deep hole 
full with water ', dumblas's\\'(r\e, mud, morass' (yet see above S. 261); Latvian dub^ns 
(besides dibgns) "ground, bottom' (compare MiJhlenbach-Endzelin I 465 under 509), dubt' 
become hollow, sink in ', dubliP\. m. "ordure, morass'; Old Prussian padaubis^yaWey' and 
dauboi. "ground' (compare above S. 249); 

Old Bulgarian di^brb (and out of it dhbrb) "cpapay^, gorge, ravine, gulch' (: Latvian dubra 
"puddle, slop'); Church Slavic d-bno {* dtbnd) "ground, bottom'; about den FIN pomerell. 
Dbras. S. 264. 

forms in -p. 

Old High German tobal. Middle High German /c»i6'e/"narrow valley'. Modern High 
German Tobef, Old Swedish o^Ji/a probably stem V. "dive'. Old Icelandic o^J/^ "press 
downwards', dyfa, deyfa'6We', Old English dTefan, dufan6s., engl. dive. Middle Low 
German bedOven' flooded, be coated ', bedoven' sunk down '; 

Slavic *dupai. in sloven, dupa' burrow ', Czech doupa'\\o\e\ Old Bulgarian dupina 
"cave', mbg. russ. -Church Slavic dupl'b "hollow, light', russ. dupiou. "cavity in tree truck', 
Serbo-Croatian dupe. Gen. -eta' buttocks ', dupija' tree hollow ', old dupan'c3Ne' etc; 
ablaut, poln. dziupiou., dziuplai. " tree hole ' etc 


From Slavic languages Root / lemma: 6!^eu-b-, d^eu-p-: "deep, *dark, bottom' passed to 

Altaic languages: 

Protoform: *tup"e ( ~ *tiup"i, *c-) 

Meaning: bottom 

Turkic protofomn: *dup 

l\^ongolian protoform: *dow- 

Note: A Turk.-Mong. isogloss. The relationship to TM *do- 'to sit down (of birds)', 
suggested in TMC 1 , 211 , is unclear; if it exists, we may be dealing here with an archaic 
case of *-p"-suffixation. 

from here as *d^eu-g-: Germanic *du-k-, *du-kk-'tauchen = dive, s/ch ducken = crouch'? 

References: WP. I 847 f., WH. I 565, 867, Trautmann 45 f. 

Page(s): 267-268 

Root / lemma: A^eugh- 

Meaning: to touch, press, milk 

Material: Indo-iran. t|h5^^/7-'nnilk' in Old Indie duhati, athematic dogdhi^mWkedi', the 

desirable cow Kama-duh(a)^ the plentifully bestowing ' (= gr. Tuxn). pefs. doy, doxtaneic. 

Old pers. han-duga^ proclamation ' (compare Latin pro-mulgare); 

gr. TUYXavw (Tsu^opai, etuxov, sTuxncfa, TETuxnKa) "meet, find, meet by chance; achieve 
a purpose or an aim; intr. to find oneself, and be close ', ruxn " success, luck, destiny, lot ', 
goddess Tuxn (probably originally a the desirable cow?); teuxu) (tsu^w, Aor. eteu^q, hom. 
tetukeTv, Med. tetukovto, TSTUKsaGai - with sek. k-, Perf. teteuxux;, tetuktqi, T£T£uxciTai) " 
make suitable, make, produce, arrange, produce ', TiTuoKoijai ' to make, make ready, 
prepare ', Tsuxoq n. " all made, ware, pottery, stuff, esp. armament, military equipment, 
weapons; ship instrument; pot, vessel '; 

Irish duan^ a poem, ode, song ' {*d^ughna), duar fitting' {*6'^ughlo-)\ 

Old Icelandic Inf. duga, present dugi, preterit dugda^ be useful, be suitable for, succeed 
', preterit present Gothic daug. Old English deag. Old Saxon dog. Old High German toug^ 
it is good for, is useful ', Kaus. Middle Low German dogen^ withstand ', Old Saxon a- 
dogian^^s., sort, order, arrange'. Old English gedTegan^bear, endure, come through '; Old 
High German tuht^ skillfulness, power'. Middle High German tuhtec. Modern High 
German tuchtig= Old English dyhtig' stalwart ' (about Gothic dauhts' feast ' s. Feist 116); 

Lithuanian o'aJ^'much, a lot of, dauginti^ increase, intensify '; russ. duzijeic 'strong'. 

References: WP. I 847, Benveniste BSL. 30, 73 f., Pisani REtlE. 1, 238 ff. 
Page(s): 271 

Root / lemma: d^eu-1 

Meaning: to run, *stream, flow 

Material: Old Indie dhavate^mus, streams ', lengthened grade dhavati6s., dhauti-hi. 

"wellspring, stream, brook'; Middle Persian dawTdan^ruu, hurry', pam. dav- "run, rush'; 

Maybe alb. {*dhueti) deti^ sea ' : Middle Irish o'oe'sea' common alb. attribute nouns 

suffixed in -/formant. [see alb. numbers]. 

gr dtbd, ep. also Gsioj, Fut 9£uao|jai "run"; lak. an rpsxs Hes.; 9o6(; "quick, fast', por|- 
Gooq ' auf einen Anruf schnell zur Hand, helfend ', in addition por|6£U) (instead of 
*por|6o£U)) 'lieip', Goa^w " move in quick dashing movement; scoot, move fast '; 

gr.-lllyrian 5uav Kpr|vr|v Hes.; 

Old Norse dggg, Gen. clgggwar{*clawwd}. Old English deaw. Old Saxon dau. Old High 
German tou. Modern High German Tau {*dawwa-); 

doubtful Middle Irish o'de'sea' ( *(i!"euia) as ' the violently moving '; 

Maybe lllyrian TN Tau-/ant/ {\Net\and, swamp): Modern High German Tau {*dawwa-) 

here probably *(i!^u-ro-\v\ thrak. FIN 'A-0upa(; {*n-6^u-r-) and in numerous Venetic-lllyrian 
FIN, so lllyrian Z7i//75 (Hungarian), Modern High German Tyra, Thur, older Dura {Alsace, 
Switzerland), northern Italy Dora, Dor/a, French Dore, Do/re, Doron, iber. Durius, Tur/a etc 
(Pokorny Urill. 2, 10,79, 105, 113, 127, 145, 160, 165, 169 f.); 


Finally the ancient Dor/an tnbe that overrun Mycenaean civilization was of lllyrian origin. 
Their name meant 'river people' since they spread very rapidly traveling on fast river 
boats. Their migration took Mycenaean cities by surprise. The Dorian expansion was 
similar to the Viking rapid expansion hundreds of years later. 

maybe lllyrian {*Durra-hion) Dyrrhachium -i, n. a port in lllyria. 

after Rozwadowski (Rev. Slavic 6, 58 ff.) here the FIN Duna, west-Slavic Dvina 
{*6^ue/na), borrowed as Finnish va/na'\N\6e river', Estonian vain{a) " straits ', syrj. ^ dyn^ 
estuary '. 

References: WP. I 834. 
Page(s): 259-260 

Root / lemma: (ii^eu-2, d^u-ei- 

Meaning: to vanish, faint, die 

Material: Gothic d/'wans {Vi^ey-ono-) "perishable, mortal', ablaut. Old High German 

touwen. Old Saxon dd/an'd'\e'. Old Norse deyja, dd{*dd\A/), da/nn'd'\e'; (under the 

influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), Gothic daut^s^ dead ', also af-dauiPs^ 

afflicted ', Old High German tot. Old English dead. Old Norse daudr^ dead ', Gothic 

c/au/=>us ' dea\h' , Old High German tod, Old English cfea/=>, Old Norse daud-r, -ar and daude 

Old Irish duine {*d!"u-n-io-), PI. doini {*&^euerhio), cymr. dyn, corn. bret. o'e/? "person' 
("mortal, human being', Brugmann ZfceltPh. 3, 595 ff.); s. also under ghdem-, 

perhaps Latin funus {fonudl) n. " a funeral, burial. Transf., the corpse; death; 
destruction, ruin; a cause of ruin ', whether from *d^eu{eJ-nos' in death '; formally, 
nevertheless, exactly = Old Irish n. s-stem c/J/? "fortress', probably originally " hill castle ' 
(see below d^eu-4S. 263); 

Note: common Latin d- > A shift. 

after Marstrander Pres. a nasale inf. 15'' here Old Irish -deda' dwindles away ' from 
*d'^e-d'"u-a-t, compare also above under d'^e-S, 

in Germanic also the meaning " insensible, become unconscious ', awnord. da{*dawa) " 
unconsciousness, faint, swoon ', preterit o'oalso " became numbed ' (of limbs). Old 
Swedish dana^ faint, pass out ', Norwegian daana^ become stiff, become lame (from 
limbs), faint, pass out ' (Ableit. from participle dainn), isl. dodi^ insensibility ', dodna^ 
become unfeeling, became numbed ', Gothic usdaul=>s^ not indolent, diligent, active, quick, 
unwearied, indefatigable, energetic, eager'. Old High German tawalon' to dwindle, to die 
', Dutch dauwer sluggish woman '; further Old Norse daa\so " delight of the soul ' 
("*anesthetization '), da{*dawen) " admire, venerate '; Old Norse dani. "death'. 

extension d'^u-ei-:d'^u-T-\n: 

Armenian di. Gen. dioy^ dead body, corpse'. Old Irish dTth{*d'^uTtu-) "end, death'; Old 
English dwTnan {siexw V.) " abate, dwindle ', besides dem non-Werb Old Norse du/ha and 
duena ds.\ Old English dw^scan^ annul, annihilate ' {*dwaiskjan), Lithuanian dv/st/"d\e' 
(BGga by Endzelin KZ. 52, 123). 

Maybe alb. Tosc {dvisti) vdes, Geg deke^dW [commom alb. -s- > -/r- shift]. 

Clearly from Root / lemma: d^eues-, d'^ues- d'^eus- d'^us-: "to dissipate, blow, etc. 
*breathe, breathe out the spirit, perish, die' derived Root/ lemma: d^eu-2, d'^u-ei-: "to 
vanish, faint, die'. 

As Lithuanian dvlst/"d\e' : Lithuanian dvesiu, dvesiau, dvestT breathe, breathe out the 
spirit, perish, die ' (see below); 

References: WP. I 835, WH. I 451, 568. 
Page(s): 260-261 

Root / lemma: 6'^eu-3 

Meaning: shining, to shine 

Material: Old Indie 07731/3/^- 'gleaming white', dhavati^ makes blank, purifies, cleans, swills 

', Avestan fradavata^ rubbed off (cleaning) '; 

gr. Qooc, . . . Ka\xu^6q„ Gowaai . . . Aapirpuvai Hes., 656vt£(; Aeukq Qtovizc, Ps.-Hsd., 
GqAeiov KoGapov. Koi GwAsov Hes. (Kontr. from *GoFaA£0(;). 

References: WP. I 835, Schuize KZ. 29, 260 f. = Kl. Schr. 369. 
Page(s): 261 

Root/ lemma: d^e^-^, d^eit/s- (presumably: d^t/e- compare the extension dh^/e-Zr-, d^t/e-s-) 

Meaning: to reel, dissipate, blow, *smoke, dark, gray, deep etc. 


Hittite: tuhhai- (I) ' be in labor, have labor pains ', tuhhima- c. ' be in labor, labor pains, 

pains of child-birth ' (Friedrich 226); tuhhuwai- (tuhhui-) c. ' dense smoke?, fume, smog? ' 


With /7^formant: 

Old Indie dhuma-hxw. "smoke, vapor', dhumayati^ smokes, steams ' = Latin fumare 
"smoke, steam, reek, fume', formal also = Old High German tumon^ turn in circles '; 

gr. GOpo^ "breath, life, soul, heart, spirit, courage, mind, temper, will, anger, wrath' 
(GuiJiau) still purely sensually "smoke, fumigate '; GupaA-witJ " charcoal pile ', GupiKoq " 
ardent ', Gunaivu) "rage against' etc); 

Latin fumus^ smoke, steam, vapor' {fumare see above); 

Note: common Latin d- > f- shift. 

Lithuanian dumaiP\. "smoke', Latvian dumiP\., Old Prussian dum/s6s.; 

Old Church Slavic c/K/77b "smoke'; 

maybe alb. Tosc tym lume' [common alb. d- > /-shift.] : also alb. Geg dhem, alb. dhemb 
'hurt, ache', dhimbje^'^awi [common alb. shift m > mb]. 


Clearly from Root / lemma: d^em-, d'^ema-: "to smoke; to blow' derived Root/ lemma: 
d^eu~4, dhet/a- (presumably: d^ue- compare the extension d^ye-k-, d^ye-s-): "to reel, 
dissipate, blow, etc.'. 

with 6/.' Middle Irish dumachaP\. "fog' (nir. dumhachirom *d^umuko-^ misty, dark'); gr. 
0UMO(;, -ov " thyme ' (strong-smelling plant as also 9u|jppa, 9u|jPpov "Satureja thymbra L.' 
s. Boisacq m. Lithuanian; after Niedermann Gl. 19, 14 to russ. dubravka, dubrovka 
"Potentilla Tormentilla', that after Berneker215 to Old Church Slavic dgmbii^oaV! [see 
below S. 264] belongs). 

maybe truncated alb. {*d^umusk-) dushk^ oak' : Latvian dumuksn/s^ swamp, marsh' : Old 
Church Slavic dgmbb "oak' not from alb. drushk^ oak', dru-'tree, wood' because alb. dr- > 
o'- shift is not common. 

Latin f/mus' crap, muck, manure' (as "Vl^y-Z-mos due to growing from suff/o, -Ire); 

Note: common Latin d- > /-shift. 

with Indo Germanic ou: 0\d High German toum 'vapor, haze, mist. Duff, Old Saxon 
domian "steam'. 

In addition coloring adjective the meaning " smoke-color, fog-gray, dismal ': Old Indie 
dhumra- " smoke-color, gray, puce, cloudy, dull (also from the mind)', dhumala- " smoke- 
color, puce '; 

Lithuanian dumblas' s\\rr\e, mud, moor on the bottom of pond ', Latvian dublTs\\rr\e, 
mud, ordure' (presumably = Old Indie dhumra-, compare but under S. 268 and 
MiJhlenbach-Endzelin I 509), Latvian dumal's' swart, brown', dumaJns' smoke-color', 
dumjs, fem. dumja' dark brown, paled, cloudily (from the eyes), stupid ', dumuksnis 
"swamp, marsh', dumbra zeme'b\ack moorland ', dumbris, durnbrs' spring, fountain, 
moor, morass ' (compare MiJhlenbach-Endzelin I 514; in detail about such moor names 
after the color Schuize Kl. Schr. 114); 

compare with dem coloring name suffix -no-: Latvian duni, dunas PI. "slime, mud'; 

with -ko-, respectively of the root extension with -k-: Latvian duksne, di/kste' swamp, 
marsh, pool, morass' -.dukans' a red-brown hue, swart '; 

with -p'-/ Latvian duga^ \he glutinous mucus wliicli swims on tlie water ', dugains udens 
" impure water ', dugains uguns " darl<, clouded flame ', dungans " a red-brown hue ' (if 
latter not from *dumgans, compare i6'a'7(g5/75 'whitish', salgans' sugary'); 

with -/- Tocharian B /^/©"yellow'? 

With Aformant : 

Old Indie dhuli-, dhulFt " dust, dusty surface of the earth, pollen ', dhulika^\o<^ , alb. 
delenje, dellinje^ juniper ' (as ' wood smoking chips ', from *&^OITnio-)\ 

Maybe alb. dylle^\Nax, bee wax' : Lithuanian dulism., Latvian dulajs, dulejs^ smoker, 
smoking incense incense to drive away the bees ' (see below). 


Maybe alb. dellinje^ juniper ' derived from Root / lemma: d^^a/-: " to blossom, be green ' : 
alb. {*dalTnia) o'eV/AT/e "juniper' similar to Root /lemma: 6!^eu-4, 6'^eua-\ "to reel, dissipate, 
blow, etc.'. 

Latin fulTgo " soot; powder for darkening the eyebrows ' 

Note: common Latin d- > /-shift 

Middle Irish dOiT wish, desire ' (*mind boiling , as 9up6(; "the soul'), Lithuanian dulisxu. " 
smoker, smoking incense incense to drive away the bees ' 

Maybe alb. dylle, dyllT bee wax '. 

Lithuanian o'^//re"mote, speck'; Latvian dulajs, dulejs^ a more smoking than burning torch 
to take the honey from the bees '; Lithuanian dulsvas " smoke-color, mouse grey'; 
changing through ablaut russ. dulo^ barrel (of a gun, a cannon '), dulbce' mouth piece of 
a wind instrument ' (etc, s. Berneker 237; previously Slavic derivatives of o'i///"blow'). 

Verbs and and single-linguistic nominal formation: 


Old Indie and alb. prove that Root/ lemma: dau-, dau-, du-\ "to burn' derived from Root/ 
lemma: ^^eu-4, d^et/a- (presumably: d^i/e- compare the extension ^^ue-k-, ^^ue-s-) : "to 
reel, dissipate, blow, *smoke etc.'. 

Maybe alb. dhunoJ^y\o\a\.e, rape', dhune 'v\o\ence'; 

Old Indie dhunoti {dhunoti, dhuvati) " shakes, moves to and fro, ventilates ', Fut. 
dhavisyati, Perf. dudhava. Pass, dhuyate, participle dhuta-h, dhuta-h' shaken, agitated'. 
Middle Persian o'/?' smoke'; Old Indie dhunati^ moves to and fro, shakes ', participle 
dhunana-, dhOni-t "the shaking', dhOnayati^ moves to and fro, shakes ', dhavftramu. " 
flabellum, whisk ', dhavitavya- " fan, ventilate '; Avestan dvaidf we both beset '? ( *du- 
vaidl); Kuiper Nasalpras. 53 places here Old Indie dhvajat/{D\r\p. 7, 44), Avestan dvazaiti^ 
flutters ' (in addition Old Indie o''/7i/ay5-/7 "banner, ensign, flag') from *dhu-eg- (?); 

Armenian de-dev-im " sway, swing ' (compare that likewise redupl. intensive dhvaja-h 
Old Indie dd-dhavTti}, 

gr. 0UW (£0Oaa), Lesbian Guiw " storm along, roar, rave, smoke ' (tl^^^vio, u: from Guaw, 
£5uaa, as also Jin Old Indie Pass, dhuyate an6 Old Norse dyja ' shake' neologism is; in 
the meaning "rage' maybe from *d'^us/o, s. d'^eues-J, Guaw, Gua^u) ds., GusAAa "storm' (see 
S. 269 unter d'^eues-), ep. Guvu) " roam, therefore blow, rage ' (*GuvFu)), Guvsoj ds. 
(*Guv£Fu)), Guvoc; TT6A£fjO(;, oppn, Spopoc; Hes. with the meaning "smoke (smoke offering), 
smell': Guw (Guow), teGukq " saerifiee ', Guaia "saerifiee, oblation', Gupa " saerifieial animal 
', Guoq n. " ineense (henee Latin /i7s"ineense, frankincense'), oblation, sacrifice, oblation' 
(therefrom Gusia "mortar' s. Boisacq m. Lithuanian) 

Maybe alb. thuk'mortar', thyenj'break, grind'. 

gr. Guoek;, Guhsk; " laden with ineense, odorous, fragrant ', Guov " a tree whose wood was 
burned because of its fragrance ', Guia, Gua " an African tree with scented wood ', Gur|An 
oblation ' ( : Ionian GuaAripara : Attic GuArnjara, *GuFa- : *Gu:-, s. Beehtel Lex. 168 f., 
Boisacq s. v.), GuijeApi " sacrificial altar, altar'. 

On the base of the meaning "(together) whirl' Biq, GTv6(; "heap, sandpile, esp. dune, 
sandbank, heaps generally ', from *GF-Tv, shaped as OKfiv-, yAwxiv-, SsAcpiv-, u)5iv-, 
compare gr. GiAa "heap' (Hes.), to meaning under Modern High German Dune; barely with 
Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 5702 to Old Indie dhfsnya- " litter put on earth '; 

alb. Geg dej, Tosc o'e/7y"fuddle', Med. " dwindle away, melt ' {*deunjd, compare Gothic 
dauns^ fume, haze, mist'), dejet^ flows, melts '; 

Maybe alb. de/e've'\n (where the blood flows)', dufaix blow, anger, impatience, rage' : Old 
English dofian^raQe" : Latin 5i/^c»-//"e "to fumigate' (see below), also duplicated alb. {*duh- 
duh) dude^quvn'. 

Latin suf-fid, -lire ' to fumigate, perfume; to warm ' {suffTmentum' incense '; about ffmus 
see above) from *-6'^u-//d, as f/o "of persons and things, to be made, come into existence; 
with predicate, to become, be appointed; with genit., to be valued at; of actions, to be 
done; of events, to happen ' from *b'^u-//d, foeteo, -e/ie'evi! smell, stink' due to a participle 
*<S^u-oi-to-s(as puted\xoxx\ *putos)\ 


common Latin d- > f- shift. Clearly Latin suffio -ire "to fumigate' derived from an lllyrian alb. 

here (as *piled up) gall., proto Irish Aouvov, latin, dunum. Old Irish n. 5-stem dOn{ : 
Latin funus, s. S. 260) "castle' (*hill), acymr. o'»7(ncymr. dinas) ds.; Old Irish du(a)e, arch. 
doe^ bulwark, rampart, wall' {*&^duio-)\ Old Irish dumaexr\. "hill', gall. GN Dumiatis, also 
Old Irish dei. Gen. o'/ao' "smoke'. Middle Irish dethach6s. ( tl^t/z/a/-); 

Old English dunxw. f. "height, mountain', engl. down^ sand-hill, dune', mnl. dune. Middle 
Low German dune, out of it Modern High German Dune; compare to meaning kir. vy-dma 
"dune' to Slavic o'b/77p"blow'; whereas is Germanic *tu-na-^ fence, a preserved place ' 
(Old Icelandic Old English tun 6s., "town, city'. Modern High German Zaun) probably Celtic 

Old Norse dyja "shake' see above; 

Gothic daunsi. " sweet scent, smoke ' ( *iA^ou-ni), Old Norse daunn m. " fetidness ' 
(compare alb. dej, about Old High German Modern High German dunstsee below the root 
form '^'^eues-); Old Norse dunnm. "down feather (*fan)' (out of it Middle Low German 
dune, whereof again Modern High German Daune^soit loose fluffy feathers, as on young 
birds'; compare Middle Dutch donst' down feather (*fan), dust powder (*ash)' = German 
Dunst' fume'; s. Falk-Torp under dun); Old Saxon dununga' delusion ' (^^or u?); Old 
Icelandic dun/l\re'; 

Lithuanian dujai. "mote, speck', duje^ down feather (*fan) '; dvylas^ black, black- 
headed ', ablaut dulas " grayish '; 

Slavic *dujQ, *duti{e.Q. russ. duju, dutb) "blow', changing through ablaut *dyjg\v\ sloven. 
dfj'em, dfti^ blow, smell, breathe quietly '; Old Church Slavic dung dungti {Woun-) "blow' 
(changing through ablaut with Old Indie dhu-noti, -nati, gr. Guvw); 

Tocharian A twe, B tweye^AusW 

compare still perhaps identical proto root Vi^eu-^un, flow'. 

Root extensions: 

I. b^-extension: d'^eit^- " fly, smoke; misty, darkens, also from the mind and the 
reflection '. 

Gr. Tucpw (Gunjai, Tucpnvai) " smoke, vapor, fume, make smoke; burn slowly, singe; Pass, 
smoke, give off vapor, gleam ', m. TU(po(; " smoke, steam, dense smoke; wooziness, folly, 
silly pride '; 

Maybe poln. duma' pride ', dumny' proud '. 

TETOcpwoGai "be brainless, conceited, haughty', TOcpaJc;, -w or-wvoc; "whirlwind, 
thunderstorm ', TucpsScbv, -6vo(; " disastrous fire ', TU(p£5av6(;, Tucpoyspajv " feeble-minded 
age '; TU(pA6(; "blind, dark, stupid ', TucpAow " blind ', TucpAcbip "blind', TucpAcbaaco "become 

Old Irish dub{*6'^db'^u-) "black', acymr. dub{*d'^eiA)^-), ncymr. du, acorn, duw, mcorn. 
du, bret. du'b\ack\ gall. Dubis^ Le Doubs (eastern France) ', i.e. " black, dark water '; 
probably also Middle Irish dot>ur^\Nater', cymr. dwfr, corn. dour(\.e. dowi), bret. dour{\.e. 
du/) 6s., gall. Uerno-dubrum river name ("alder water ') are named after the same 

however, maybe there are Celtic words with Indo Germanic ,6* which must be assumed that 
belong to d^ei/i?- "deep' (under S. 268), because "deep' and "black' could be slightly 

So can the pomerell. FIN Dbra (^di^bra) be identical just as well with Latvian dubra. Church 
Slavic diDbrb. 


Root / lemma: 6'^eu-b- d'^eu-p-: "deep, *dark' derived from Root/ lemma: d^eu~4, d'^eua- 

(presumably: d'^ue- compare the extension d^ue-k-, d'^ue-s-): "to reel, dissipate, blow, 
*smoke, dark, gray, deep etc.'. 

Gothic daufs{-b-) "deaf, obdurate'. Old Norse daufr'deai, idle'. Old English deafdeaV, 
Old High German foup{-b-) "deaf, obtuse, foolish'. Old Norse deyfa, Middle High German 
touben^ deafen, stun, make feeble ', changing through ablaut Low German duff "muggy 
(air), dim (color), muted (sound)'; 

Maybe alb. dufak blow, anger, impatience, rage' : Old English c/of/an ^ rage' . 

Dutch dof, Middle High German fop' senseless, brainless, crazy ', 

Maybe alb. top/'s "stun"; 

o-Verb: Old High German tobon, Old Saxon dovon' be mad ', Old English dof/an\age', e- 
Verb: Old High German toben. Modern High German toben, as well as (as participle a 
stem V.) Old Norse dofinn' dull, limp, half-dead ', wherefore dofna' limp, become stale '; 
Old Norse duptu. 'dust', Norwegian duft, dyffi. 6s., Middle High German tuff, duft'haze, 
mist, fog, dew, hoarfrost ', Old High German /^// 'frost'. Modern High German Duft'i\v\e 
smell, odor' (or zur root form 6^eup-, see below); Gothic {hraiwa-) dubo. Old Norse dufa. 
Old English dufe. Old High German tuba' dove, pigeon ' (after the dark color). Nasalized 
Gothic dumbs. Old Norse dumbr. Old English dumb' dumb ', Old High German tumb' 
silent, stupid, incomprehensibe ', Old Saxon dumb' oafish '. However, a t|h^-/77-bhc>s 
'dark' seems to be supported also by Slavic (see below). 

Maybe expressive alb. Tosc dudum' dumb ' 

Perhaps (Berneker215) Old Church Slavic dgbh 'oak, then tree generally ' as 'tree with 
dark heartwood ' as Latin robur. Against it can be by Latvian dumbra zeme'b\ack 
moorland ' etc b Einschublaut between man6 r, see above, also by Lithuanian dumb/as 
'slime, mud' (Middle High German tumpfel. Modern High German Tumpel, Prellwitz KZ. 
42, 387, rather to Modern High German tief. Middle Low German dumpelen' submerge ', 
s.SchuIze SBpr.Ak. 1910,791 = Kl. Schr. 114). 

Besides d^Jp-in: Old Indie dhupa-m. 'smoke, incense ', Old High German tuvar, tubar' 
phrenetical ' (also in DufH see above). 

2. d^-extension: &^eu-6!^ ' whirl, shake, confuse through another'. 

Old Indie dodhat-' stupefying, vehement, raving ', dudhi-, dudhra-' boisterous ', 
probably also o'i/o'Ma- (epithet of tamas' darkness ') perhaps ' confused, thick'; 

gr. GuaaeTai TivaaaeTai Hes. (*9u9i£Tai), Guaavoq ' tassel ', hom. Guaaavosic; ' 
festooned with tassels or fringes ' from *9u9ia {^6^u6^Ja= Latvian o'aza 'bundle'), T£u0i(;, 
T£u0oq, T£u06(; ' squid ' ('misting, muddling the water '); 

Germanic *dud-, geminated *dutt- and *dudd-. Danish dude, older dudde' ryegrass, 
darnel ' (but about isl. dodna' become insensitive ' see above S. 260), Low German 

dudendop, -hop' drowsy person', Old Frisian dud' anestlietization ', Norwegian dudra 
"tremble', Old English dydrian' deceive '; with -dd: engl. dial. dudder'beWMef, dodder 
"tremble, wobble, sway', engl. dodder' any plant of the genus Cuscuta; any of various 
choking or climbing weeds '; with -//-: Middle Dutch dotten, dutten' be crazy ', Middle Low 
German i/c»/io'i///e/7 "bewilder'. Middle High German vertutzen, betutzen' become deaf, but 
get collectedness ', isl. dotta' fall asleep due to tiredness, nod because of exhaustion '; 

similarly, on the basis of tjhi/edh-: East Frisian dwatje' stupid girl', dwatsk' oafish, 
eccentric ', JiJtisch dvot' suffering from Coenurus cerebralis '; Swedish dodra. Middle High 
German foterm. " yellow plant, dodder ', Middle English doder, nengl. dodder' any plant of 
the genus Cuscuta, comprising leafless threadlike twining plants with parasitic suckers; it 
attaches itself to some other plant as to flax etc. and decaying at the root, is nourished by 
the plant that supports it ', Dutch {v/as)-doddre6s. After Falk-Torp under dodder\i the word 
was transferred as a name for certain plants with yellow thredlike stems: Old Saxon dodro. 
Old High German totoro. Old English dydr/ng'egg - yellow ' {-/ng prove the derivative of 
plant name); rather has been for it "clump' = " thick mass' in contrast to melting egg white 
the mediative meaning (Persson) or compare Norwegian o'^^y/'a "tremble' the elastic 
shivering of this colloid rocking core; compare Old Icelandic dodr-kvisa'a bird'. 

3. k-extension: (H^uek-, d^JAr-and 6'^euk-: 

Old Indie dhuksate, dhuksayati\N\Vc\ sam-' blown up the fire, kindled, animated ', dhuka- 
m. (unleashed) "wind'; common Old Indie ^/7- >/rs- 

Lithuanian dvekti, dvekuoti, dvekteret/' breathe, pant, gasp', dvokf/" st\nk' , dvakas 
"breath, breeze, breath', duksas'sxgh', dukstu, dukti' become raving, rage ', dukis'iury', 
Latvian ducu, dukt' roar, rage ', ducu, ducetW.. "roar', duku{*dunku), duku, dukt' become 
mat '; color names as Latvian dukans ' swart ' (see above) hit presumably the bridge to: 

Old High German /i/^o/ "variegated', tougan' dark, concealed, mysterious, miraculous ', 
n. " mystery, miracle ', Old Saxon dogalnussi" mystery, hiding place, nook'. Old English 
deagol, dJegle' clandestine ', Old High German tougal' dark, concealed, secret '; also Old 
English deagi. "paint, color, red or purple dye; red or purple color; rouge; in gen., paint, 
dye of any color; bee-glue ', deagian'&je', engl. dye. 

4. l-extension: 6^ (e)uel- {compare in addition above the Anouns as Old Indie dhOli-) ' 
whirl up, cloud (water, the mind); murky, dark, spiritually weak '. 

Gr. BoKoq "slime, mud, smut, esp. from murky water, the dark juice of the cuttlefish ' (= 
Gothic dwals). Adj. "cloudy", GoAou) "cloudy', GoAspoc; "muddy, cloudy, eclipse; verwirrt, 
beguile '; 

AuaAo(;, name of Dionysos by the Paeones (Hes.) " the raving ', lllyrian A£ua5ai oi 
IaT[up]oiun' "lAAupiaJv (Hes.); 

maybe alb. da/^go out, move out, wander aimlessly', nasalized nda/'stop, hinder, delay' : 
Old Norse o'l/e^a "hinder, delay'. Old Saxon t>/dwe///an'\r\\nder\ Old Norse dvg/t "delay'. 
Old English dwalam. "aberration'. 

Old Irish o'a//" blind', cluas-dair 6eaV ("unable to hear, blind'), cymr. corn. bret. dall 
"blind' (about *duallos< *du//os irom *6^ulno-s)\ 

Gothic dwals^ oafish ', Old Norse dva/at " coma, doze, stupor '; changing through 
ablaut Old Saxon Old English do/' clownish, crazy'. Old High German to/, fu//sc' crazy, 
nonsensical ', Modern High German to//, engl. du//' stupid, tasteless, weak (also from 
colors)'. Old Norse du/t " concealment, illusion, arrogance ', dy/Ja' negate, conceal ' and 
on the other hand Old Norse d0/s/<r {*dwd/is/<a-) "crazy'; Old Saxon fardwe/an stem V. 
"miss, fail'. Old Frisian dwi/it/i' errs '; Old English participle gedwo/en' wrong, mistaken ', 
Old High German gitwe/an' be dazed, tarry ', Old Norse du/inn' conceited, arrogant '; 
Kaus. Old Norse o'l/e^a "hinder, delay'. Old Saxon bidwe///an'\\\v\6er\ Old English dwe/ian 
" misguide ', Old High German *twa/jan, twa//en. Middle High German /n/e^^^e/? "hinder, 
delay'; Old Norse dvg/i. "delay'. Old English dwa/am. "aberration'. Old High German 
gitwo/o' infatuation, heresy'; Gothic dwa/mon' crazy, be phrenetical ', Old English dwo/ma. 
Old Saxon dwa/m' anesthetization ', Old High German twa/m' anesthetization, narcotic 
smoke, smoke'. Old Norse dy/minn " thoughtless, frivolous ', Danish du/me " drowse '. 

5. />extension : ^^uen(a)-' scatter, sprinkle, be moved violently; whirling smoke, fog, 
cloud; befogged = dark, also from the darkening of the consciousness, the death '. 

Old Indie ad/ivanJV he burnt out, was extinguished, dwindled ' (of anger, actually " 
evaporated, sprayed '), Kaus. d/ivanayati' darkens ', participle d/ivanta-'6arV!, n. " 

Avestan dvan-\N\Vr\ pre verb "fly' {apa-dvqsaivr macn^ic^uounTOavonTTiegen ', upa- 
dvqsaitr goes flying there ', Kaus. us-dvqnayaT he allows to fly upwards '); dvqnman- n. 
"cloud', a/pi-dvqnara-' c\o\x&y , misty', dunman-'ioq, cloud'; 

gr. 0avaTO(; "death", 9vr|T6(; " perishable ' {Vi'^Uenatos and *d'^unt6s), Doric GvaoKw "die", 
reshaped after the present in -ioKU) Attic aTToGvpaKU) (-Gavoupai, -GavsTv), Lesbian 
GvaioKw ds. (Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 362, 709, 770); 

Latvian dvans, dvanums^haze, mist, vapor', c/v/nga'\r\aze, mist, coal steam ' 
(MOhlenbach-Endzelin I 546). 

6. r-extension: d'^euer-{d'^uer-, d'^eur-) ' whirl, attack, hurry; vortex = dizziness, folly '. 

Old Indie (unleashed) dhorana-n. "trot', dhorat/" trots ' (=Slavic dur-, see below); 
perhaps dhura f\dy. " violent, forcible '; dhatr raid, night raid ', if Middle Indie development 
from *d'"vartr HeranstiJrmen '; 

perhaps gr. a-Gupu) (*a- = /7"in' + *Gupj(ji)) " play, I amuse ', aGuppa " play, toys; 
jewellery, ornament things ' (if "play' from "spring'); 

Lithuanian padurmai Mn . " with impetuosity, stormy'. Old Prussian duraiHoxn. PI. "shy'; 
russ. durb " folly, fatuity, stubborness ', duretb, " lose the mind ', durftb "make pranks', 
durak^iooX, duraloo\, clown', durnoj^evW, bad, ugly', dial. " unreasonable, furious ', 
durnfca^ henbane, ryegrass, darnel ', kir. dur, dura^ anesthetization, dizziness, tomfoolery 
', Serb, durlm, duriti se^i\axe up, foam' etc; 

Tocharian A taur, B /©/-"dust'? 

References: WP. I 835 ff.; WH. I 499 f., 561 f., 57 If., 865; Trautmann 62 f., Schwyzer Gr. 
Gr. I 686, 696, 703. 
Page(s): 261-267 

Root / lemma: d^eues-, d^ues- d'^eus- d^us- 

Meaning: to dissipate, blow, etc. *scatter, dust, rain, breathe, perish, die 

Note: extension of d'^eu~4, also expressions for " dark colors ' seem to be supposed to be 

added as " fog-gray, dust-color '. 

Material: Old Indie dhvamsati^ sprays, sprinkles, disintegrates, goes to pieces ', participle 

dhvasta-, Kaus. dhvaifisayati, dhvasayat/" powdered, destroyed ', dhvasman- m. " 

obscuration ', dhvasira-^ powdered, sprayed ', dhvasra-^ powdered, indistinguishable ', 

dhvasti-i. " the spraying ' (= Old High German tunist, dun(i)sV wind, storm, breath, smoke 

', Old English Old Frisian dusVd\xs'(), dhusara- " dust-colored '; to formation {*d^u-es-mi, 

Konj. d^^e^-s-o besides *d^u-n-es-mi, Konj. *d^u-en-s-d) compare Kuiper Nasalpras. 41; 

gr. 0UCO (Guiw) " blow, storm, surge, smoke, sacrifice ' as *d'^u-/d{[j: from Guaw, sGuaa) 
to einf. root *d^eu- (see S. 262), however, maybe in the meaning 'rage' from *d'^us-/d, as 
GuTa f. 'female bacchant ', Guiac; 'a mad or inspired woman, a Bacchante' ds. (Gua^u) ' be 
grasped by bacchanalian dizziness ') probably from *d^us-ja because of GuaraSsq BaKxai 
Hes. and GuaGAa the implements of Bacchus, the thyrsi and torches ', QuoTr\p\oq epithet of 

Note: common Latin d- > f-. 

Latin furo-ere ' to rage, rave, be mad ' could be *d'^usd , so that Furiae = gr. GuTai; 
compare also v. Blumenthal IF. 49, 172 to 5ua|jaivai BoKxai; sxGuaan SKnvsuan Hes.; but 
GusAAa ' a furious storm, hurricane ' probably feminine of *Gu£Ao(; ' storming, raging ', 
probably from *GuF£Ao(;; Gup6(; 'anger, soul ' is = Gup6(; ' air, a current of air, breeze, 
breath, wind ' and not because of Latvian dusmas 'anger' lead back to a various basic 
form *Q\Ja\^bc;, compare MiJhlenbach-Endzelin I 521; 

Ablaut form tl^^es-in hom. Geeiov and Gsiov (with metr. lengthening to Grjiov), Attic 
GeTov ' sulphur steam, sulphur ' (*GF£a-(£)iov?). 

Perhaps here Qzoc, 'god' because of Lithuanian o'l/as/a 'ghost'. Middle High German 
^e/M^as "ghost' and forms as gr. Qta-^a^oo, ' spoken from god ', GsaiTsaioc;, Geghk; 'divine' 
as *GF£a6(;from *dht/eso5 after Hirt Indog. Gr. I 195, Pisani REtlE. 1, 220 ff., Schwyzer Gr. 
Gr. I 450, 458, WH. I 102; Lithuanian by Feist 122; 

alb. dash' Anes, ram, sheep (*animal), after Jokl (L.-k. Unters. 240) from *6^uosf-; 

Latin perhaps furo, see above; fimbriai. ' fringe, border, edge ' maybe from *6!^uensria, 
with the ablaut form d!"ues- : februo, -are' clean, expiate religiously ' from februum' 
religious purification ' (sabin. after Varro), as also Februarius' the cleansing month ', on 
the basis of *d^ues-ro-' fumigating '; feralis' relating to the dead, funereal; deadly, fatal; 
mournful; n. pi. as subst. the festival of the dead, in February ' probably also here; 


Common Latin d- > f-. 

whether bestia, bellua' an animal without reason, a brute, beast, large animal; as a term 
of reproach, monster ' belong here as *d^yestia, *&"uesloua, it is extremely dubious 
because of aniauts in spite of WH. I 102; 


Common Latin dw- > b-. 

gallorom. dusius^ impure, foul daemon, incubus ', out of it lad. eng. dischol. Modern 
High German westfal. dus, Basque fusur/^devW'; compare Pedersen Et. celt. 1, 171; Old 
Irish dasachtlury', daistirimmum^ I become raving ' {*6^uds-t-, ablaut, with Old English 
dwaeseic); Old Irish dde^\6\e\ perhaps as *(i!"ousio-{o Modern High German dosig; 

Old English o^m/^s 'stupid, crazy'. Middle Low German dwas6s.. Middle High German 
twas, dwasm. "idiot, fool, villain ', getwasr\. "ghost; foolishness ' (compare to the former 
meaning Middle High German tusteru. "ghost'; to lengthened grade Old Irish dasaid); 
ablaut. Old English dysig^ clownish ', engl. dizzy^ giddy ', Middle Low German dusich^ 
benumbed, giddy ', Low German dijsig, dosig. Old High German tusic^ sluggish ', Middle 
Low German dusen, dosen^ pass away thoughtlessly ', engl. doze^ 6oze\ Modern High 
German (ndd.) Duse/(\n the meaning " light drunkenness ' compare Modern High German 
Dialectal dusen' carouse ' and Middle High German tusen'rant, make a noise, whizz '); 

in addition: Norwegian dusa'6oze', Old Norse dusa' behave quietly ', dus' calm ', dura 
"sleep'. Middle High German turmen' be dizzy, reel, lurch ' etc; 

with Germanic a^.- Middle High German dosen' behave quietly, slumber, drowse ', tore 
" insane, fool'. Modern High German 7"o/', toricht. Middle Low German dorem. "fool, crazy 

Maybe alb. Geg torre looV 

with the meaning " spray, get dusty, scatter': Middle High German tsesen, dsesen 
"scatter', verdaesen' (iesixoy' (from *dausjan), Norwegian Dialectal d0ysalurc\p, pile up', 
probably originally from " dust heaps and waste heaps ', under which medium meaning 
can be added also Old Norse dysi. " from pouting stones of burial mounds ', Norwegian 
Dialectal dussa " messy heap '; 

with the meaning " scatter, sprinkle, dust rain ': Norwegian duskregn' dust rain ', duska, 
dysja' rain finely, trickle ', engl. ^/^s/r "cloudy, dim'. Modern High German Bavarian duser 
dust rain '; West Germanic *dunstu- " transpiration ' (see above S. 263) in Old High 
German tun{/Jsf '\N\nd, storm'. Middle High German funst' fume, mist ', Old English Old 
Frisian dustn. "dust' (Old Norse dustn. "dust' is Middle Low German loanword), Danish 
dyst' flour powder ', Middle Low German nnd. dustm. "dust, chaff, husk'; 

with the meaning "breathe - animal': Gothic d/usn. "wild animal' {*d'^eus-), Old Norse dyr 
n. "Vierfijftler, wild animal', Old High German t/or^an\ma\', Old English deor'wM animal', 
Adj. "violent, wild, valiant'; 

Lithuanian dvesiu, dvesiau, dvesti^ breathe, breathe out the spirit, perish, die '; 

maybe alb. {*dves) Kofes "breathe out the spirit, perish, die'; 

Clearly from Root / lemma: 6!^eues-, d'^ues- d'^eus- d'^us-: "to dissipate, blow, etc. 
*breathe, breathe out the spirit, perish, die' derived Root/ lemma: d^eu-2, d'^u-ei-: "to 
vanish, faint, die'. 

As Lithuanian dvlst/"d\e' : Lithuanian dvesiu, dvesiau, dvestr breathe, breathe out the 
spirit, perish, die ' (see above); 


Aryans created the storm god, sky god Deus Paterirom the ritual of burning the dead. 
Hence the very spirit of the dead was identified with the breath in the cold, smoke in 
heaven. Animal fat was burned to appease the sky god hence animals were named after 
the father god. 

Latvian dveselei. "breath, soul, life', ablaut. {*d^uos-), Lithuanian dvasasm., dvasiai.. 
Gen. f/i/as/bs "ghost', "breath', Latvian dvasa' air, breath, smell ' (: russ. dvocfiatb, Indo 
Germanic *d'"uos-)\ zero grade ( tl^Js-), Lithuanian o'^s55"sigh' and "haze, mist' (= kir. 
docH), dustli, dusti'run out of breath', Latvian dust^pant, gasp', dusmas ^ anger' , 
Lithuanian dusiu, duseti'take a deep breath, sigh, gasp heavily', dusautids.; Lithuanian 
dausosi. PI. {*d'^ous-) " the upper air, paradise ', dausinti^ ventilate, air '; 

russ. dvochatb, dvochatb 'pant, gasp' (see above); Old Church Slavic (vbs)dbchnQti^ 
take a deep breath, heave a sigh ', kIr. o'oc/? "breath, breeze' {*d'bciTb), Old Church Slavic 
dyciiajg, dysg, dycfiati^breaVne, exhale, blow', duchb{\ Lithuanian dausos) " respiration, 
breath, spirit ', o^i/sa "breath, soul' {*d'^ousJa), dusg, duciiati'breaVne, blow, from wind' etc 

maybe alb. {*dychati) dihat' breathe heavily' a Slavic loanword. 

words for sombre colors ("dust-colored, fog-gray ') : 

Old Indie diiusara-' dust-colored ' (see above); Latin fuscus' dark-colored; of the voice, 
indistinct ' {*d'^us-qo-), furvus^ dark-colored, black ' {*d'^us-uo-)\ 

Note: common Latin d- > /-shift. 

Old Englisli dox{*dosd) 'darl<', engl. o'^s/r "cloudy, dim; twilight ' (= Latin fuscus, compare 
also Norwegian dusmen^ misty '), with formants -no- Old English dunn {Ce\Wc loanword?), 
(under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-). Old Saxon dun " chestnut-colored 
', Old Norse dunna^ the common domestic duck ', Old Saxon dosan. Old English dosen^ 
chestnut-colored ', Old High German dosan, tusin ' pale yellow ' (West Germanic Lw is 
Latin o'c»s//7i/5 "ash-colored'); Middle Irish donn^6ark', cymr. dwnn ^subiuscus, dark- 
colored, blackish ', gall. PN Donnosetc {*6^uosnos). (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-). 


Probably from a fusion of Root / lemma: d'^eues- d^ues-, d'^eus-, d^us-'io dissipate, blow, 

etc. *scatter, dust, rain, breathe, perish, die' + Root/ lemma: dei-1, de/a- di-, dja-\ "to 

shine; day; sun; sky god, god' derived Slavic {* dus-diu-)\ Old Church Slavic: dtzdh "rain' 

[m jo] (see below). 

References: WP. I 843 f., WH. I 102, 386, 472 f., 570 ff., Trautmann 64 f. 

Page(s): 268-271 

Root/ lemma: d'^eig"-. d'^dig"-. d'^Tg"- 
Meaning: to stick, plant 

Material: Latin ffgo, -ere "to fix, fasten, make fast, attach, affix; esp. with oculos, to fix the 
gaze; to thrust home a weapon, etc. so as to fix fast; to transfix ' (Proto Latin /; compare 
ffgierS. C. Bacch.), Old Latin ffvo, Umbrian fiktu^ you shall fix, fasten, drive, thrust in, 
attach, affix, post, erect, set up ', afiktu^ he/she shall fasten, implant, drive in, affix '; 
probably in addition as " pinned ' also ffnis^ boundary, limit, border; summit, end; object, 
aim; in pi. enclosed area, territory ' (= Lithuanian o'j7(gs/7/5 "prick, sting'), compare ffnio, -Tre 
also " to bound, limit, enclose, restrain; to define, determine, appoint; to put an end to, 
conclude, finish; esp. to finish speaking, or to die; pass., to end, cease '; 
Note: common Latin d- > f- shift. 

Old English dTc^ drainage ditch, canal', ndd. dJk, Old Icelandic dTk(i)n, Middle High 
German tTch, from which Modern High German Deich, Teich (actually) "the digging'. 

Lithuanian dygstu, dygti, Latvian o'/^/ "germinate' (actually "jut. stick out, protrude', 
Lithuanian oy^^s "spiky, prickly '), in addition dygili, dygeti^ feel piercing pain ', dyglys 
"thorn', dyge^ gooseberry ', Old Prussian digno^ the hilt of a sword ' (as Modern High 
German Heft^ the handle of a cutting or piercing instrument, as a knife, spear, etc.; the hilt 

of a sword, dagger ', that is to say " wherein the blade is fixed, to fix'); zero grade 
Lithuanian dfegiu, dfegti, Latvian oVe^/ "prick', Lithuaniano'/e^as'germ, sprout'. Old 
Prussian deicktas " site, place ', originally " point, dot, prick, sting'; with dr. Lithuanian 
daigas^qexru, sprout, seedling ', daiktas^ point, dot; thing', daig'mtT make germinate '; 

References: WP. I 832 f., WH. I 495 f., 865; Trautmann 49 f. 
Page(s): 243-244 

Root / lemma: d^e^/^- (besides d^-e/-?) 

Meaning: to suck 

Note: (:dha/- <m- and dhe- d^a-) s. esp. Schuize KZ. 27, 425 = Kl. Schr. 363. 

Material: Old Indie dhaya-h^ nourishing, nursing ', dhayas-u. ' the sucking ', dhayu-^ 

thirsty ', dhatave^io suck'. Put. dhasyati, Aor. adhaV he sucked ', s^-o'/?^ "juice, sap, 

nectar', dhatrV wet nurse, mother', dhenu-i. " producing milk ' = Avestan daenu-^ female 

of four-footed animals ' 


Reduplicated laryngeal in h2"ahre- > Avestan ae- 

Old Indie dhena^ milker', ablaut. dhJta-^ sucked ', Perf. Plur. 1. 3. da-dhi-ma (i- d), da- 

dh-uh\ redupl. noun da-dh-an-, Nom. da-dh-i. Gen. o'5£y/7/7as "sour milk' (: Old Prussian 

da dan, alb. djath^; 

Maybe alb. {*dhei-) Geg dhej, Tosc dhi, PI. dhen, dhente^ goat', edha^ goats' : alb. Geg 

dhane^ to give, produce'. 

from stem &^9i-: dhayati^ sucks' C^^s/et/: Kaus. 'yi^o/'-e/e-t/'m Slavic dq/7t/, Gothic 
daddjan) and dhinoti^ nourishes '; 

Armenian diem "suck' (/== Indo Germanic eor rather /; so that = Old Norse dTa), stn-di 
"( sucking breast =) suckling ', o'a/from daiT beestings ' {d'^9/-//-), dayeak^ wet nurse ' 
(from *dayi- =lndo Germanic d^a-//-); 

gr. Gnaaro " he sucked ', 9f|a9ai "milk', 0r|viov "milk', iiGnvri " wet nurse ' (short form 
TiiGn underlikewise, whereat different Falk-Torp under taate), yaAaGnvoc; " sucking milk ', 
ix-Qaaoc, "tame, domesticated, well-bred'; 

alb. djathe^ cheese' originally " curd made from sour milk ' (: Old Indie dadhi), gr.-alb. 
d/the' cheese'] (common Slavic alb. -e- > -Je-, -a- > -ja-, ). 


Spectacularly alb. djathe{*das), gr.-alb. dithe^ cheese' derived from a solidified lllyrian root 
*dh-e/-s"curd made from sour milk' because of common alb. -s > -th. 

Latin femina^m'^e, woman' ("*the nursing one'); about felTx, fecundussee below; 

Old Irish o''/77^"lamb', d/th'he/she has sucked' (/"= Indo Germanic eor /), dena/d'he 
sucks' {*di-na-ti), bret. denaff' suck', cymr. dynu^suck'; 

Gothic dadd/an= Old Swedish dseggja' suckle ' (proto Germanic *dajjan, compare Old 
Indie dhayati. Old Church Slavic dojg, das Germanic *dajj- has originated normally from 
*&^oi-eie-). Old Swedish dTa, Danish Norwegian oVe'suck', Middle High German dTen, ffen^ 
suckle; breast feed a baby' (compare zero grade Armenian diem), zero grade Old High 
German taen, present taju{= Latvian deju^suck'), westfal. daierrn^ nourish a calf with milk 

Latvian deju, det' suck', at-diene, at-diemte " a cow that calves in the second year ', 
Lithuanian dienii. 'pregnant' (= Old Indie dhenu-), d/ena6s. (= Old Indie dhena ^co\n'). Old 
Prussian dadan'mWk' (= Old Indie dadhan-); Old Church Slavic dojg^ suckle ' (Old Indie 
dhayati), doiiica^ wet nurse ', with e{= Indo Germanic eor a/) detbi. " children, kids. ', 
deva, devica'g\r\, virgin' (replaced by '* woman ' = ' the nursing one, the one who suckles 
', s. Berneker 197). 

With Aformant: Old Indie diiaru-' sucking ' = gr. 9r|Au(; ' nourishing (££p5r|), lactating, 
female ' (fem. GrjAEia and 6r|Auc;), 0r|Au), GnAapcbv " wet nurse ', 9r|Aa^u) ' suckle, suck', 
9r|An ' brisket', alb. o'e/e "sheep' {*6^9ii-n-), deimeds., diiaiie ' sour m\\k', lllyrian daim- 
"sheep' in PN AaApiov, AsApiviov, VN Daimatae, Deimatae, Messapic PN Gen. m. 
daimaihi, fem. PN daima&oa, Latin feio, -are^ suckle ', ffiius^ sow' ("*suckling ', from *feiios) 
= Umbrian feiiuf, fiiiu' give milk, give suck '; 


Common lat d- > f- phonetic shift 

Middle Irish ofe/"teat' ( *dW-io-), deiecii^ milker ', Danish daei^ mammary glands or udder of 
the sow ', Swedish Dialectal deirc\. "teat'. Old High German tiiai. " female breast'. Old 
English deiui. " nipple, teat', Old Norse o'//Ar"lamb, baby, youngling'; Latvian o'e/s"son', 
deie^ bloodsucker, leech ', Lithuanian deieds., pirmdeie^ the first born ', pirmdeiys^ who 
has just been born '; Latvian dTie^ sucking calf, diiit^ suckle '. 

Identical alb. djale, PI. djelm, dJem^sov\'' : Latvian o'e/s'son'. 

(common Slavic alb. -e- > -Je-, -a- > -ja-, ). 

from gr. GoJaGai (*9(joi£a9ai) 'to feast', Goivri " feast ' (from *9u)i-va?) with gradation suit 
here, is doubtful; if Gw^ai and (Doric) Ga^ai ' psGuaai ' as *9ojaK-aai points to a light 
root t|ho/- (also then Goivn; also GwaGai could be Goja-oGai)? 

Latin fe^xlertWe, lucky' to fe/are goes back to a fem. Subst. *felT-c- " the nursing one = 
fertile ', after Specht (KZ. 62, 237) from *feluhk-s, Femin. to Old Indie dhar'u-, gr. GpAuc;; 
Latin /ec^/7o'^s 'fertile', fetus, -us^{^) pregnant; fruitful, fertile; teeming with, full of. (2) that 
has brought forth, newly delivered; (3) m. the bringing forth or hatching of young; of the 
soil, bearing, producing. Transf., that which is brought forth; offspring, brood; of plants, 
fruit, produce, shoot ', /^/5 'filled with young, pregnant, breeding, with young ', also ' what 
is born ', e^/a'past bearing, exhausted, worn out, weak after a lot of parturition', fenus, - 
0/75 'yield, interest on money, usury', perhaps also fenum^haY (as 'yield') define 
themselves through a special application from d^e/- ' suckle ' for 'be fertile'; 

in addition but not *6'^dna- 'corn, grain' : Old Indie dhanahi. PI. 'grain, seeds', dhanya- 
n. 'corn, grain', np. 0(3/75 'corn, grain', Avestan dano-karsa-^au ant kind ', i.e. ' towing 
grain (= an ant) ', Tocharian B tano^ corn, grain ' and Lithuanian duona, Latvian duonai. 
'bread' (originally ' corn ', Old Lithuanian ' provision for retired farmers, retirement, 
settlement on retirement '); Doric-lllyrian (Cretan) 5r|ai. . . ai KpiGai EM., 5r|TTai 
aisnTiapsvai KpiGai ( Vi^e-k-Ja-) Hes.; different Jokl by WH. I 475; 

References: WP. I 829 ff., WH. I 474 ff., 864, Trautmann 51. 
See also: s. also above d^e-/, d^e-dhe-. 
Page(s): 242 

Root/ lemma: d^e-/, redupl. 6'^e-6}^(e)- 

Meaning: child word for 'grandparents' 

Material: Gr. Qzxoc, 'uncle', Gsia 'aunt' (*Gr|-0(;, Gn-a), inGri 'grandmother' (from *Gr|-Gr|), 

Italian (venet.) o'eo's 'aunt' (?), gr. rriGic; 'aunt' (in addition GN Ostk;); lllyrian deda^ wet 

nurse ' (Krahe IF. 55, 121 f.), also probably originally to root 6'^e{i)- ' suckle '; Lithuanian 

dede, ded/s'ur\c\e' (but diedas^ graybeard, old man, elder 'from wr. dzedds.), Old 

Church Slavic o'eo'b 'grandfather'; similarly Modern High German de/te, teite, Swiss daddi 

'father, elder', russ. djadja ^ux\c\e\ 


Turk. c/ay/"unc\e' derived from russ. djac/ja 'unc\e' while alb. dajan. f. "uncle' could have 

existed before turk. day/'unc\e', however, alb. cognate is phonetically identical with other 

cognates: also turk. /7a/a "paternal aunt' : alb. /75//a "paternal aunt', turk. /eyze "maternal 

aunt' : alb. /eze "maternal aunt'. 

References: WP. I 826, Trautmann 47, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 193. 

Page(s): 235 

Root / lemma: d^e-2 
Meaning: to put, place, say 

Material: Old Indie dadhati, Avestan dadaiti^ he places ', Old pers. Impf. Sg. adada^ he 
has installed ', Old Indie Aor.a-o'/75-/r7"l placed', Med. 3. Sg. a-dhita{= gr. eGeto) ; to 
participle Old Indie hita-h{-dhita-h\v\ ved. compounds) "set, settled ' (= Latin con-ditus, ab- 
ditus, creditus, probably also gr. Qzioq, " sedate, calm, settled, placed, set; having position; 
taken as one's child, adopted '), with full grade Avestan Old pers. data- (= Lithuanian detas 
" sedate, calm, settled ', Old Prussian sen-ditans f\Vk. PI. f. " folded ', also gr. Ghtov poopov 
Hes., actually " set raised platform, placed stand '); Inf. Old Indie dha-tum{= Lithuanian 
o'e/z/Supin., Old Church Slavic detb "to place' : Latin [late] conditus, -usm. " pickled, 
preserved; of corpses, embalmed; in gen., seasoned, savory ', Supin. -um, -u, compare 
also Old Indie dhatu-h), m. " component, set', Avestan vT5atu- n. " grounds, rationale, 
steady acquiescence ');„/c>-present Old Indie dhayate^ places for oneself ' (= Latvian deju, 
det^p\ace, lay eggs', deju det^ solder together ', Old Church Slavic o'eyip"lay, place'. Old 
Czech deju^xx\ake')\ Perf. Old Indie dadhau, dadhima, Avestan 3. Sg. da5a{\ gr. TsGspai, 
Latin -didT, Oscan pru-ffed. Old High German tetaeXc). 

Armenian edAor. "he placed' (= Old Indie a-dhat, 1. Sg. edi, 2. Sg. edit), present dnem^ 
I place ' {*dinem, Indo Germanic *d'^e-A7o, compare russ. denu^sW., put, lay, place', Serbo- 
Croatian djenem " do, put, lay '); 

Maybe nasalized alb. Geg me ndejVio sit, while, stay', A7o'ey"hang lose, place' 

Phrygian zbazc, "has placed' ( *e-6^a-es-f7 rather = Hittite da-a-is)\ 

gr. TiGriM' "puf (Aor. sGriKO - see below -, iQz\xzy, sGsto, Fut. Gnaw, participle Getoc;); 

Messapic hi-pa-of has placed ' {*ghi-po-&^es-t, J. B. Hofmann KZ. 63, 267); 

Latin abdere^ put away, remove, set aside, stow away', con-dere^ to put together, 
make by joining, found, establish, build, settle' (in addition Census [*kom-d-to-] av\ ancient 
deity, god of secret plans), perdere^ to make away with, destroy, ruin, squander, dissipate, 

throw away, waste, lose ', credere 'beWeve, trust' (see below 'Areref/- "heart'); about the 
interference of darew\t\r\ respective forms s. WH. I 362; Perf. cond/dfetc, Oscan pru-ffed' 
has placed ' {*-fefed). 


Common italic-Latin o'->/- shift. 

With einer /r-extension Latin fac/o, -ere, fecT{: £0r|Ka), factum' to make, form, do, 
perform; of feelings and circumstances, to cause, bring about ', Oscan fakiiad, Umbrian 
facia ' he/she makes, constructs, fashions, frames, builds, produces, composes ', fakurent 
Fut. II [subjunctive] "they will have made, constructed, fashioned, framed, erected, 
produced, composed ', praen. (passionate inscription) FheFhaked'helshe has made, 
constructed, fashioned, framed, erected, produced, composed ', Oscan fefacitKou]. Perf. 
"let he/she have made, constructed, fashioned, framed, erected, produced, composed ', 
fefacustFut II "he/she will have made, constructed, fashioned, framed, erected, produced, 
composed '; 

with *fek- Umbrian fe/tu, /e/i/ [Imperative]" he/she will have made, constructed, 
fashioned, framed, erected, produced, composed ': 

fac/7/s "( feasible) easy to do; easy to manage, convenient, favorable ', Umbrian facefele 
ds.; fades' shape, form, figure, outward appearance; esp. face, countenance. Transf., 
character, nature; seeming, pretence ', facinus, ponti-fex, arti-fex bene-ficus \ to meaning 
of interficid " to put out of the way, destroy, bring to naught, slay, kill' ("*allow to disappear') 
compare Old Indie antar-hita-h' vanished '. 

The same A'-extension besides in gr. £9r|Ka also in 6nKr| " receptacle ', Old Indie dha-ka- 
/?" container' and Phrygian a5-5aK£T " afflicts, causes death ', Med. a5-5aK£Top; Venetic 
vhaxs&o' he/she makes, constructs, fashions, frames, builds, erects, produces, composes 
' {*fak-s-to, the /probably from Ital.); 

Hittite dak-ki-es-zi {dakkeszi) " makes, places down ' (: Latin facessd), dak-su-ul {daksul) 
"friendly' (: Old Latin facul); perhaps Tocharian A taka'\ was, became', B takawa diS. 
(different Pedersen Tocharian 194); 

gall, dede' he/she has placed '; compare Latin con-, ab-, cre-didT, Old High German teta 
" I made, did'; Old Irish -tarti'Qwes, yields ' {*to-ro-ad-dI't irom *6'^e-t), Perf. do-rat {*to-ro- 
ad-datirovn *d'^e-t}, Thurneysen Gr. 35; 

Old High German torn, tuom, Old Saxon ton, Old English dom'do'. Inf. Old High 
German tuon. Old Saxon Old English don {*d^d-m) "do', preterit Old High German teta'\ 
made, did' (2. Sg. tat/, PI. tatu-m; reshaped after the type of Gothic setum). Old Saxon 
deda{2. Sg. dedos, 3. PI. dadun, dedun). Old English dyde< dud/ {see above to Old Indie 
dadhau); particle Perf. Pass. Old High German gi-tan. Old English don^ done ' from *d^e- 
no- =Old Church Slavic o-dent ' wrapped, dressed '; 

in the ending of reduced Prater. (Gothic salbo-dedun eic) one tries to seek mostly the 
root d^e- whereas in Gothic kunt^a^ granted ', must contain the Indo Germanic -/-, to 
accept an other formation, compare Hirt, Indo Germanic Gr. IV, 99, Sverdrup NTS. 2, 55 
ff., Marstrander, NTS. 4, 424 f., Specht KZ. 62, 69 ff., Kretschmer Sbb. Wien, 225. Bd., 2. 

Lithuanian det/lay, place, put', present 2. PI. old deste{*d^e-6^-te), Sg. demi, desie-s, 
destC/J {compare Buga Kalba irs. 158, 213), neologism dedu, Latvian det{see above); 

Old Church Slavic det/lay, place, say', present dezdg {* ded/o) and dejg{see above); 
dejg, dejatr\a\i, place, do'; -i/a-iterative Old Church Slavic o-devati\\.o put), dress ', russ. 
devatb "set down, do, place'; 

in addition probably Lithuanian deviu, devet/'wear a dress'; a formant ua\so in gr. 
*9oFaKOc; and (assim.) *9aFaK0(;, compare Goa^w "sit, put', Ionian 0aJKO(; (hom. 06u)ko(; 
written for 96[F]aKO(;) "seat', GapaKOv Gqkov ri Gpovov Hes., Attic also GaKO(; ds., hom. 
Gaaaau) "sit', Attic poet Gaaou) ds. (see to gr. group Bechtel Lexil. 161 f., Boisacq 335); 
compare also thrak. -dava^ settling, settlement ' from *6!"euaor *d^9ua; probably 
reshuffling after the concurrent *dd-: *dou- "bestow, give'; 


The suffix -dava' settling, settlement ' frequently scattered over the thrak. territory and city 
names is absent in lllyrian toponyms, hence lllyrian-alb. and trak. were two different 

Hittite da-a-i{dai) " places, lays ', 1. Sg. te-eh-hi{tehhi), 3. PI. //■a/>z/(Pedersen Hittite 
91, 112 f., 166), preterit 3. Sg. da-a-is, perhaps also dak-ki-es-zi {see above); 

Hittite: dai-, tai- (II) ' place, lay, put ', tija- (I) ' step, tread, be positioned ', tittanu- (I) ' put, 

place ', zikk- (I) ' lay, place ' (Friedrich 202-203, 223-225, 260-261) 

Hittite: te- (I) 'say' (Friedrich 219-220) : Old Church Slavic deti^ay, place, say' 

Tocharian A ta-, tas-, tas-, B tes- "lay, place' fd^e-s- Pedersen Tocharian 186 f.); 

Tocharian B tatta- 'to place, set' (Adams 283 f) 

Lycian ta- "lay, place' (Pedersen. Lycian and Hittite 30 f.). 

Root nouns (in compositions): e.g. Old Indie vayo-dha-h^ imparting vitality ', saifi-dhai. 
" pact, agreement, promise ' (: Lithuanian arkli-de^ stable '), sarh-dh-a-m' association ' (: 
Lithuanian sam-das), ratna-dh-a-h^ imparting treasure ', ni-dh-i-hm. " container, treasure, 
tribute', sam-dh-f-hvn. " association, covenant, fusion ', Avestan gao-5i-^ milk container'; 
Lithuanian samdas^ rent, rental ', //7o'a5 "vessel', nuodaf poison ', (old) nuodzia^ debt, 
blame, offense ', padis^ the hen lays an egg '; 

Old Prussian umnode^ bakehouse ', Lithuanian pelude, Latvian pelade^ chaff container ', 
Old Church Slavic obb-dou. "Gnoaupoq', sp-o'b"Kpiai(;, KpTpa'; compare Berneker 193 ff., 
Trautmann 47 f.; if so also Old Icelandic oddr. Old English ord. Old High German c»/'/"cusp, 
peak' as *ud-6yo-s " pointed up'? 

nominal formation: 

Old Indie dhatar-xw. " instigator, founder', dhafar-^ creator, god' (compare also Old 
Church Slavic detelb "perpetrator'), gr. Gsirip, Latin con-ditor^ a founder; hence, in gen., 
contriver, composer, author '; 

compare t|ha-//c»-in Old Irish dal, acymr. dati, ncymr. dadi, abret. o''ao'/"congregation, 
meeting', nbret. daer contest, quarrel ' (compare to meaning Phrygian 5ou|JO(;); 

t|ha-//-in Old Indie -dhiti-hi. " stead ', deva-hiti-h' God's statute ', gr. GsoK^f. " statute, 
order', Latin con-diti-oi. " an agreement, stipulation, condition, compact, proposition, 
terms, demand '; tl*^e-//-sin Avestan ni-5aiti-i. " laying down, putting away, hiding ', Gothic 
gadeds^ deed, position, place ', Old Icelandic dad^ skillfulness, deed, act'. Old English 
dsed. Old High German /a/"deed, act', Lithuanian detis^ load, burden ', PI. detys^ lay of 
the chicken, the goose ', Old Church Slavic blago-detb " Grace, blessing, gratitude '; tl^a- 
t-\r\ thrak. PN Aaroc;, alb. dhate{*^^9-t§) " site '; *^^d-t-\r\ Avestan dami-da-V the created 
creature ', Latin sacer-dos^ a priest, priestess ' {*sacro-(ii'^dt-s). 

Old Indie dhana-m^ container', el. auv0r|vai (?) "pact, covenant'. Old High German 
participle gitan. Old English don^ done ', Old Church Slavic c»-o'e/7b "(completed), vested '; 
Old Indie dhana-m^ sacrifice, offering, price in competition etc ', nidhanam' layover, stay, 
inhabitation etc', godhana-m^ cattle possession ', Avestan gao-5ana-r\. " milk container '. 

Old Indie dhaman-v\. " statute, law, dwelling, troop, multitude, crowd etc', Avestan 
daman-, dqman- n. "site, creature', gr. ava-9r|MCi " anything devoted to evil, an accursed 
thing ', £ni-9r|MCi " something put on, a lid, cover; statue on a grave', 9r||JU)v m. "heap'; 
£u9niJU)v "probably keeping tidy, keeping in order '; thrak. plant name Koa-5apa 
TTOTa|JOY£iTU)v (Dioskor.) (from *k"a-6^emn) " water settlement ', PN Uscu-dama; 
secondary (after Qta\(^ gr. 9£|ja n. " that which is placed or laid down: money deposited, 
deposit; also, of grain; treasure, pile, of loaves, coffer, position, situation, nativity, common 
burial-place, common land, private burial-ground, something proposed as a prize, case 
proposed for discussion, theme of an argument, proposition, premise, arbitrary 
determination, primary (non-derivative) element or form, of the present tense, mode of 
reduction of an irregular syllogism ', compare also Inf. 9£|j£vai; Avestan dami- f. " creation 
', Adj. (alsofem.) " constituting, originating, creator, god'; gr. 9£pi(; "that which is laid down 
or established by custom'. Gen. originally 9£piaT0(; "*allowed by the laws of God and men, 
righteous ' as Goddess's name, then "right, law, custom', 9£p£9Aa PI. " the foundation of a 
building; the innermost, core ', 9£|j£Aioi Ai9oi " the foundation-stones ', hom. 9£pi£iAia (£i 
metr. lengthening) " the foundations, lowest part, bottom, ground'; 

Alb. themer the foundation of a building; the innermost, core ' : hom. 9£M£iAia (£i metr. 
lengthening) " foundation, ground' [probably a loanword]; themen^\\ee\, bottom of the foot'. 

zero grade: Qa\xd "*massed; frequent, often ', 9a[jiv6q "frequent, often, massed', hom. 
Qa\xtzc„ femin. 9aM£iai PI. " the piled up, tightly packed, crowded, close-set, thick ' (from 
*9apu(;), 9apvo(; " thicket, shrubbery, bush, shrub'; in a t|ha-/77c»-' settlement, branch, 
dwelling' (compare 9ai[j6(; oiKia, an6po(;, cpurda Hes. [*6^amJo-], also Old Indie dhaman- 
"dwelling') or "heap, troop, multitude, crowd (the servant)' correlates one perhaps rightly 
also with Latin famulus^ a servant, a male slave, attendant ', familia^ a household (of 
slaves), establishment ', Oscan famer a servant, a male slave, attendant ', famelo^ a 
household (of slaves), establishment ', Umbrian famenas^ a household (of slaves), 
establishment '; 


Common Latin d- > f- shift 

o-grade gr. 9(j0[j6(; "heap, barn, haystack'; Phrygian Soujjoq "an assembly, meeting, 
congress, a living together', Latin ai^-o'd/T?©/? "lower abdomen' as "intimate, hidden, secret 
part', compare Old High German intuoma^ the chief internal organs of the body, significant 
organs ' (would be Latin *inddmen). Middle Low German ingedome, bayr. ingetum6s., 
Gothic domsm. "judgement, fame' (o'o/77/5/7 "adjudicate'; from dem Germanic russ. duma 

'thought, notion, care; council meeting ' etc, s. Berneker 237), Old English o'o/t? "opinion, 
sense, mind, judgement, court'. Old High German /i/0/77 'judgement, feat, deed, act, 
custom, state, status', Lithuanian dome, domesys^ attention, directing of the thought and 
will on something ', also Lithuanian deme' spot upon which attention is directed ' etc, 
demetis = dometis ' wonder, care, concern, follow, go, take interest '. 

Old Icelandic daeir easy to do, easy, without difficulty ' ( W^e-li-s); compare Proto Norse 
dalidun^ they did ' (preterit of Germanic *delian), Lithuanian pa-delys^ nest-egg (the hen 
lays an egg) ', priedele, priedelis' inclosure ', Old Bulgarian delou. 'work', wherefore (see 
Berneker 195 f., Trautmann 48) Old Church Slavic deija, de/jbrnavn. Gen. 'because of, 
Lithuanian del, del, deliai, Latvian o'e/ with Gen. 'because of, for the sake of. 

Maybe from Slavic /7e'not' + Old Church Slavic: o'e/o'work, matter' = Bulgarian HOflena 
{nedel'a), Serbian nedeija, Czech nedele, Polish n/edz/e/a^ Sunday, holiday = no work' : 
Lithuanian: o'e//c»//"put down, away' : Albanian q^ie/e'Sunday, holiday'. 

An occasional formation compare still gr. t£9|j6c; (Pind.), GeGjjoc; (lak. etc), Bza[}6q (Attic) 
' statute ' after Th urn eysen (KZ. 51, 57) to Old Irish dedm, cymr. deddf{*&^e-6!"-ma) ds. 
(different Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 492''2); Gojri, Attic Gwa: ' punishment '. Very doubtful a s- 
extension would be attributed to Old Icelandic des {* dasjo) ' hay stick, hay rick ' (loanword 
from dem Old Irish?), Old Irish dais {* dasti-) 'heap, hay rick', wherewith E. Lewy (KZ. 52, 
310) compares rather osset. dasun^^We up, lump'. 

References: WP. I 826 ff , WH. I 266, 362 f , 439 ff , 863, Trautmann 47 ff , Schwyzer Gr. 
Gr. I 492, 686, 722, 725, 741, Pedersen Hittite 141 ff., 192. 
Page(s): 235-239 

Root / lemma: 6^6-3, d^^- 

Meaning: to disappear 

Material: Latin famesi. 'hunger', ad fatim, affatim^a6 lassitudinem, zurGeniJge', fatTgo 

'hetze ab, ermijde', fatJsco, -o^'gehe auseinander; ermatte'; 

Note: common Latin d- > A shift 

Old Irish ded- (present ru-deda. Put. Plur. dedait, preterit con-ro-deda) ' vanish, pass 

away, die away, disappear, dwindle, waste away, melt, decay '; Old English demm 

'damage' {'^^a-mi-s); 

with -5 Old Norse o'as/'idle' (Germanic *das-). Middle High German 0'^5/ic 'still, 
uncommunicative, stupid', changing through ablaut Norwegian dial, dase^ flabby person'. 

Danish dase' be decayed '; Old Norse dgesa{sK) " swelter, decay ', dasask^ go bad, get 
worse'; Middle English dasen^ stun ' (engl. daz&), dasewen^ be dark '. 

In all parts some dubious connections. About Old Irish de-c^a). compare Pedersen KG. II 
504 f.(from Perf. Vi'^e-doueirorw to Gothic diwans ' perishable '? s. ^^eu- ' disappear ', 
where also about Old Irish dJth, Armenian dJ). The Germanic family finally reminds partly 
under *^^eues- ' whisk ' discussed from ndd. ddsigav\6 have been directed partly after this 
not only in the 5-extension, but also in the meaning itself; at least, is to be reckoned on an 
old relationship from Old Norse daesasketc. and Irish -deda . 

References: WP. I 829, WH. I 451. 
Page(s): 239 

Root / lemma: d^es- d^as- 

Meaning: a root used in religious terms 

Material: Armenian d/-k"gods' (PL *d^esesy, 

Note: common Latin d- > /-shift 

Latin feriae {0\d Latin fesiae) " days of rest, holidays, festivals', festus' of holidays, festive, 

festal, solemn, joyful, merry, originally from the religious celebration to devoted days ', 

Oscan fffsnam f\Vk. " an open place for observation, place marked off by the augur's staff ', 

Umbrian fesnaf-e^\v\ a shrine, sanctuary, temple '; zero grade Latin fanum {*fas-no-m) " a 

shrine, sanctuary, temple ' and Old Indie dhisnya-^ devout, godly, pious, holy' (insecure 

dhisanyant- , see below d^eja- 'see'); about gr. Qzoq, 'god' see below d'^eues-, about Latin 

fas, fastus above S. 105 f. 

References: WP. I 867, WH. I 453, 3 f.; EM2 333, 347 f. 

Page(s): 259 

Root / lemma: d^/as-or d^e/B- {:d^Js-) 

Meaning: to squeeze, press 

Material: Old Indie dhrsad-^ millstone '; 

gr. 0Aau) ' squeeze, crush ' (Indo Germanic *d^las-6ox *d^Jsd), sGAaaGnv, GAaaroq; 

Czech dlasmati^'Q'cess' {*d'"las-mo- or *d'^o/s- mo-); 

cpAau) 'OAaoj' is hybridization of GAaw with cpAipu), as on the other hand cpAipu) through 
hybridization with GAau) is also transfigured to GAipw. 

References: WP. I 877, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 676. 
Page(s): 271 

Root / lemma: (i^Jgh- 

Meaning: debt 

Material: Old Irish dligim^ be entitled to, earn ', mcymr. dlyu, with epenthet. vowel dy/yu' 

withheld, kept back', corn. dy//y6s., Middle Breton de///f6s., Old Irish dligedu. 'obligation, 

law, right' (Wgh/to-m), cymr. d/ed, dyled, me. d(y)lyeti. " obligation ', besides dlit^ 

earnings ' ( *&ilghTta)\ Gothic duigs ' debt ' (in money); Old Church Slavic dlT^giD ' debt ', 

russ. dolg, Serbo-Croatian o'^^(Gen. duga), poln. diug, Czech d/uh ds. 

Gothic du/gsan6 the Slavic words have probably common origin. 

References: WP. I 868, Trautmann 55. 
Page(s): 271-272 

Root / lemma: d^ofuj- : d^u- 

Meaning: rope 

Material: Gr. 9aj|ji(Y)^, -iYYO(;f. 'rope, cord, band, strap, string of the bow ' (places ahead 

*9(jo-|jo- or -|ja); 

Note: common Latin d- > /-shift 

Latin fOnis^ a rope, sheet, line, cord '; ablaut d[i/]-: 0-, if Latin J not at most dial. 

development from d\ after J. Duchesne-Guillemin (BSL. 41, 178) ostensibly here 

Tocharian AB tsu-, B tsaw^Xo unite ' (??). 

References: WP. I 868, WH. 567 f. compare also Petersson Heterokl. 169 f. 

Page(s): 272 

Root /lemma: d-d- 
Meaning: to sharpen 

Material: Old Indie o'M/'a 'cutting edge, sharpness, blade', Avestan darai. ds., tizidara-^ 
with sharp edge ', gr. Qooq, 'sharp, sharp', sGoojaa 'I sharpened, sharpen' (*9o-F6g uo- 
participle, as e.g. *ba-V6c, ' sliced ' in Sai'^oj; for tl-a-to o compare Soroq: 5u)-). 

from here due to tl^^a-AO-' pointed ' (: Old Indie dha-rS) also Old English darodm. 'spit, 
pike, spear, lance'. Old High German tartm. 'spit, pike'. Old Norse darrad-rm., darru. 
'spit, pike'? And at most in addition as ' wound with a pike ' further die Germanic family of 

Old Saxon Old English der/an "\n\ure, hurt', Old High German /e/re/? besides taron, -en 
"harm, injure'. Old English darut 'damage, pity, injury ', Old High German tarai. " injury '? 

References: WP. I 867 f. 
Page(s): 272 

Root / lemma: d^reb'"- 

Meaning: to crush, grind 

Material: Gothic gadraban ' cut out, AqtomeTv'; Old Norse drafn., Old English drsefn. 'offal', 

Old Norse drafna' separate in small parts ', blot^-drefjarm. " bloodstain '; 

Old Church Slavic drobljg, drobiti^ crush, break, rupture, grind', russ. drobbi. "break, 
piece, fragment', russ. -Church Slavic drobbp-b, Bulgarian droben 'small, little', next to 
which with ablaut e: Bulgarian drebends., dreb' secession of wool, by rippling the flax; 
liver', russ. drebezg^ s\\2xds, debris'; Pick BB. 2, 199, Berneker 225-226 (m. further 

With Gothic hiaiw, t^atei was gadraban us sfa/na compares Hoffmann BB. 18, 288 
Tpacpo^ TQcpoq Hes., so that the application of our root to 'quarrying out of stones' would be 

A similar to root d^^rei^-in: 

Old Norse drepa'pnck, bump, poke, slay'. Old English drepan's\aY, meet'. Middle Low 
German drepen^meet, fight'. Old High German freffan ' meet, touch'. Old Norse drepn. 
'blow, knock'. Old English gedrep ds., Middle High German trefm. n. ' prank, blow, club, 
meeting ', Old English drepem. {*drapi-) ' manslaughter ', Old Norse drapv\. ds.; 
presumably as kvaedi drepit stefjum. Old Norse drapai. ' one from several distinguished 
parts of existing poem by sog. stef, usually a praise song'. 

References: WP. I 875 f. 
Page(s): 272-273 

Root / lemma: d^regh-1 

Meaning: to run 

Material: Armenian durgn. Gen. o'/ya/? 'potter's wheel' (after Meillet BSL. 36, 122 from 


gr. Tpsxu) (Doric rpaxw), Fut. ano9p£^0|jai, Gps^w "run", Tpox6(; (: Old Irish droch) 
"wheel", Tpoxoq "run", Tp6xi<; " runner, summoner ', ipoxiAoq 'sandpiper'; barely rpaxn^oc; " 
nape, neck '?? PedersenlF. 5, 56, Zup. KZ. 36, 57; 

Old Irish droch ^\N\r\ee\' {*drogo-n); 

It shows in palatal whereas Latvian drazu, drazu, o'/'az/ "quick, fast run', Lithuanian 
padr6zti6s., but to say the least could be considered just as well as a variant in palatal 
besides 6!"eragh-^'Qu\\, drag'. Yet are likewise Lithuanian (pa)dr6zti as also Latvian drazV 
run quickly, fast ' identical with Lithuanian drozti, Latvian drazt^ carve' (see 6!^reg-). The 
primary meaning is "carve'. All numerous other interpretations are to be explained by 
casual use. 

References: WP. I 874 f. 
Page(s): 273 

Root / lemma: ^^regh-2 

Meaning: to pain, to suffer 

Material: Old Indie o'/-a^/7a/e(Dhatup.) "afflicts, plagues, strives itself; 

osset. aw-darzin^ sKxx , tease, irritate' (E. Lewy KZ. 52, 306); 

Old English dracui. "plague, agony', dreccan'sWr, tease, irritate, plague' (? with 
expressive A?); 

Old Church Slavic raz-drazg, -draziti^ enrage, irritate ', serb. drazTm, draziti^sWr, tease, 

Maybe alb. trazon/"st\r, tease, irritate'. 

ein /7/-abstract noun *draznb "irritation' lies russ. draznftb "stir, tease, irritate, banter' the 
basic, z instead of z after the synonymous forms -znt. 

Also a root *d'^ragh-or H^regh-: *(i!"rdgh-: tlh/p^/?- ware moglich. 

References: WP. 1 875. 
Page(s): 273-274 

Root / lemma: d'^reg- 

Meaning: to pull 

Note: synonymous with tragh- (see there) 

Material: Old Indie dhrajati^ glides, slides there ', pra-dhrajati^ hurries ', dhrajas-u., 

dhrajati-i. ' the pranks, pull', oT?/-^- perhaps ' attraction ', dhraji-, dhrajf-i. 'pull, urge, 


Old Norse draki. "stripe' (: Old Indie draf); nasalized in addition perhaps Gothie drigkan. 
Old leelandie drekka. Old English drincan. Old High German //7/7/r5/7 'drink' ('make a good 
gulp, draw from drinking-vessel '); 

Maybe alb. dreka, o'/ie/re 'dinner', darke {* drak^ 'supper' 

Lithuanian drezoti^ smooth down ', dryzas, druoze^ streaky ', also (?) Lithuanian drez- 
iu, -ti^ rend ', nudrezti^'^wW down, destroy' (Juskevic 346); in addition probably drozti 
"carve, hit, gehen' etc, Latvian drazt6s.\ see below dregh-1, 

Latvian dragat^'^uW against it presumably to Middle Dutch trecken^'^uW, drag', s. der-4 
[dergh-, dreg-) 'flay' and MiJhlenbach-Endzelin I 488 m. Lithuanian 

References: WP. I 874. 
Page(s): 273 

Root / lemma: 6!^reb^- 
Meaning: to drive, to push 

Material: Gothic dre/ban 'dr'we, push, bump, poke'. Old Norse dnfa^come pulling, pull, 
drag, stream' etc. Old English dnfan'dme, push, hunt, chase, overthrow ', Old Saxon 
drJDan'be moved, dispelled ', Old High German tr/ban' beat, strike, knock, push, drive, 
hurl, impel, propel, expel ' (zero grade schw. Verb tribon^ set in violent motion, drive 
onward, move, impel, urge ', uolatnbdn^ thrust through, pierce through, transfix '); Old 
Norse drifti. ' drive, impel, drift, propel, push, thrust, snowdrift ', drifu. ' what floats 
through the air, snowfall ', Old English drifv\. ' drive, impel, drift, propel, push, thrust, the 
driven ', drafi. ' drive, impel, drift, propel, push, thrust, drift, herd'. Middle High German trift 
ds.. Modern High German 7>7/?' pasture, herd'; 

Lithuanian drimbu, drlbtT laggard, clodhopper, lubber, looby, hobbledehoy, lummox, 
squab, dub, lug', sniegas drimba ' the snow falls thickly ' (= Old Norse t^a drJfr snaei); from 
drib-, to which could belong likewise the /- as the e- series, the transfer has occurred in the 
e- series: drebiu, drebti' pour, make stains with viscous liquid '. 

References: WP. I 872, 876, Wissmann Nom. postverb. 68 f., Specht KZ. 68, 41. 
Page(s): 274 

Root / lemma: ^^reugh-1 

Meaning: to tremble, shake 

Material: Old English dryge^(ixy' etc, see above S. 254 f. under dhereugh-; 

Lithuanian drugys lever, butterfly', Latvian o'mo'z/s 'cold fever; fever', drudz/nat' neigh 
after fodder ' ('*to shake'), perhaps Old Prussian drog/s'ree6' (if for drugis, s. Trautmann 
Old Prussian 323 m. Lithuanian, MiJhlenbach-Endzelin I 502); perhaps Latvian drugV 
collapse, diminish ', Berneker231 between; s. also under S. 279; 

poln. drzQ, o'/zec 'tremble', old also 'have a fever', drgac, perf. o'/p'/7^c 'tremble, quiver; 
flounder, twitch ', russ. drozu, -atb, perf. 0^(9^/7^/6 'tremble, quiver' (etc, s. Berneker 231). 
Dissyllabic root form *&^ereugh- or Wereug-oue supposes in gr. TOiGopuaasiv asisiv Hes., 
TOiGopuKTpia n TOU(; az\o\xo\}c, noiouaa Hes. and ravGapu^u), lavGaAu^u) ds. Hes. 

Maybe alb. Geg {*6!^ereugh-) dredhlxerc\b\e, twist', o'/7o'/7e/77 'tremble, quiver, have a fever' 
[common alb. -gh- > -dh-]. 

References: WP. I 873 f., Berneker 231 . 
Page(s): 275 

Root / lemma: d^reugh-2 

Meaning: to deceive, harm 

Material: Old Indie druhyat/^ seeks to harm, harms' (Put. dhroksyati, participle drugdha-); 

common Old Indie gh- > ks- 

Old pers. Imperf. aduruJTya{= Old Indie adruhyat) ' lied ', Avestan druzaitT lies, cheats ', 

Old Indie drogha-, droha-m. 'insult, damage, betrayal ', Avestan draoga-^ fallacious ', m. 

'lie, falsity, deception ', Old pers. drauga-^ fallacious ', Old Indie druh-^ injuring ', f. ' 

damage, fiend, ghost', m. 'fiend, demon', Avestan druj- f. 'lie, falsity, deception; 

impersonating the lie, falsity'; 

Middle Irish a ur-ddrach {af^ex Vc\e sounds from *druag= Old Indie drogha-) 'ghost'; 

Old Saxon bidriogan. Old High German triogan^ deceive ', Old Norse draugrm. 'ghost'; 
zero grade Old Saxon gidrogu. ' delusion ', Middle Dutch gedrochAs., Old High German 
gitrogu. 'deceit, devilish phantasmagoria '; Old Norse draumr. Old High German troum. 
Old Saxon drom, engl. dream ^6rearc\' (Germanic *drau(Y)ma-^ delusion '). 

Indo Germanic d'^reugh-ls very probably related with d^uer-' bring to trap through 
deception ', while to zero grade '^'^ru-gh- irom *df^i//'-^/7- adjusted itself to a new zero grade 
Indo Germanic '*d!"reugh-, *d^rough-. With the extending ^/7 would be identical with Modern 
High German Zwerg, if thi